Presentation on theme: "For Official Use Only Meetings with Indigenous Religious Leaders: A Preparation Guide for Army Chaplains April 2008."— Presentation transcript:
For Official Use Only Meetings with Indigenous Religious Leaders: A Preparation Guide for Army Chaplains April 2008
For Official Use Only BI-LATERAL defined: 1.affecting reciprocally two nations or parties. 2.to arrange or bring about an agreement through conference, discussion, and compromise. ENGAGEMENT defined: 1.a promise or commitment to appear at a certain time. 2.appointment. 3.a battle or encounter. 4.a hostile encounter between military forces. 5.to interlock. 6.emotional involvement, commitment, promise. LIAISON defined: 1.a close bond or connection. 2.communication for establishing and maintaining mutual understanding esp. between parts of an armed force. MEETING defined: 1.the act or process or an instance of coming together; an encounter. 2.an assembly or gathering of people, as for a business, social, or religious purpose Religious Leader Liaison: Consider the Terms
For Official Use Only Religious Leader Liaison: Consider the Terms The Religious Leader Liaison mission does not refer only to meetings with indigenous religious leaders. The Army RLL mission is defined as follows: the unit chaplain, as the unit Religious Leader, conducts full spectrum liaison functions for all aspects of the JIIM environment. This means that the unit chaplain will interface/liaison with Joint forces, Interagency organizations and individuals, Intergovernmental organizations and individuals, and Multinational forces (JIIM). -- Chaplain (LTC) Guy E. Glad, Branch Chief, Joint and Multinational Concepts and Doctrine Directorate of Combat Developments US Army Chaplain Center and School
For Official Use Only Iraqi/Afghan Leaders: Any Time, Any Place Imams Mullahs Police Chiefs Mayors Sheikhs Medical Personnel City Council Members Ministers Iraqi Army Leaders Media Who Can Engagements/Meetings Take Place With?
For Official Use Only An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current Operations Religion in Counterinsurgency Operations Often the United States attempts to avoid religion in an effort to respect the personal dimension of faith. Nations that do not separate church and state perceive this attempt at respect as dismissive, thereby furthering the perception of the “God-less West.” The United States adheres foundationally to separation of politics and religion. In the Muslim world, religious leaders are more powerful than political leaders. -- Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations, Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee
For Official Use Only An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current Operations Religion in Counterinsurgency Operations It is through communication and understanding that we may win the hearts and cooperation of the local populace. Victory for moderate Muslims over an extremist minority vying for control in many Muslim nations depends upon the United States effectively filling the “information gap.” Miscommunication can lead to misunderstandings and misperceptions of US intent and plans. -- Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations, Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee
For Official Use Only An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current Operations “Overall we are not doing a good job… of trying to include religious leaders to show respect for their faith as apart of stability operations.” -- Secretary of Defense Donald H. Rumsfeld, responding to an inquiry about how well the Department of Defense intentionally brings indigenous religious leaders into the planning and implementation process for stability operations
For Official Use Only An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current Operations Military chaplains are uniquely suited and positioned within the US military structure to function as the initial component resource to provide for inclusion of local religious groups into stability operations. -- Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations, Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee
For Official Use Only An Expanded Role for the Chaplain in Current Operations The following chart contrasts the most likely candidates among US Army military personnel for religious liaison missions. Training criteria included general knowledge of major world religions, faiths, practices and beliefs. Skills criteria indentified as negotiation, religious diplomacy and consensus building. (From Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations, Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee) Civil AffairsLimitedYes No4 ChaplainYes 1 S-2 (Intel)LimitedNo Yes5 S-1 (Personnel) LimitedYesLimitedYes2 Staff Judge Advocate NoYes 3 TrainingSkillsCredentialsAccessibilityFinal Ranking For Official Use Only
The Task Force Commander calls you to his desk in the Tactical Operations Command (TOC). “Chaplain, we got a Imam in the city preaching jihadist messages from his mosque. I need you to go meet with him. See if you can get him to stop these messages.” Scenario One 1.What are you thinking? 2.What are your concerns? 3.What are your questions? 4.What is your response to the CDR?
For Official Use Only WWHO AND WHAT AACTION LEADER TTIME AND PLACE EEFFECTS RRESPONSE SSPECIFIC MESSAGE Use W.A.T.E.R.S. as a Guide
For Official Use Only WHO AND WHAT Who am I conducting the liaison with? What are his issues? W.A.T.E.R.S.
