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Do Now #1 – Storytelling #2 – Medieval Times #3 – Love and Marriage

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1 Do Now #1 – Storytelling #2 – Medieval Times #3 – Love and Marriage
Why do we tell stories? In what situations? What makes a good story? #2 – Medieval Times What do you know about the medieval period? What was life like? What role did the church play in people’s lives? What problems did people face? #3 – Love and Marriage What do you think most women want? Most men? Is it something different? Was it the same hundreds of years ago?

2 Geoffrey Chaucer The Canterbury Tales

3 Geoffrey Chaucer Known as the father of English literature
Born between 1340 and 1345 Father was a wealthy wine merchant Chaucer received a well-rounded education. Chaucer’s father secured him a position at court in the household of Elizabeth, Countess of Ulster, who was the wife of King Edward III’s second son. Important opportunity for a medieval youth Would have secured him a successful future

4 Geoffrey Chaucer Favored by the monarchy for his diplomatic work
Sent to Italy Most likely where he became acquainted with the works of Petrarch and Dante, which influenced his writing Published 4 works between 1370 and 1386 The Book of the Duchess The Parliament of Fowls The House of Tame Troilus and Criseyde First poet buried in the “Poets’ Corner” of Westminster Abbey Supervised construction of this monument

5 Geoffrey Chaucer The Canterbury Tales, Chaucer’s masterpiece, was never completed Began in 1387 Ended with Chaucer’s death on October 25, 1400

6 Background Kings and nobles had all power politically.
The Catholic church had all power spiritually. Most were poor farmers struggling to survive. Corruption abounded in government and the church. Labor shortage due to The Plague The Canterbury Tales was well-received by the public. The work departed from the norm. The belief existed that all good literary work was modeled off of something already in existence. Important works were usually written in Latin or French; Chaucer wrote in English

7 Background 29 pilgrims plus Chaucer, who is the Narrator, and the Host
Leaving from The Tabard Inn outside London Traveling to the shrine of St. Thomas à Becket

8 Homework Read The General Prologue and The Knight’s Tale, Part 1 and answer corresponding questions.

9 General Prologue 1. They are going to ask for the saint’s help and healing. 2. He possesses the highest social standing among the pilgrims. 3. The knight’s son is the squire and his servant is the Yeoman. 4. She is friendly and entertaining. She seems to be working very hard at pretending to be elegant.

10 General Prologue 5. She is wealthy and it also indicates a level of worldliness. 6. He eats well and has a degree of wealth. He spurs and possibly hunts. He is a member of a religious order, but is also wealthy. His main interest is hunting. 7. Religious institutions of the time allowed for many to live a comfortable lifestyle without requiring a special devotion from them.

11 8. Chaucer is using indirect characterization: he describes who the Friar knew and how he spent his time. 9. His uses skillful begging to earn his living. He cares nothing about what he is supposed to be doing or what he believes in terms of the clergy. He is supposed to be helping the poor and widows. 10. The Franklin likes food and drink. He loves to entertain. He’s involved with community affairs and has been a judge, a sheriff, and Parliamentary rep. The Cleric likes books of philosophy.

12 These men are part of the new rising middle class comprised of successful, affluent, skilled workers. 11. The wives are skilled social climbers who urge their husbands to run for office. The fact that the men are stylishly dressed show that they either agree with their wives or are being prodded by their wives. 12. The Doctor watches people’s stars rather than treating their illnesses in an attempt to get money.

13 General Prologue 13. They should all behave with these traits of integrity, kindness, and generosity like the Parson. 14. He is attributing the traits of an animal to the Miller: those of slovenliness and cunning. He has traits of loquacity, belligerence, lecherousness.

14 General Prologue *Summoner acts drunkenly and unintelligently. He will allow immoral activity to go on, provided he gets paid to look the other way. *Pardoner is dishonest and has tricked country folk and made fools of the priests and congregation. 15. He is concerned that they will be riding without much to amuse them.

