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Religion Chapter 6 An Introduction to Human Geography

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1 Religion Chapter 6 An Introduction to Human Geography
The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein Chapter 6 Religion PPT by Abe Goldman



4 Key Issue 1: Where are religions distributed?
I. Universalizing religions A. Christianity B. Islam C. Buddhism D. Sikhism II. Ethnic religions A. Judaism B. Hinduism C. Other ethnic religions


6 Christianity Began with the life of Jesus, a Jew living in Israel during Roman occupation (first century) Book: New Testament of the Bible 3 Main Branches Roman Catholic Eastern Orthodox Protestant Hundreds of Denominations Thousands of Sects


8 Roman Catholicism HQ: Vatican City in Rome, Italy
Head of the Church – the Pope Began… depends on who you talk to or what you read According to the Church, began when Jesus named Peter the first Bishop

9 Write a summarizing statement of where Catholics are distributed on earth.

10 Eastern Orthodox Church
HQ Officially, there is no one location. Each autocephaly, or denomination, has its own Greek Orthodox – Athens Polish Orthodox – Warsaw Russian Orthodox – Moscow Constantinople, Turkey is considered the historical HQ Head of the Church – no official leader each autocephaly has a Bishop Patriarch of Constantinople is considered to be “first among equals” and spiritual head, but has no real authority to lead claims to be the “true” link to Jesus and that the Roman Catholics deviated from original teachings Thus the term “orthodox”

11 Write a summarizing statement of where orthodoxy is distributed on earth.

12 St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow, Russia
Built in 1500s by Ivan the Terrible to commemorate the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan

13 Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, Turkey
Originally, the HQ of the Eastern Orthodox Church Now, a mosque in Istanbul

14 St. Catherine’s Monastery on Mount Sinai Peninsula, Egypt

15 Protestantism Protestantism in Europe
Term basically refers to those religions that evolved out of the Protestant Reformation in 16th cen Europe Think “protest” b/c these groups were protesting the Roman Catholic Church. Major figures: Martin Luther John Calvin Traditional Denominations Lutheranism Calvinism (Dutch Reform, Presbyterianism) Methodism Baptists Seven-Day Adventist Anglican, (Episcopalian in the US) ** Protestantism in Europe

16 Yes, write a summarizing statement of where Protestantism (orange color) is distributed on earth.

17 Islam HQ – Mecca, Saudi Arabia Head of the Church – none
Very decentralized Holy book: The Qur’an (Koran) Each imam / cleric has authority to interpret the Qur'an Began – 600s with the teachings / leadership of Muhammad

18 Islam Monotheistic 5 Pillars of Islam…

19 2 Branches of Islam: 1. Sunni –83%
2. Shi’a (or Shiite) -16% -clustered in Iran The split happened after the death of Muhammad and who would become the caliph (leader)

20 Masjid al-Haram in Mecca
Ka’ba – the cube-like structure at the center of the mosque; contains a black stone given to Abraham by Gabriel as a sign of the covenant with Ishmael and the Muslim people. Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina

21 National Mosque in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
The Great Mosque of Djenné in Mali

22 Entrance to Al Kadhimain Mosque in Baghdad, Iraq
Close up of tile design

23 Yes, write another statement describing where Islam is prevalent on Earth.

24 Buddhism HQ - none Head of Church - none Began Major divisions
Siddhartha Gautama (6th or 5th century BCE) Major divisions Mahayana – 56%, China, Japan, Korea Tantrayana – 6%, Tibet, Mongolia Theravada – 38%, SE Asia, Sri Lanka

25 Where Theravada Buddhism is dominant.
Where Mahayana Buddhism is dominant.

26 Four Noble Truths All living beings must suffer
Suffering is caused by desire Goal is to escape suffering Nirvana (enlightenment) is attained through an Eightfold Path Rightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditation Following the Eightfold Path leads to good Karma

27 Sikhism Monotheistic Founded in Northern India 16th Century by Guru Nanak Ideals based on 10 Gurus’ teachings 20 million followers worldwide

28 Sikh beliefs All humans have equal status under God
Focus on good deeds not rituals Holy writings: Guru Granth Sahib , which is a collection of teachings from all 10 Gurus.

