Presentation on theme: "ISLAMIC EXTREMISM & INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM Mostly “Borrowed” from JTTF - FBI - SAN FRANCISCO via ILEETA."— Presentation transcript:
ISLAMIC EXTREMISM & INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM Mostly “Borrowed” from JTTF - FBI - SAN FRANCISCO via ILEETA
INSTRUCTIONAL GOALS l Upon completion of this block of instruction: l 1. Students will possess a basic understanding of the Islamic faith. l 2. Students will understand how the dynamics of Islam effect all aspects of International Terrorism today.
UNDERSTANDING ARABIC CULTURE
ARABIC TERMS - discussed in this session §Jahilia §Barakat - Barakate §Jamaat E Tableigh §Mahdi §Ahl El Beit §Sahaba §Ansar §Shi’a §Sunni §Wahabi §Muslim Brotherhood §Mosque - Masjid §Mohammed §Ali §Abu Bakr
Understanding a Culture To understand a culture, we must first understand the beliefs and values of the people. Remember - One of every six people on this planet is a Muslim!
CORRECT PRONUNCIATION §Muslim - “long S & U sound - not a Z sound” Muslim not Muzlim §Islam - the same - Islam not Izlam §Mosque - better word is Masjid or Janeh
Islam In the name of God, the Compassionate
Islam 101 §Religion of more than 1.6 billion people §Not violent, but does not separate church and state.
Islam 101 (continued) §TAHWID—emphasizes monotheism l “Oneness of God” l Unity of God
Islam 101 (continued) §Islam—“submission” is the religion §Muslim—a person who submits to God’s will
Islam 101 (continued) §Like Western religions— BASED ON REVELATION
ERA BEFORE MOHAMMAD §Paganism - Tribalism §“Jahilia” or “al Jahilyya” - defined as the period of ignorance in the years before the Prophet Mohammed §Incredible cruelty toward female newborns §Other abominations
ISLAM - THE ORIGIN MECCA §The Prophet Mohammad was born in 570 AD - Mecca in Saudi Arabia. §In 610 AD, Mohammad received the first verses (God/Allah’s message) now contained in the Koran or Qu’ran from the angel Gabriel. §Over the course of the following 22 years Mohammad received further revelations. §Mohammad died in 632 AD. §Muhammad received the verses in Arabic.
Islam 102 §Mohammed (570–632) l God’s final messenger l Gabriel reveals God’s will in visions
ISLAM - THE ORIGIN MEDINA §Mohammad and his followers were forced to flee to Medina §Mohammad continued to receive the Arabic verses §However, beginning in Medina the tenor of the Koran takes on a more Jihadic/warlike/adversarial tone toward the enemies of Islam - Jews and Christians
Islam 102 (continued) §Mohammed—hijra to Mecca in 622
Islam 102 (continued) §Mohammed fought Meccans at Badr in 624 §In another battle, the Battle of the Trench, a Jewish tribe changed sides §Mohammed conquered Mecca in 630 and spared its population §Mohammed died in 632
ISLAM - HISTORY §Second only to the Koran is the Sunnah or Ahadith §Composed of Hadiths - Islamic accounts into Mohammad's life §Provides Muslims with a window into Mohammad's life
Division of Islam §The Companions l Abu Bakr l Umar l Uthman §Ali
The Birth of the Shi`ite Movement §Ali ibn Talib §Rushidin v. Ali §Civil War §Assassination of Ali
Shi`ites Begin to Form § Yemen § The Ismailis § The Twelvers
Karbala §Ibn Ali Hussein §12er Shi`ites §Hidden imam
Institutionalization of Islam, 632–680 §Qur`an codified—114 surahs arranged by length §dar al Islam (House of Islam) §dar al Harb (House of War)
Institutionalization of Islam (continued) §Scholars explain the Koran §Sunnah (becomes Sunni or orthodox) §Hadith §Sharia—Islamic law §Fiq—interpretations of Islamic law
SCHISM IN ISLAM §Shi’a Muslims vs Sunni Muslims §Shi’a Muslims or Shiites are followers of Mohammad's cousin/son-in-law Ali. §Sunni Muslims follow the teachings of Abu Bakr, who died in 634. §Ali’s sons, Husain and Hassan were killed by Sunni forces in Karbala, Iraq in 680.