For Official Use Only ACTION LEADER Who is the primary conducting the liaison? W.A.T.E.R.S.
For Official Use Only TIME AND PLACE What is the time and place of the meeting? W.A.T.E.R.S.
For Official Use Only EFFECTS What are the effects to achieve? (long-term) What is the end-state goal? What is the intended outcome? (short-term) What do you want? What will we accept as the bottom-line? W.A.T.E.R.S.
For Official Use Only RESPONSE What are your responses to impasse? What are you willing to do if you don’t get what you want? W.A.T.E.R.S.
For Official Use Only SPECIFIC MESSAGE What specific command message needs to be delivered during the liaison? W.A.T.E.R.S.
For Official Use Only ENGAGEMENTS happen from the squad leader to general officer level and should be treated as a tactical operation involving: Preparation, Execution, and Follow-Up. -- from Engagement: A Preparation Guide, LTC William Wunderle A Tactical Operation: Preparation, Execution and Follow-Up For Official Use Only
Meeting with Indigenous Religious Leaders: Preparation Phase
For Official Use Only Methodology for Preparation: Four Keys to Success Intelligence Preparation of the Environment (IPE) /Mission Analysis Identify Intended Outcomes Develop Intended Outcome Strategy Leader Rehearsals 1 The methodology for RST Liaison Mission preparation is similar to the Military Decision Making Process (MDMP)
For Official Use Only MDMP vs. Liaison Prep 1. IPE/Mission Analysis 2. Identify Intended Outcomes 3. Develop Intended Outcome Strategy COA Development/ Analysis/ Comparison 4. Leader Rehearsals Execution Receive the Mission/ Mission Analysis Execution Strategy Approval COA Brief / Approval Rehearsals
For Official Use Only Starts with… Religious Intelligence Preparation of the Environment (IPE) Just as Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield (IPB) drives a Maneuver Operation, the IPE drives the Religious Leader Liaison preparation process. Meeting Preparation: Intelligence Preparation of the Environment 1
For Official Use Only Religious IPE Involves: 1.Data Mining: the process of analyzing data from different perspectives and summarizing it into useful information. 2.Situational Awareness (BUBs) 3.Involvement in Information Operations Working Group (IOWG) 4.Knowledge Management (information sharing) 5.“Religious Thinking”: religious talking points for leaders in the COIN environment 6.Managing Religious Priority Information Requirements (PIR) Meeting Preparation: Intelligence Preparation of the Environment 1
For Official Use Only IPE STEPS: 1.Develop target folder review (biography, photograph, motivations, level of influence, family history, summary of previous engagement, measures of effectiveness, spheres of influence) 2.Identify and Anticipate the indigenous leader’s objectives 3.Identify personal similarities between the leaders (US and indigenous) 4.Review religious affiliations and influences 5.Understand higher RST & CDR’s guidance, messages and themes 6.Understand current unit Information Operations (IO) messages and themes 7.Determine welcoming remarks and familiarization discussion points 8.Determine transition talking points to move from social to business Liaison Milestones Use Mission Analysis and IPE to develop Liaison Milestones Meeting Preparation: Intelligence Preparation of the Environment 1
For Official Use Only 1.RST Liaison Outcomes Brief 2.RST Liaison Running Estimate 3.Religious POI Familial Links 4.Mosque Assessment 5.Mosque Message Trends 1 Meeting Preparation: Sample RST IPE Products
For Official Use Only 23JAN05: CH liaison with Sheikh Ali Husayn. Sheikh Ali Husayn. Imam of the East Mosque, Ramadi. An influential religious scholar (Masters Degree, Baghdad University) in Ramadi and member of the Provincial Council (Al Anbar). Says local Association of Muslim Scholars (AMS) has not met for “security reasons.” Mosque needs repairs. 21JAN05: CH liaison with Sheikh Ghafur. Sheikh Ghafur. Imam of the Ibrahim Khalid Mosque, Ramadi. An influential religious scholar (PhD, Ramadi University) in Ramadi and member of the Provincial Council (Al Anbar). Says that his mosque is not the Al Faruq Mosque. Al Faruq Mosque is a few streets away, further from the market. Insurgents destroyed part of his mosque last year. He believes that US forces should be stronger against outside fighters. He says US should be in control of Iraq because we have tanks and planes and helicopters. He does not want to see US occupation indefinitely, but realizes that it is necessary for peace. He believes that US should train Iraqi Army and provide the same equipment that US forces have. Sample Outcomes Brief RST Liaison Outcomes AO Warrior 23 January