29 5 K’s of Sikhism Kesh: uncut hair as a mark of holiness and submission to God's will Kangha: a small wooden comb in the hair as a sign of cleanliness Kara: a steel bracelet, a reminder that they are connected to God Kachhera: short cotton underwear, more practical for daily life than the traditional dhoti worn in India Kirpaan: a sword, for protection.

30 World Distribution of Religions
Fig. 6-1: World religions by continent.

31 What is the connection b/t the dominant religion and colonization?
How is migration influencing what religion is dominant in a region? Although the U.S. is majority Protestant, are parts of the U.S. Catholic? Which parts and why?

32 What explains the % of non-religious?


34 Christian Branches in the U.S.
The Bible Belt

35 Ethnic Religions Characteristics: Tied to ethnicity of group
Often tied to physical environment and forces of nature Often clustered in specific regions, typically hearth Examples: Hinduism Confucianism Daoism (Taoism) Shintoism Judaism Animistic Religions Indigenous religions Chinese Folk religion Shamanism

36 Hinduism Largest ethnic religion
97% in India (they make up 80% of Indian population Clustered No single holy book Vedas (oldest of the Hindu scriptures) are widely accepted Bhagavad Gita is viewed as a summary of beliefs No one method of practice or belief Individualized Origin: unknown, diffused with Aryan invaders, combined with local religions. Path you choose is correct as long as it is in harmony w/ your true nature As a result: autonomous religion – a religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally


38 Is Hinduism monotheistic or polytheistic?

39 Hinduism So, what does the average Hindu believe? General Beliefs
70% worship Vishnu 25% worship Shiva Other important deities Krishna Ganesha General Beliefs Dharma Ethics/duties Karma actions Yogas Paths/practices Reincarnation Seated Shiva with Mt. Kailash in background – Bangalore, India

40 RED= Hinduism Hinduism is concentrated in South Asia

41 Confucianism Is this technically a religion? Or a philosophy?
Based on teachings of Confucius (551 – 479 BC) in China Emphasized Chinese tradition of “li” Propriety or correct behavior Considered an ethnic religion b/c rooted in traditional Chinese values Along with Taoism and Buddhism, is one of China’s “Three Teachings”

42 Shintoism Distinctive ethnic religion of Japan
Consider forces of nature to be divine Sun Moon Rivers Mountains

43 Judaism The first of the monotheistic religions (belief in one god)
Has more recognition in Western civilization because other 2 “Abrahamic” religions are rooted in Judaism Persecution of Jews throughout history, especially: Jewish pogroms (organized persecution) in Russia Holocaust of World War II



46 Partner up with someone RIGHT NEXT to you. Move desks together.
Sort the cards into the 6 main religions on earth. each religion has 5 picture cards

47 Key Issue 2: Why do religions have different distributions?
I. Origin of religions A. Origin of universalizing religions B. Origin of Hinduism II. Diffusion of religions A. Diffusion of universalizing religions B. Lack of diffusion of ethnic religion III. Calendars, Holy Sites and Cosmogony

48 Diffusion of Universalizing Religions
Please draw these arrows on to your map. Include a key! Which universalizing religion is still dominant in its hearth? * * * * * * * Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.

49 Types of Diffusion Relocation diffusion: the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to another Expansion diffusion: the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing process Hierarchical diffusion: the spread of a feature or trend from one key person (ruler; king; etc) or node of authority or power to other persons or places Contagious diffusion: the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population

50 Diffusion of Christianity
Types of Diffusion 1st: Relocation Paul of Tarsus Missionaries Expansion - 2nd: Hierarchical Adoption by Roman Empire and later kings in Europe 3rd: Contagious Conversions through contact Schools and Trade Diffusion of Christianity Fig. 6-5: Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.

51 What helped the spread of Christianity? (5 factors)
1. Idea that anyone could be Christian 2. Roman Infrastructure Early believers took advantage of good roads and trade routes 3. Adoption by governments Rome in 4th century – Emperor Constantine European Royalty after fall of Rome Empire 4. Colonization Spain and Portugal – Latin America France – Quebec Britain – North America and Sub-Saharan Africa

52 What helped the spread of Christianity?
5. Provided Social Services Education Aid to poor Aid to orphans, elderly, and sick We still see this today, even locally St. Edwards, St. Michaels, St. Stevens, etc. Salvation Army, food pantries Seton, St. Davids

53 Diffusion of Islam 1st: Expansion – Hierarchical Spread thru conquest
2nd: Relocation Spread thru missionaries Sub-Sahara Africa 3rd: Expansion – Contagious Spread thru contact Schools and trade Indonesia 13th cent Fig. 6-6: Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.