15 Do Now What is love? What makes for a good relationship?

16 Courtly Love The Art of Courtly Love Certain rules Andreas Capellanus
Eleanor of Aquitaine Certain rules Love comes into a person through the eyes Not a meeting of the minds Exclusively based on adultery Love is always increasing and decreasing Jealousy is a good thing Makes the men better Totally benefits the man Go-betweens are used

17 Courtly Love

18 Chivalry and Honor Women are on a pedestal Constantly tested
Loosely connected with the Church Fighting for the Crusades Loyalty to your lord Carrying yourself Must look good Brave and selfless Fight in someone’s name Strong sense of ethics Generous Not usually what happened – persona

19 Medieval Romances Idealized images of how people in the higher classes behave, especially in love and war Love is inspired by perfect beauty and virtue. All characters deal with one another in completely chivalrous ways. The settling of a quarrel through a test of combat Everyone is perfect Fictionalized version of good people Creates communities Nationalism

20 The General Prologue Describe the variety of occupations, the degree of wealth, the level of education, and the beginnings of political power represented among the pilgrims. Contrast a corrupt clergymen from the Prologue with the Parson. Select three characters from the Prologue whom Chaucer seems to be satirizing.

21 The Knight's Tale Part 1 What do you think of how the two men fall in love with Emily? Why do authors use love at first sight in stories? Why is the Knight the first person to tell his tale? CP

22 Classwork Complete worksheet.

23 Homework Read The Knight’s Tale, Parts 2, 3, and 4 and answer corresponding questions.

24 Do Now Have you ever had to fight for something you loved or felt passionate about? How did it turn out? Did you feel the ends results were fair? Explain why or why not.

25 Fortune's Wheel Rota Fortunae
The goddess Fortuna spins the wheel at random Found in Dante’s Inferno and The Canterbury Tales Used to educate illiterate masses Found in medieval art and in windows of cathedrals Regno I reign Regnabo I shall reign Regnavi I have reigned Sum sine regno I am without a kingdom

26 The Knight's Tale Parts 2, 3, and 4
Explain the features in this tale which characterize it as a romance. How did the Knight seem to define love? How does the Knight’s story fit with what you know about him from the Prologue and with what he values? What role do the gods play in this tale? CP

27 Classwork With a partner, look for instances of where Fortune’s wheel is found in The Knight’s Tale thus far. Discuss its purpose in the story.

28 Homework Read The Miller’s Prologue and Tale and answer corresponding questions.

29 Do Now Is revenge ever sweet? Does it ever have any purpose? Or does it only create more trouble?

30 The Miller's Prologue and Tale
Fabliau A short tale, usually vulgar, with a quick funny ending. The Merchant’s Tale is also an example of this.

31 The Miller’s Prologue and Tale
Contrast The Knight’s Tale with The Miller’s Tale. Fully describe the character Absalom.

32 Classwork Contemplate Chaucer’s reason for including such a crude tale and the response medieval audiences may have had to the story.

33 Homework Read The Nun’s Priest’s Prologue and Tale and answer corresponding questions.

34 Do Now Why have authors used animals to teach lessons in literature? What can they accomplish that human beings perhaps cannot?

35 The Nun’s Priest Prologue and Tale
Allegory – an extended metaphor in which a person, abstract idea, or event stands for itself and for something else It usually involves moral or spiritual concepts which are more significant than the actual story. Examples Milton’s Paradise Lost George Orwell’s Animal Farm Parody – a humorous or satirical imitation of a person, event, or serious work of literature designed to ridicule in nonsensical fashion or to criticize by clever duplication

36 The Nun’s Priest Prologue and Tale
With the treatment and role of women being an important theme throughout The Canterbury Tales, explain why it’s appropriate that Chaucer would tell this tale. Explain how the Nun’s Priest’s Tale fits the requirements for a beast fable.

37 “Woman is man’s joy” (Page 159)
Reference to Adam and Eve (Page 161) False flatterers (Page 162) Fortune (Page 164)

38 Classwork This tale could be looked at as a parody or an allegory. With your group, take a stance and back up your position with examples from the book.

39 Homework Read The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale and answer corresponding questions.

40 Do Now Make a list of words that you feel adequately describe the Wife of Bath.

41 The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale
What religious attitudes about women are attacked by the Wife of Bath? What is ironic about her anger against these attitudes? CP

42 The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale
Argues that it is not possible to remain a virgin, and also support marriage (Page 167) Argues the use of sexual organs (Page 168) Doesn’t condemn virginity, but says it’s not for her (Page 169)

43 The Wife of Bath’s Prologue and Tale
A contradiction She uses the same arguments that men use to degrade women. Says women are good liars (Page 170) Nags her husband (Page 174) Suffers “through his lust and pretend enjoyment” for “profit” (Page 174) Is she a stereotype or is she an empowered woman? Says that all women truly want is control over their husbands (Page 187)

44 Classwork Examine the debate over the Wife being a stereotype of women or an empowered female character. With your group, look for specific examples of how the Wife fits your side of the argument. You will then write your findings on the board and share with the class.

