6ChristianityBegan with the life of Jesus, a Jew living in Israel during Roman occupation (first century)Book: New Testament of the Bible3 Main BranchesRoman CatholicEastern OrthodoxProtestantHundreds of DenominationsThousands of Sects
8Roman Catholicism HQ: Vatican City in Rome, Italy Head of the Church – the PopeBegan… depends on who you talk to or what you readAccording to the Church, began when Jesus named Peter the first Bishop
9Write a summarizing statement of where Catholics are distributed on earth.
10Eastern Orthodox Church HQOfficially, there is no one location. Each autocephaly, or denomination, has its ownGreek Orthodox – AthensPolish Orthodox – WarsawRussian Orthodox – MoscowConstantinople, Turkey is considered the historical HQHead of the Church – no official leadereach autocephaly has a BishopPatriarch of Constantinople is considered to be “first among equals” and spiritual head, but has no real authority to leadclaims to be the “true” link to Jesus and that the Roman Catholics deviated from original teachingsThus the term “orthodox”
11Write a summarizing statement of where orthodoxy is distributed on earth.
12St. Basil’s Cathedral in Moscow, Russia Built in 1500s by Ivan the Terrible to commemorate the conquest of the Khanate of Kazan
13Hagia Sophia in Constantinople, Turkey Originally, the HQ of the Eastern Orthodox ChurchNow, a mosque in Istanbul
14St. Catherine’s Monastery on Mount Sinai Peninsula, Egypt
15Protestantism Protestantism in Europe Term basically refers to those religions that evolved out of the Protestant Reformation in 16th cen EuropeThink “protest” b/c these groups were protesting the Roman Catholic Church.Major figures:Martin LutherJohn CalvinTraditional DenominationsLutheranismCalvinism (Dutch Reform, Presbyterianism)MethodismBaptistsSeven-Day AdventistAnglican, (Episcopalian in the US) **Protestantism in Europe
16Yes, write a summarizing statement of where Protestantism (orange color) is distributed on earth.
17Islam HQ – Mecca, Saudi Arabia Head of the Church – none Very decentralizedHoly book: The Qur’an (Koran)Each imam / cleric has authority to interpret the Qur'anBegan – 600s with the teachings / leadership of Muhammad
192 Branches of Islam: 1. Sunni –83% 2. Shi’a (or Shiite) -16% -clustered in IranThe split happened after the death of Muhammad and who would become the caliph (leader)
20Masjid al-Haram in Mecca Ka’ba – the cube-like structure at the center of the mosque; contains a black stone given to Abraham by Gabriel as a sign of the covenant with Ishmael and the Muslim people.Masjid al-Nabawi in Medina
21National Mosque in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia The Great Mosque of Djenné in Mali
22Entrance to Al Kadhimain Mosque in Baghdad, Iraq Close up of tile design
23Yes, write another statement describing where Islam is prevalent on Earth.
24Buddhism HQ - none Head of Church - none Began Major divisions Siddhartha Gautama (6th or 5th century BCE)Major divisionsMahayana – 56%, China, Japan, KoreaTantrayana – 6%, Tibet, MongoliaTheravada – 38%, SE Asia, Sri Lanka
25Where Theravada Buddhism is dominant. Where Mahayana Buddhism is dominant.
26Four Noble Truths All living beings must suffer Suffering is caused by desireGoal is to escape sufferingNirvana (enlightenment) is attained through an Eightfold PathRightness of belief, resolve, speech, action, livelihood, effort, thought, and meditationFollowing the Eightfold Path leads to good Karma
27SikhismMonotheisticFounded in Northern India 16th Century by Guru NanakIdeals based on 10 Gurus’ teachings20 million followers worldwide
28Sikh beliefs All humans have equal status under God Focus on good deeds not ritualsHoly writings: Guru Granth Sahib , which is a collection of teachings from all 10 Gurus.
295 K’s of SikhismKesh: uncut hair as a mark of holiness and submission to God's willKangha: a small wooden comb in the hair as a sign of cleanlinessKara: a steel bracelet, a reminder that they are connected to GodKachhera: short cotton underwear, more practical for daily life than the traditional dhoti worn in IndiaKirpaan: a sword, for protection.
30World Distribution of Religions Fig. 6-1: World religions by continent.