54 Why did Islam spread so rapidly?
1. Easy to learn and practice. 2. No priesthood. 3. Teaches equality. People of the Book: refers to Jews & Christians b/c of connection to Abraham J & C could practice faith – only had to pay tax (jizya) 4. Easily “portable”  nomads & trade routes. 5. Jihad (“Holy War”) against pagans and other non-believers (“infidels”).

55 Diffusion of Buddhism Hierarchical Diffusion
Asoka applied teachings to Magadhan Empire in 3rd century Relocation and Contagious Diffusion Trade along Silk Roads Fig. 6-7: Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.

56 What aided Buddhism’s spread throughout East Asia?
Less orthodox than Islam or Christianity Stresses individual path One can be a good Buddhist and a good Confucian, Shinto, etc. People did not have to give up their local, ethnic religion.

57 Shintoism and Buddhism in Japan
Fig. 6-8: Since Japanese can be both Shinto and Buddhist, there are many areas in Japan where over two-thirds of the population are both Shinto and Buddhist.

58 Diffusion of Ethnic Religions
Little diffusion from original area Generally no missionaries Ties to geography of region limit practicality of practicing faith outside of region of origin Diffusion of universalizing religions come at the expense of ethnic religions Judaism, the exception Diaspora (forced migration)


60 Variations in Distribution of Religions (2)
1. Holy places Holy places in universalizing religions Holy places in ethnic religions 2. The calendar The calendar in ethnic religions The calendar in universalizing religions

61 Holy Places Ethnic Universalizing
Derive from distinctive physical environment Pilgrimages Taken to view physical features Universalizing Derive from the life of founder Pilgrimages Islam Hinduism*

62 Jerusalem Fig. 6-14: The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

63 Islam’s 3rd Holiest Site
Judaism’s Holiest Site Christian Church of the Holy Sepulcher

64 Yet, there are locations associated with the life of Jesus.
Christians do not emphasis pilgrimages to the same extent as Muslims and Buddhists. Yet, there are locations associated with the life of Jesus. Chapel of the Ascension Sacred for Christians and Muslims Traditional site of Golgotha – place of crucifixion

65 Variations in Buddhist temples reflect local culture
Variations in Buddhist temples reflect local culture. Usually contain a relic of the Buddha Thailand China Zen Buddhist temple in Japan

66 Aerial view of Angkor Wat – built in the 1100s to honor Hindu god Vishnu, then used as a Buddhist temple

67 Mecca, Islam’s Holiest City
Fig. 6-10: Makkah (Mecca) is the holiest city in Islam and is the site of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites in the city.

68 Sikhism’s Darbar Sahid or “Golden Temple”
Located in Amritsar, Punjab, India (NW India) Holiest structure Symbol of freedom and independence

69 Hindu Holy Places Any location believed to be connected to a god
- Coastlines and River banks Ganges River (Goddess Ganga) Mountain Pilgrimage to holy site, a tirtha, is an act of purification Fig. 6-11: Hierarchy of Hindu holy places: Some sites are holy to Hindus throughout India; others have a regional or sectarian importance, or are important only locally.

70 Rishikesh – located in northern India; site of pilgrimage for many Hindus. Bathing in the Ganges River is seen as an act of purification

71 Gathering for evening prayers during a festival at Hardwar, in northern India on the Ganges River.

72 Mount Fuji – one of the sacred sites of Shintoism.

73 Uluru (Ayers Rock) in Northern Territory, Australia
Sacred site for the Aboriginals

74 Mato Tipila (Devil’s Tower) in Wyoming
Sacred site for the Lakota Sioux, Cheyenne, and Kiowa tribes

75 Cosmogony and Organization of Time and Space
Cosmogony – set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universe Views of Nature Ethnic religions – controlled by nature Universalizing religions – control of nature

76 Calendars Ethnic Universalizing Celebrate seasons and lunar cycle
Solstice, Harvests Examples Judaism: Sukkot (harvest), Pesach (Passover/ first harvest) Hinduism: Diwali (first new moon) Universalizing Holidays mark significant events in life of founder(s) Christian: Christmas, Easter Islam: Ramadan, Hajj, Ashura NOTE: Islam does use a lunar calendar, but not agricultural (seasons)



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