45 Homework Read The Friar’s Prologue and Tale and answer corresponding questions.

46 Do Now How often do you encounter people who are not what they seem? Have you ever had someone like this in your life? What were the repercussions and consequences of this person’s influence? Did the person ever experience hardship because of his or her actions?

47 The Friar's Prologue and Tale
Medieval exemplum – a dramatic part of a sermon that illustrates the central idea; a tale of immoral behavior with a moral ending Common theme of a corrupt political official getting what he deserves

48 The Friar's Prologue and Tale
In what ways can this tale be considered an example of a fabliau? Why is it ironic that the Friar accuses the Summoner of avarice? CP

49 “Nothing good can be said about a summoner.” (Page 193)
Uses spies (Page 194) Could be bought and bribed (Page 195) “Despised” title (Page 196) Agrees to terms with the devil (Page 199) Summoner is taken to hell (Page 201)

50 Classwork Write your own version of The Friar’s Tale, attacking a modern day celebrity or political figure for their actions.

51 Homework Read The Summoner’s Prologue and Tale and answer corresponding questions.

52 Do Now In your day to day life, you most likely encounter hypocrisy in some form or another. How do you deal with such things? Do you find hypocrisy especially rampant in a particular area (a profession, a group of people, etc.)?

53 Lollardy Also known as Wycliffism Medieval heresy
Attacked the idea that religious power came through hierarchy Piety was what mattered A holy layperson had as much power as a priest True community was about the community of the faithful Originated in the 1370s or early 1380s in Oxford with the followers of John Wycliffe Lollards were persecuted after The Peasants’ Revolt in 1381

54 Lollardy Was considered a threat to the government and the church
Protests against the wealth, the power, and the pride of the clergy Discredited transubstantiation The belief that the Eucharist actually changes into the body and blood of Christ Favored consubstantiation The belief that the body and blood of Christ exists alongside the Eucharist (bread and wine). The bread and wine does not become the body and blood.

55 The Summoner's Prologue and Tale
Based on the definitions you’ve received so far (fabliau, exemplum, allegory, parody, etc.), what genre do you think this story fits into? Why? What has happened to the friendly feud between the Summoner and the Friar?

56 Classwork Work with a partner to list other instances of political or social movements that grew out of distrust for the social climate. Think of history, throughout the world and in America. How did these upheavals end? Was change granted? Or was the movement shut down by the people in power?

57 Homework Read The Merchant’s Prologue, Tale, and Epilogue and answer corresponding questions.

58 Do Now The tales we’ve read deal a lot with relationships, namely love and marriage. In your experience, what are some of the issues/events that can doom a relationship? Are there certain things that can doom a relationship from the start?

59 The Merchant’s Prologue, Tale, and Epilogue
This story is another example of a fabliau. A short tale, usually vulgar, with a quick funny ending. Love triangles The Knight’s Tale Emily is compared to a lily and a rose. Page 22 The Miller’s Tale Alison is compared to honey and apples. Page 67 The Merchant’s Tale May is compared to the month of May. Page 255

60 The Merchant’s Prologue, Tale, and Epilogue
Why would the Wife of Bath approve of May’s behavior? Do you feel sorry for January in the end? Was he better off not knowing the truth? What does this tale tell you about the standards of beauty in Chaucer’s time?

61 Classwork Compare and contrast the love triangles found in each story in your group. You will write your findings on the board and share with the class.

62 Homework Read The Franklin’s Prologue and Tale and answer corresponding questions.

63 Do Now What does it mean to have honor? How important is a person’s word in our day and age? Is it still important?

64 The Franklin’s Prologue and Tale
How does Dorigen fit into the medieval concept of womanhood? Why would the Franklin, a member of the middle class, tell the story of the nobility?

65 Classwork Contrast the description of marriage in The Franklin’s Tale with the description of marriage in The Wife of Bath’s Tale.

66 Homework Read The Pardoner’s Introduction, Prologue, and Tale and answer corresponding questions.

67 Do Now In our current society, greed can be hard to define. What do you think some of the fundamental differences are between being greedy and merely being ambitious? Is there any difference at all, or is the want to be successful just a natural human inclination?

68 The Pardoner’s Introduction, Prologue, and Tale
Explain in detail the moral lesson conveyed in The Pardoner’s Tale. Give a full character description of the pilgrim Pardoner.

69 Classwork This tale warns against such vices as avarice, gluttony, sloth, and most notably greed. Write a modern day exemplum that places money as the root of all evil. Include characters, dialogue, and make the moral lesson clear.

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