31What is the connection b/t the dominant religion and colonization? How is migration influencing what religion is dominant in a region?Although the U.S. is majority Protestant, are parts of the U.S. Catholic? Which parts and why?
35Ethnic Religions Characteristics: Tied to ethnicity of group Often tied to physical environment and forces of natureOften clustered in specific regions, typically hearthExamples:HinduismConfucianismDaoism (Taoism)ShintoismJudaismAnimistic ReligionsIndigenous religionsChinese Folk religionShamanism
36Hinduism Largest ethnic religion 97% in India (they make up 80% of Indian populationClusteredNo single holy bookVedas (oldest of the Hindu scriptures) are widely acceptedBhagavad Gita is viewed as a summary of beliefsNo one method of practice or belief IndividualizedOrigin: unknown, diffused with Aryan invaders, combined with local religions.Path you choose is correct as long as it is in harmony w/ your true natureAs a result: autonomous religion – a religion that does not have a central authority but shares ideas and cooperates informally
39Hinduism So, what does the average Hindu believe? General Beliefs 70% worship Vishnu25% worship ShivaOther important deitiesKrishnaGaneshaGeneral BeliefsDharmaEthics/dutiesKarmaactionsYogasPaths/practicesReincarnationSeated Shiva with Mt. Kailash in background – Bangalore, India
40RED= HinduismHinduism is concentrated in South Asia
41Confucianism Is this technically a religion? Or a philosophy? Based on teachings of Confucius (551 – 479 BC) in ChinaEmphasized Chinese tradition of “li”Propriety or correct behaviorConsidered an ethnic religion b/c rooted in traditional Chinese valuesAlong with Taoism and Buddhism, is one of China’s “Three Teachings”
42Shintoism Distinctive ethnic religion of Japan Consider forces of nature to be divineSunMoonRiversMountains
43Judaism The first of the monotheistic religions (belief in one god) Has more recognition in Western civilization becauseother 2 “Abrahamic” religions are rooted in JudaismPersecution of Jews throughout history, especially:Jewish pogroms (organized persecution) in RussiaHolocaust of World War II
46Partner up with someone RIGHT NEXT to you. Move desks together. Sort the cards into the 6 main religions on earth.each religion has 5 picture cards
47Key Issue 2: Why do religions have different distributions? I. Origin of religionsA. Origin of universalizing religionsB. Origin of HinduismII. Diffusion of religionsA. Diffusion of universalizing religionsB. Lack of diffusion of ethnic religionIII. Calendars, Holy Sites and Cosmogony
48Diffusion of Universalizing Religions Please draw these arrows on to your map. Include a key!Which universalizing religion is still dominant in its hearth?*******Fig. 6-4: Each of the three main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth.
49Types of DiffusionRelocation diffusion: the spread of a feature or trend through bodily movement of people from one place to anotherExpansion diffusion: the spread of a feature or trend among people from one area to another in a snowballing processHierarchical diffusion: the spread of a feature or trend from one key person (ruler; king; etc) or node of authority or power to other persons or placesContagious diffusion: the rapid, widespread diffusion of a feature or trend throughout a population
50Diffusion of Christianity Types of Diffusion1st: RelocationPaul of TarsusMissionariesExpansion- 2nd: HierarchicalAdoption by Roman Empire and later kings in Europe3rd: ContagiousConversions through contactSchools and TradeDiffusion of ChristianityFig. 6-5: Christianity diffused from Palestine through the Roman Empire and continued diffusing through Europe after the fall of Rome. It was later replaced by Islam in much of the Mideast and North Africa.
51What helped the spread of Christianity? (5 factors) 1. Idea that anyone could be Christian2. Roman InfrastructureEarly believers took advantage of good roads and trade routes3. Adoption by governmentsRome in 4th century – Emperor ConstantineEuropean Royalty after fall of Rome Empire4. ColonizationSpain and Portugal – Latin AmericaFrance – QuebecBritain – North America and Sub-Saharan Africa
52What helped the spread of Christianity? 5. Provided Social ServicesEducationAid to poorAid to orphans, elderly, and sickWe still see this today, even locallySt. Edwards, St. Michaels, St. Stevens, etc.Salvation Army, food pantriesSeton, St. Davids
53Diffusion of Islam 1st: Expansion – Hierarchical Spread thru conquest 2nd: RelocationSpread thru missionariesSub-Sahara Africa3rd: Expansion – ContagiousSpread thru contactSchools and tradeIndonesia 13th centFig. 6-6: Islam diffused rapidly and widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
54Why did Islam spread so rapidly? 1. Easy to learn and practice.2. No priesthood.3. Teaches equality.People of the Book: refers to Jews & Christians b/c of connection to AbrahamJ & C could practice faith – only had to pay tax (jizya)4. Easily “portable” nomads & trade routes.5. Jihad (“Holy War”) against pagans and other non-believers (“infidels”).