For Official Use Only Relationship Estimate Hostile Opposing Neutral Supportive Friendly HOME: RELIGIOUS AFFILIATION: Arab Sunnah FAMILY/TRIBAL AFFILIATION: Al Husayni. Son of Sheikh Dr. Husayn (same mosque) and possible nephew of Sheikh Dr. Ali and cousin to Umar. INFLUENTIAL POWER ( out of 5): Sheikh of moderate-sized mosque in Hit. Has been at the mosque since Has a master’s degree from the college in Ramadi. INFLUENTIAL MEANS ( out of 5): Conducts prayers everyday. RECENT OUTCOMES: PAST OUTCOMES: 28SEP04: His father, Sheikh Dr. Husayn, is in Baghdad all week. No significant issues with city block and checkpoints. Contacts: 2 Most Recent: 28SEP04 Name Sample RLL Estimate Name (Leader positions) Name of Mosque (City) Updated 28 September 2004 Insert Photo Here 1 For Official Use Only
Known family relationship Possible family relationship Sample RLL Familial Links Key Familial Links Religious Spheres of Influence Religious Area Analysis, AO Warrior 1 For Official Use Only
EAST MOSQUE (City) EAST MOSQUE (City) SECTOR: MOSQUE SHEIKHS: ATTENDANCE: OTHER NAMES: NEIGHBORHOOD: KEY MEMBERS: RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS: TRIBAL AFFILIATIONS: HISTORY: INFRASTRUCTURE PROBLEMS: SECTOR: MOSQUE SHEIKHS: ATTENDANCE: OTHER NAMES: NEIGHBORHOOD: KEY MEMBERS: RELIGIOUS AFFILIATIONS: TRIBAL AFFILIATIONS: HISTORY: INFRASTRUCTURE PROBLEMS: Sample Mosque Assessment Name of Mosque (City) Map Location (Grid) Updated 29 August For Official Use Only
Sample Mosque Monitoring Trends Mosque Monitoring Trends Analysis (as of 23 January 2004) 1 For Official Use Only
Sample Mosque Monitoring Trends Mosque Monitoring Individual Mosques (as of 23 January 2004) 1 For Official Use Only
Your unit is has just completed the RIP/TOA for a small Arab Sunni city in Al Anbar, Iraq. The task force commander is supportive of your conducting RLL ops in the city. –What information are you looking for? –Who are the resources in your unit? Higher? –What role will your chaplain assistant play during the RLL? What are all his/her responsibilities? –How will you conduct your first RLL? Scenario Two
For Official Use Only Meeting Preparation: Identify Intended Outcomes 1.Every meeting must have an intended outcome. What is the purpose of this engagement? Are you trying to quell a riot?... Stand up a police station?...or is your intended outcome just to build a better relationship with your partner, whereby you can set the conditions for future engagements? 2.Identifying the intended outcome is initially a joint effort between the RST and the staff officer (S-3/S-6) following the IPE phase. 3.Once identified, the staff examines the suitability and feasibility of the intended outcomes and determine bottom-line. 2
For Official Use Only The RST must examine the intended outcomes in relation to the Partner’s position and determine a “bottom line” the Leader is willing to accept. The “bottom line” is a minimum threshold that must be met. The “bottom line” serves as an acceptable alternative outcome to the Leader’s intended outcome Identifying intended outcomes and their respective bottom-line facilitates Liaison Strategy Development (similar to Course of Action development). Meeting Preparation: Intended Outcome vs. Bottom Line 2
For Official Use Only CDR & RST Bottom Line Temporarily reduce patrols to 4 a day. The soldiers will be trained in cultural awareness and sensitivity. Situation: Situation: A US commander is running 7 mounted patrols a day in a relatively quiet sector. The population has been supportive of the US occupation and understands its mission. A significant religious cleric is very upset that US soldiers are teaching children vulgar language and displaying pornography where the local Iraqis can see. Many citizens have been complaining about these issues and want the soldiers out of their town. CDR/RST Intended Outcome Maintain 7 random mounted patrols per day and build positive relations. As long as the negotiated number of patrols meets or exceeds four, the minimum threshold will have been met and both parties will be satisfied. Meeting Preparation: Intended Outcome vs. Bottom Line 2
For Official Use Only Step 1: Step 1:IPE of Partner, Unit Campaign Objectives and US IO Campaign Step 2: Step 2:Identify and Understand the Leader’s Intended Outcome and Bottom Line for each issue Meeting Preparation: Steps 1 & 2 in Review 21
For Official Use Only Vet the Strategy (IOWG or other venue) Gain Leader approval of the Strategy Rehearse 4 Meeting Preparation: Strategy Development to Rehearsal 3 Wargame 3 Step 4 Step
