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South Asia Gains Independence! h For years, independent movements lead by Gandhi made little leeway in India’s independence h After WWII, Great Britain.

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Presentation on theme: "South Asia Gains Independence! h For years, independent movements lead by Gandhi made little leeway in India’s independence h After WWII, Great Britain."— Presentation transcript:

1 South Asia Gains Independence! h For years, independent movements lead by Gandhi made little leeway in India’s independence h After WWII, Great Britain was ready give up her empire h For years, independent movements lead by Gandhi made little leeway in India’s independence h After WWII, Great Britain was ready give up her empire Discovery Streaming Clip

2 Indian National Congress h Claimed to represent all of India h India in 1940s had 350 million Hindus, 100 million Muslims h The INC had many Muslim members and even Muslim presidents h Claimed to represent all of India h India in 1940s had 350 million Hindus, 100 million Muslims h The INC had many Muslim members and even Muslim presidents

3 Partition: Dividing Up

4 Muslim League h Formed in 1906 to protect Muslim interests h Concerned the INC looked out for Hindu interests h Muslims should resign from INC h Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah h Proposed that India be partitioned (Gandhi hurt by this) h Formed in 1906 to protect Muslim interests h Concerned the INC looked out for Hindu interests h Muslims should resign from INC h Led by Muhammad Ali Jinnah h Proposed that India be partitioned (Gandhi hurt by this)

5 Nuclear Weapons Country h United States h Russia h China h France h Israel* h United Kingdom h India h Pakistan h North Korea h Total h United States h Russia h China h France h Israel* h United Kingdom h India h Pakistan h North Korea h Total Warheads h 10,455 h 8,400 h 400 h 350 h 250 h 200 h 65 h 40 h 8 h 20,168 h 10,455 h 8,400 h 400 h 350 h 250 h 200 h 65 h 40 h 8 h 20,168

6 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty h The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote co- operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. The Treaty represents the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States. Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in A total of 187 parties have joined the Treaty, including the five nuclear-weapon States. More countries have ratified the NPT than any other arms limitation and disarmament agreement, a testament to the Treaty's significance. h The NPT is a landmark international treaty whose objective is to prevent the spread of nuclear weapons and weapons technology, to promote co- operation in the peaceful uses of nuclear energy and to further the goal of achieving nuclear disarmament and general and complete disarmament. The Treaty represents the only binding commitment in a multilateral treaty to the goal of disarmament by the nuclear-weapon States. Opened for signature in 1968, the Treaty entered into force in A total of 187 parties have joined the Treaty, including the five nuclear-weapon States. More countries have ratified the NPT than any other arms limitation and disarmament agreement, a testament to the Treaty's significance.

7 World Issues h What problems are occurring due to toxic chemicals found in nuclear weapons?

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9 A Sibling Rivalry

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11 h Home to the Indus River Valley civiliz. h Gradually annexed by the Raj in 18th c. h Colonized by UK by 19th c. h independence h Current Global Stats: Most populous democracy 2nd most populous country 12th largest economy h Home to the Indus River Valley civiliz. h Gradually annexed by the Raj in 18th c. h Colonized by UK by 19th c. h independence h Current Global Stats: Most populous democracy 2nd most populous country 12th largest economy

12 h Part of British India until 1947 h Official division from India when Muhammad Ali Jinnah & Muslim League lead independence movement h Current Global Stats: Currently 6th most populous nation in world Currently 2nd largest Muslim population (after Indonesia) h Part of British India until 1947 h Official division from India when Muhammad Ali Jinnah & Muslim League lead independence movement h Current Global Stats: Currently 6th most populous nation in world Currently 2nd largest Muslim population (after Indonesia)

13 Partition Two parts of India were divided, Bengal and Punjab. The east became East Pakistan and west formed the West Pakistan. Two parts of India were divided, Bengal and Punjab. The east became East Pakistan and west formed the West Pakistan.