SUNNI SUB-SECTS §Wahabi - Saudi Arabia - Usama bin Laden is a Wahabi Muslim §Mahadi - Sudan; Libya; Algeria §Hanafi - Pakistan §Hanbali - Pakistan
WAHABI SUNNI §Traditionalists/Conservative - many terrorists evolve from this sect §Anything outside Koran is unacceptable. §Wahabi Sunnis control the Koran - UBL l Saudi Arabia is populated primarily by Wahabi Sunni. §Jesus, to a Wahabi, is a general who will someday come and lead them against the infidels. §Christians have elevated Jesus to a god - Muslims believe him to be a prophet.
SHIA’S/SHIITES §Also believe strongly in the tenets of Islam §More spin room - believe in the ability of the Imams to interpret the Koran §More gray areas within the teachings of the Koran than that which the Sunnis believe §Less stringent - more interpretation §The Koran says what the clerics say it says.
Arabic Values §A person’s dignity, honor and reputation are of paramount importance. §It is important to behave at all times in a way which will create a good impression. §Loyalty to one’s family takes precedence over personal needs, but not when it comes to Islam, the religion and the tasking.
Arabic Beliefs §All things in life are controlled by God. §Children are the “jewels” of the family. §Wisdom increases with knowledge of Koran. §Inherent roles/tasking and responsibilities of men and women are vastly different. l In the Koran, men are tasked to teach daughters to swim, ride a horse and handle a weapon. Women take care of the next generation of soldier.
Understanding Arabic Culture §An Arab is a person who speaks Arabic or who otherwise identifies with the culture and history of the Arab people. §Arabic culture and the Islamic faith are inseparable. §Islam is the most dominating, single influence in the Arab world, the second largest religion, and the world’s fastest growing religion.
THE ARAB MIND §Formulated by: l Language l Geography l Food & lack of water l Attire l Customs and traditions l Family and tribal affiliation l Islam
ISLAM THE FIVE PILLARS §1. Testimony/confession or “shahadah” - recited once daily and is the belief in the oneness of God and that Muhammad is his prophet §2. Prayer or “salat” - 5 times a day and must face east toward Mecca, Saudi Arabia §3. Charity or “zakat” - giving of alms. 2.5% of assets §4. Fasting or “sawm” - Behavior during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan Ninth month of the lunar calender, usually November §5. Pilgrimage or “haj/hajj/hadj” - all Muslims must travel to Mecca once in their lives
MUSLIM NATION - 1.6 billion Muslims worldwide §ARAB SUNNIS §80 % - Saudi Arabia - majority §Sunnis - 1 billion - 9 in 10 §ARAB SHI’A/SHIITES §20% of Muslim population §Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia §Shi’as - 170 million §NON-ARAB SUNNIS/AJAMI §Turkey, Pakistan, Afghanistan, other stans, Indonesia - huge population §NON-ARAB SHIITES §Iran, Afghanistan §Sufi Muslims - 240 million
MUSLIM BREAKDOWN - WORLDWIDE §CIA Factbook lists 234 nations §Of these, Islam is the majority religion in 48 §Islam is a significant minority religion in 26 §Therefore, Islam is a powerful presence in one third of the countries in the world §6 million Muslims in the USA
MIDDLE EAST §This refers to a larger area which includes Israel - Turkey - Iran - Afghanistan - Pakistan. §These are not “Arab “ countries.
What Is the Middle East? §The Middle East is not really a region; it is a geographical concept Alfred Thayer Mahan, USN
The Middle East
Southeast Asia, Including Indonesia
Militancy Emerges The Basis of Militant Theology
Three Sources of the Jihadist Movement §Questions of Palestine/Israel §Future of revolutionary Islam §Who will rule dar al Islam—the Caliphate?
Complaints With U.S. Policy §Two eyes, two policies, - or - Israel gets a pass §U.S. policies exploitive in nature, interested only in oil §Foreign troops stationed near Mecca and other locations in the Middle East §U.S. supports puppet governments and regimes throughout the region
PROFILE OF THE FUNDAMENTALIST COMBATANT §Islam united all Muslims and combined: l Ideology l Law l Organizational structure l Family and region l Theology §Under the banner of globalization of Islam.