For Official Use Only Step 3:Strategy Development 1.Wargame Wargame the Leader’s Intended Outcome and the Partner’s likely response Wargame the Partner’s likely requests and the Leader’s response Wargame impasses 2.Vet the strategy (IOWG or other venue). Examine and evaluate usefulness. 3.Present the strategy to Leader for approval 3 Meeting Preparation: Strategy Development
For Official Use Only Step 4: Rehearsal 1.Determine who is required at the rehearsal (Chaplain, CH Assistant, PSD, security elements, interpreter, etc). 2.Ensure the interpreter understands your issues, the intended outcome, military jargon, etc. Establish leader/interpreter signals (ex. tap on arm to stop talking). 3.If you host the meeting: Ensure facility appearance is professional Rehearse pick-up of Partner at the gate Sanitize the location (no operational graphics) Plan snacks and drinks with cultural sensitivity (eating up front can lighten the Partner’s mood) 4 Meeting Preparation: Rehearsal Considerations Rehearsals are key to the success of the liaison meeting.
For Official Use Only Step 1: IPE Partner background / motivations Leader’s intended outcome / objectives Unit Campaign plan IO themes and messages Step 4: REHEARSE Step 4: REHEARSE Chaplain Chaplain Assistant Security Detail Interpreter Meeting Preparation: Overall Planning Methodology Review Step 2: INTENDED OUTCOMES ID a “Bottom Line” for each Intended Outcome ID each Intended Outcomes What you want vs. What you will accept Vet the strategy (IOWG or other venue) Step 3: STRATEGY DEVELOPMENT Gain leader approval of the strategy Wargame the leaders Intended Outcome and the Partner’s likely response Wargame the partner’s likely requests and the leader’s response Wargame impasses For Official Use Only
There is a moderately large mosque just outside one of your unit’s combat outposts (COP). You have chosen to liaison the Imam at this mosque as your first RLL mission. The unit commander supports the mission. –What is the Intended Outcome for the liaison? –What do you expect from the Imam (eg. reactions, questions, responses, etc.)? –What is your approach to the Imam? When? Where? –How do you introduce yourself to the him (name, position, purpose)? –What are your questions for him? –Who are the key players at your rehearsal? Scenario Three
For Official Use Only Meeting Preparation: Final Considerations 1.How much prep time did you have? 2.What tools did you use to prepare? (eg. TGT Folder, Bio, IO themes, Religious PIR, etc.) 3.Who did you incorporate? (Higher RST, Primary/Special Staff) 4.Do you use RLL Methodology? 5.What guidance did you receive from Higher? Was it sufficient? 6.Any unanswered RFIs? 7.Did you wargame entrance strategy? (Intro, Schmooze) 8.Anything to do differently? 9.Any coordination issues? 10. Any issues regarding security?
For Official Use Only Actions During a Meeting with Indigenous Religious Leaders: Execution Phase
For Official Use Only Stay in your lane Watch your facial expressions Appearance- perceptions are everything- this applies to all those with you Time management plan: 25% casual, develop ‘professional relationships’ 50% business 25% closure and ‘relationship’ time Avoid slang / off-color humor / avoid jokes / avoid acronyms Avoid Quid Pro Quo solutions (“This for that”) Emphasize win – win solutions Only shift to “win-lose” if all else fails 90% of all progress occurs away from the table Focus on building a relationship! Have prepared sound bites explaining your role as a chaplain Properly prepare your team through effective rehearsals Every aspect of the meeting is deliberate – even small talk Stick to your agenda – do not let a confrontational person drag you all over the map Watch your body language Always separate the person from the problem – attack the problem not the person Be a GOOD listener If you can’t say “I don’t know” – you are in trouble Schmooze sessions help fill in the blanks on the biographies Actions During a Meeting: Current Tactics, Techniques, Procedures
For Official Use Only Actions During a Meeting: Leader Do’s and Don’ts Don’t assume your counterpart does not know/speak English. Don’t have side-bar conversations. It’s very rude. Don’t tell jokes. They do not translate well. Don’t look at your interpreter. Look at your counterpart when you speak to them. Maintain eye-to-eye contact. Don’t rush off to the next meeting. Make them feel “this” meeting is the most important event in your day. Don’t promise anything beyond your ability to control. Do know if the partner is a decision-maker. Do finish on-time. Do stay in your lane. Do avoid discussion of US politics, or US ‘foreign policy’. Do finish with review of agreements made!.