14 Partition 7,226,000 Muslims went to Pakistan from India 7,249,000 Hindus and Sikhs moved to India from Pakistan after partition. 7,226,000 Muslims went to Pakistan from India 7,249,000 Hindus and Sikhs moved to India from Pakistan after partition.

15 Mass Movement

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18 Division Problems

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20 h Under partition from India Independence Act in 1947 h The Maharaja signed over to India in exchange for military aid & promised referendum h 1999-bitter conflict when Pakistani forces infiltrated territory in Kashmir h Tense environment, conflict & animosity continues h Under partition from India Independence Act in 1947 h The Maharaja signed over to India in exchange for military aid & promised referendum h 1999-bitter conflict when Pakistani forces infiltrated territory in Kashmir h Tense environment, conflict & animosity continues

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22 VS

23 h Divides region - passes through mountainous region where bitter cold claims more lives than military conflict h India=Jammu & Kashmir h Pakistan = “Azad” (free) Kashmir h Divides region - passes through mountainous region where bitter cold claims more lives than military conflict h India=Jammu & Kashmir h Pakistan = “Azad” (free) Kashmir

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25 Slumped in grief, a Muslim cleric leads funeral prayers for his son killed by Indian security troops. Some call Kashmir's insurgents mujahidin, holy warriors for Islam. Other call them criminals, whose victims,of kidnapping, extortion, and rape,are often other Kashmiris.

26 Asiya Andrabi exhorts the Dukhtarani-Millat “ Daughters of Faith ” to press for Kashmir's union with Pakistan. She continues despite a year and a half spent in an Indian prison for

27 Artillery thunder shakes the Karakoram Range as Pakistani soldiers trade fire with Indian opponents across the Siachen Glacier. The deadly game of serve and volley has erupted into all-out war three times since British colonial rule ended in Risks are growing; both nations have tested nuclear weapons.

28 h India successfully tested 5 nuclear devices in 1998 h Harsh criticism followed from the West for it’s violation of the comprehensive test ban treaty (India never signed it) h Pakistan follows suit-tests 6 devices later that month h India successfully tested 5 nuclear devices in 1998 h Harsh criticism followed from the West for it’s violation of the comprehensive test ban treaty (India never signed it) h Pakistan follows suit-tests 6 devices later that month

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31 War & Terrorism h In the past 60 years, Pakistan & India have fought three wars over ownership of Kashmir. India won all three. h Today, the fight continues with acts of terrorism. The people of Kashmir are probably wondering why the UN won't help them and why the US won't help them. h In the past 60 years, Pakistan & India have fought three wars over ownership of Kashmir. India won all three. h Today, the fight continues with acts of terrorism. The people of Kashmir are probably wondering why the UN won't help them and why the US won't help them.

32 Why won’t we help? h On one hand, we have a treaty with Pakistan that says if they go to war with anyone, we will help them. Pakistan shares a border with Afghanistan. In our fight on terrorism, that border is most important. h On the other hand, we do a great deal of trade with India that is mutually advantageous. But mostly, India is our friend. h On one hand, we have a treaty with Pakistan that says if they go to war with anyone, we will help them. Pakistan shares a border with Afghanistan. In our fight on terrorism, that border is most important. h On the other hand, we do a great deal of trade with India that is mutually advantageous. But mostly, India is our friend.

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37 What is the future for Kashmir? h Log in to Moodle and access The Kashmir Plan forum

38 Words to Consider: h plebiscite 1. a direct vote of the qualified voters of a state in regard to some important public question. 2. the vote by which the people of a political unit determine autonomy or affiliation with another country. h Self Determination the determining by the people of the form their government shall have, without reference to the wishes of any other nation, esp. by people of a territory or former colony. h plebiscite 1. a direct vote of the qualified voters of a state in regard to some important public question. 2. the vote by which the people of a political unit determine autonomy or affiliation with another country. h Self Determination the determining by the people of the form their government shall have, without reference to the wishes of any other nation, esp. by people of a territory or former colony.


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