PROFILE OF THE FUNDAMENTALIST COMBATANT §Age 8 the combatant begins to read and learn the Koran and the place of women §Age 12 he reads the Koran several hours per day - father indoctrinates him into the faith §Age 18 he has memorized the entire Koran §After age 18 - he comes to USA - a member of the Islamic Brotherhood
PARAMILITARY MINDSET §Fundamentalist/extremists interpretation of the Koran: l General operational plans l Operational goals l Organizational structure l Sharia (legal) justification for all deadly actions
PARAMILITARY MINDSET §Typical extremist: l Attends a Friday sermon at a Masjid l Recruited by Jamaat E Tableigh l Travels to Pakistan-indoctrinated into extremist views l Travels to Afghanistan to receive military and paramilitary training l Prepares for his Jihad and his TASKING
JIHAD §Basic Definition: l Act in a paramilitary or military fashion against the enemies of Islam, foreign or domestic, and if dying in the process, the combatant will ascend to heaven with all his sins forgiven. §Islamic/Muslim Brotherhood (MB) §Family obligations
MAJOR BELIEF OF ALL MUSLIMS §MAHDI - will come before Jesus to liberate Lebanon, Syria, Iraq in route to Saudi Arabia. 2 million man army and await Jesus §MAHDI is described in a Hadeth; tall, thin, bearded with angular features, large forehead, olive color and pointy nose - who will come out from deep hiding - sound familiar ?
USAMA BIN LADEN §Wahabi Sunni Muslim §Born in Yemen - raised in Saudi Arabia §Followed the teachings of two radical, fundamental Saudi clerics: l Ben Outheimeen l Ben Baz l Every major Intl. Terrorist subject will have studied under these two men - both died last year. l They believe that Jihad is to kill Christians.
FEMALES IN ISLAM §Great debate on this topic. §Orthodox Muslims argue that women gain true freedom in Islam. §Critics argue that women are in bondage in Islam; Mohammad was a chauvinist and pedophile §In many chapters in the Koran women are referred to as equals; but in many others they are not
FEMALES IN ISLAM §Women come of age at 14 - stated in the Koran. §A man will always look at a female after age 14 in a sexual nature, according to Koran. §Mothers are the exception. §Thus the burqas
MAINSTREAM MUSLIMS §Mainstream Muslims l Totally disagree with extremist’s philosophy l All people of the world are Muslims l Non-Muslims are simply “lost” l Believe that non-Muslims will “flock back to Islam” Surah Al-Fatah - spoken to once l Historically, mainstream Muslims have been the silent weak majority of Islam l Vulnerable to teachings of extremists
FUNDAMENTALISTS/EXTREMISTS §Use scripture in the Koran to justify terror campaign §Use the Koran to serve their political views §Rely on Sharia Law §Ben Outhiemeen & Ben Baz §Typically not vulnerable to the mainstream-Shi’a ideology
The Modern Jihadist Movement
FUNDAMENTALIST MOSQUE STRUCTURE §1. Cleric/Sheik-highest religious authority §2. Imam-not a constant position §3. Theologist/Oulamaa-interpret the Sharia §4. Politicos-PR representatives §5. Financiers-show me the money!!!! §6. Paramilitary §7. Non-Government Organizations (NGOs)
TERRORIST GROUP & CELL STRUCTURE §Muslim Brotherhood - all terrorists will belong to the MB l Large pool of recruits for NGOs NGO-Jamaat E Tableigh; Jamaat Egatha; Jamaat Dawa; Lashkar E Taibe l Loosely connected - command and control l No real identified leader or figurehead l Koran and the strict guidelines guide the terrorist activities of the MB
CELL STRUCTURE aka’s used §1. Al Awlani - the leader §2. Al Jare - Currier; Infantryman §3. Al Kannas - Sniper/killer with one shot §4. Al Mukabir - Communications/Intelligence §5. Al Hakeem - Medic/doctor
ASSET RECRUITMENT §Identification l examine last name for: country of origin brotherhood affiliation tribal affiliation sect affiliation
ASSET RECRUITMENT cont. §Other identification considerations l family l job l motivation l finances l criminal history
VIOLENT TRUE BELIEVERS (VTB) §Motivated by deeply held beliefs that are rigid and completely justified in his eyes §Beliefs based solely on religion - Islam §He will believe that he is an agent of his god. §His killing/terroristics acts are sanctioned by his god. §Quite certain of his destiny
THE VTB §He has memorized the Koran from cover to cover. §Especially passages and phrases that justify his suicidal/homicidal intent §He will ignore any passages that are contradictory to his beliefs. §His tightly held rationalizations are not open to debate or questioning. §Critical thinking is forbidden - absolute belief in righteousness of his cause.