55Diffusion of Buddhism Hierarchical Diffusion Asoka applied teachings to Magadhan Empire in 3rd centuryRelocation and Contagious DiffusionTrade along Silk RoadsFig. 6-7: Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in northeastern India to Sri Lanka, southeast Asia, and eventually China and Japan.
56What aided Buddhism’s spread throughout East Asia? Less orthodox than Islam or ChristianityStresses individual pathOne can be a good Buddhist and a good Confucian, Shinto, etc.People did not have to give up their local, ethnic religion.
57Shintoism and Buddhism in Japan Fig. 6-8: Since Japanese can be both Shinto and Buddhist, there are many areas in Japan where over two-thirds of the population are both Shinto and Buddhist.
58Diffusion of Ethnic Religions Little diffusion from original areaGenerally no missionariesTies to geography of region limit practicality of practicing faith outside of region of originDiffusion of universalizing religions come at the expense of ethnic religionsJudaism, the exceptionDiaspora (forced migration)
60Variations in Distribution of Religions (2) 1. Holy placesHoly places in universalizing religionsHoly places in ethnic religions2. The calendarThe calendar in ethnic religionsThe calendar in universalizing religions
61Holy Places Ethnic Universalizing Derive from distinctive physical environmentPilgrimagesTaken to view physical featuresUniversalizingDerive from the life of founderPilgrimagesIslamHinduism*
62JerusalemFig. 6-14: The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
63Islam’s 3rd Holiest Site Judaism’s Holiest SiteChristianChurch of the Holy Sepulcher
64Yet, there are locations associated with the life of Jesus. Christians do not emphasis pilgrimages to the same extent as Muslims and Buddhists.Yet, there are locations associated with the life of Jesus.Chapel of the AscensionSacred for Christians and MuslimsTraditional site of Golgotha – place of crucifixion
65Variations in Buddhist temples reflect local culture Variations in Buddhist temples reflect local culture. Usually contain a relic of the BuddhaThailandChinaZen Buddhist temple in Japan
66Aerial view of Angkor Wat – built in the 1100s to honor Hindu god Vishnu, then used as a Buddhist temple
67Mecca, Islam’s Holiest City Fig. 6-10: Makkah (Mecca) is the holiest city in Islam and is the site of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites in the city.
68Sikhism’s Darbar Sahid or “Golden Temple” Located in Amritsar, Punjab, India (NW India)Holiest structureSymbol of freedom and independence
69Hindu Holy Places Any location believed to be connected to a god - Coastlines and River banksGanges River (Goddess Ganga)MountainPilgrimage to holy site, a tirtha, is an act of purificationFig. 6-11: Hierarchy of Hindu holy places: Some sites are holy to Hindus throughout India; others have a regional or sectarian importance, or are important only locally.
70Rishikesh – located in northern India; site of pilgrimage for many Hindus. Bathing in the Ganges River is seen as an act of purification
71Gathering for evening prayers during a festival at Hardwar, in northern India on the Ganges River.
72Mount Fuji – one of the sacred sites of Shintoism.
73Uluru (Ayers Rock) in Northern Territory, Australia Sacred site for the Aboriginals
74Mato Tipila (Devil’s Tower) in Wyoming Sacred site for the Lakota Sioux, Cheyenne, and Kiowa tribes
75Cosmogony and Organization of Time and Space Cosmogony – set of religious beliefs concerning the origin of the universeViews of NatureEthnic religions – controlled by natureUniversalizing religions – control of nature
76Calendars Ethnic Universalizing Celebrate seasons and lunar cycle Solstice, HarvestsExamplesJudaism: Sukkot (harvest), Pesach (Passover/ first harvest)Hinduism: Diwali (first new moon)UniversalizingHolidays mark significant events in life of founder(s)Christian: Christmas, EasterIslam: Ramadan, Hajj, AshuraNOTE: Islam does use a lunar calendar, but not agricultural (seasons)