For Official Use Only Rehearse: Make them part of your team - Invest your time in them – know his religion, background, history of hostilities! Think before you speak and group your words in short bursts Speak succinctly and simply It takes extra time to get your message across – make sure you plan for it Interpreters get tired – plan periodic breaks Look at your counter-part, not at the interpreter or off in space; maintain eye-to-eye contact. Act normal – speak as if the interpreter is not there Consider taking a second interpreter Plan the placement of your interpreter (beside, behind, or between) Do not become reliant on one interpreter Do not let the interpreter speak one on one with the counterpart Actions During a Meeting: Current Interpreter TTPs
For Official Use Only Provide an accurate translation of your message Uses same tone and inflection you use Speaks in first person Presents a professional appearance (well groomed) Speaks for approximately the same length of time as you Understands military jargon and can translate Is prepared, knows the general subjects / topics Will be on time, at the right place Actions During a Meeting: Interpreter Expectations
For Official Use Only 1.The recorder/process observer must be aware of all aspects of the meeting, including: time management changes in tone discussion leading to an impasse interpreter disposition 2.Take notes, capture issues. 3.Proven techniques for formal liaison: Sit to watch the leader more than the partner, where you can provide signals to the leader outside of the partner’s field of view. Use a template of notes to fill in the blanks. Help keep the leader on the pathway to the intended outcomes through use of signals. Schedule adequate breaks to keep the interpreter fresh as interpretation is a difficult task. Alternates interpreters as the Liaison transitions from one phase to the next. If the partner is a smoker, provide him a break once an hour. Ensures appropriate refreshments are on-hand. Actions During a Meeting: Current Recorder/Process Observer TTPs
For Official Use Only Recorder Interpreter Chaplain Imam Actions During a Meeting: Sample Meeting Schematic PSD
For Official Use Only Actions After a Meeting with Indigenous Religious Leaders: Follow-Up Phase
For Official Use Only 1.RST and staff/recorder must conduct an after-liaison hot- wash… the sooner the better! 2.Update the RST target folder 3.Develop RST briefs: Review of agreements made Outstanding issues captured Recommended next steps 4.Share results and recommendations staffed with IOWG. RST and staff officers discuss linkage to other persons of influence, current events, IO themes and campaign plan. 5.Determine next tasking that results from briefing. 6.Leader is provided brief, then provides clarity and guidance for follow-up. Actions After a Meeting: It’s a Continuous Process A leader’s credibility is directly linked to the follow-through on agreements made.
For Official Use Only Meetings with Indigenous Religious Leaders: Conclusion
For Official Use Only 1.Consider the meeting between a chaplain and indigenous religious leader a tactical operation with three phases: Preparation Execution Follow-up 2.Conduct thorough preparation (Rehearse!) 3.Rehearse your interpreter 4.Show respect to culture, religion, and the counterpart 5.Your actions after the meeting are just as important as your actions during the meetingConclusion
For Official Use Only “A Relational Approach to Religious Leader Liaison Operations,” CH (CPT) Masaki Nakazono, US Army. https://www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDocument.do?doid= “Engagement: A Preparation Guide,” LTC William Wunderle, Middle East Foreign Affair Officer, Senior Army Research Fellow, RAND Corporation. https://www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDocument.do?doid= “Military Chaplains as Peace Builders : Embracing Indigenous Religions in Stability Operations,” Chaplain (COL) William Sean Lee. https://www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDocument.do?doid= “Religious Support Team Liaisons” PowerPoint presentation. https://www.us.army.mil/suite/collaboration/GetDocument.do?doid= References
For Official Use Only Questions? “Religious Leader Liaison” https://www.us.army.mil/suite/page/ Questions? Search AKO: “Religious Leader Liaison” https://www.us.army.mil/suite/page/