VTBs §Will not respect females (GITMO example) §Al-Qaeda Training Manual, 17th lesson teaches the VTB to expect “psychological warfare and intellectual combat.” §Harsh words and torture are also expected. §Manual, “the room is ordinary, containing one or more desks, chairs and torture devices as needed”
VTBs §Manual - directs the “brother” to memorize the appearance of the interrogation building and the officers. l Concentrate on the route and try to memorize signs in order to benefit future operations and plan development. l Always count step, measure distances from cell to interrogation room l (They are always collecting intel.)
VTBs §“Cognitive dissonance” l Behaving in ways quite different from that which the VTB expects from his manual l May confuse and disorient him l Will exert pressure on the VTB l Asking to see a medical examiner and that evidence of the torture be entered in any official report. - - Stall - - classic l Manual familiarity
VTBs §Establish rapport? Pros and cons. l Gitmo experiences l Smile l Listen carefully l Find something in common l Mirror the interviewee
VTBs and MUSLIMS IN GENERAL l Avoid interview blunders Soles of shoes considered great insult Cold and unfriendly demeanor considered an insult Showing impatience - watch, tapping fingers Disrespect Islam and argue religion Interviewing the female
VTBs - INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES §Patience and flexibility §Conducted in 2 to 3 hour time increments over several days §Do not be predictable - change times. §Stare down if necessary. §Key to interviewing VTB is to get him to talk about anything - Islam. §With these folks it is all about Islam/Israel.
VTBs/SUNNI/WAHABI §Ask the VTB/Sunni, “Are you Muslim?” §If he answers “yes, and thank God” and places his hand on his chest, he is very far to the right, l Likely a fundamentalist and very likely an extremist - Where do you pray? l Anywhere - alone - 5 times a day - attend Mosque to stay within Islamic community
INTERVIEW TECHNIQUES §3rd pillar of Islam can be important in interviewing VTB - Charity/”Zakat”. §Interviewee is allowed by the Koran to tell you, if asked, how and where he contributed money to the cause. §Use Islam against him - show him his actions have “hurt” Islam. §His honor lies in defeating you during interview.
TECHNIQUES §Small talk about family with a VTB Muslim will be superfluous. l A martyr will have already tended to his family as directed by the Koran. l He will have made arrangements to provide money for his family for 2 years and to provide a residence for 2 years.
VTB COUNTERMEASURES (taught during Al Qaeda training) §Reveal some secrets §Ask to see doctor §Ask that evidence of torture be entered in record §Raise one voice, curse the interrogator §Be patient, resistant, silent and prayerful §Proudly take a firm and opposing stance §Overreact to pain §Pretend to be naïve and ignorant §Take advantage of visits to communicate with brothers outside prison §Shout slogans from prison §Be steadfast
COUNTERMEASURES §The most common countermeasure appears to be a cover story that the individual’s behaviors and/or travels are only to teach or study Islam.
NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS §Jamaat E Tableigh - “the group that reforms” §Jamaat Dawa - “the group that calls someone to their cause” §Jamaat Eghatha - “the group that assists and rescues” §Lashkar E Taibe - specific to Pakistan - similar to above
OTHER CRITICAL TERMS §1. “Bayaat” - allegiance to §2. “Barakat” - Blessings §3. “Barakate” reference to UBL at Gitmo §4. “Ahl El Beit” - The Core, trace their descent to Mohammed §5. “Sahaba” - The trusted company, lesser that Ahl El Beit §6. “Al Ansar” - The supporters, mostly Sunni, non-Arabs
SUMMARY §Islam was created beginning in 610 AD. The values, attitudes and beliefs demanded by Islam, then and now, continue to be the foundation for all that is occurring with regard to terroristic acts. §A terrorist views himself as a loyal soldier for Allah. §He will never give up in his attempt to install Islamic values worldwide.
Key Points 1.Jihadists adhere to an extreme version of Islam 2.Jihadists are divided 3.Terrorism in the Middle East has multiple sources 4.The primary struggle within Islam is over which religious interpretation will prevail 5.Large groups, such as HAMAS and Hezballah, exist in the Middle East 6.Locally, small homegrown cells are more likely to cause problems 7.The introduction of jihadist theology will disrupt the Islamic community and cause dissention 8.Evidence of the dissention will be found under “Warning Signs” Warning Signs Dissention in local mosques Young men living in mosques People establishing mosques in their homes
Jihadists Are Not United §Variety of theories and doctrines §Strong disagreements