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4/29/20151 Russia and Its Southern Neighbours, Part III.

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Presentation on theme: "4/29/20151 Russia and Its Southern Neighbours, Part III."— Presentation transcript:

1 4/29/20151 Russia and Its Southern Neighbours, Part III

2 4/29/20152 Russia’s southern frontier as a hotbed of rebellion Since 18 th century: Cossack uprisings Throughout the 19 th century and afterwards: mountaineer unrest and rebellions Early 20 th century: socialism and nationalism Key role of the Caucasus in the Russian revolutions of 1905, 1917, and 1991 The war in Afghanistan Since 1991: challenges to Russia’s power (Chechnya, Georgia)

3 4/29/20153 The Soviet period Bolsheviks came to power on an anti-imperialist wave, promising social and national liberation Collapse of the empire in 1917 Creation of new republics, struggles within them Other great powers try to take advantage of the Russian Civil War – and push Russia out of the Caucasus and Central Asia Russia regains control of the Southern regions through class appeal – liberation of workers and peasants

4 4/29/20154 Soviet policies Suppression of anti-Russian nationalism inside the former empire The socialist project as a model of modern multiethnic society, incorporating elements of nationalism Support of anti-Western nationalism outside the former empire Result: the Soviet Union as a new revolutionary empire was viewed as an ally by Asian anti-imperialist forces

5 4/29/20155 Turkey A reconciliation between the 2 historical enemies Not a single military conflict since 1918 Mostly normal relations  But: Soviet support of the Turkish Left World War II: Turkey’s vacillations between USSR and Germany Stalin’s designs on Turkey after World War II Turkey as a key Western ally in the Cold War

6 4/29/20156 Iran The impact of the Russian revolution Soviet renunciation of Russian imperial claims to Northern Iran Support of Iran’s independence and modernization Support of Iran’s Left

7 4/29/20157 Afghanistan The Russian Revolution enables Afghanistan to gain full independence from Britain in 1919 Afghanistan became the first country to recognize the Soviet government in Russia Support of independence and modernization

8 4/29/20158 India The Russian revolution as an inspiration for Indian struggle for independence Indian nationalists viewed Soviet Russia as an ally in the fight against imperialism in Asia Soviet support for both communists and nationalists British concerns about Russia’s ideological influence

9 4/29/20159 Mongolia With Soviet help, wins its independence from China in 1921 In 1924, a communist government is installed Soviet protection, assistance and control

10 4/29/201510 China Example of the Russian Revolution Soviet support of China’s independence and modernization Support of both nationalists and communists

11 4/29/201511 World War II Southern regions of European USSR as a key strategic theater of war  Hitler’s chances of defeating the USSR  Hitler’s plans to capture energy resources of the Middle East German overtures to regional anti-Russian nationalisms Germany’s diplomatic moves to secure support of Turkey, Iran and Afghanistan Allied collaboration against Hitler in the region

12 4/29/201512

13 4/29/201513 German troops enter the Black Sea port of Novorossiysk, North Caucasus, Aug. 1942 =PlayList&p=CC8EA4F8297188F6&playnext=1&playnext _from=PL&index=47 =PlayList&p=CC8EA4F8297188F6&playnext=1&playnext _from=PL&index=47 German troops fighting in the mountains of North Caucasus, Nov. 1942 e=related e=related

14 4/29/201514 The Southern Front in 1942

15 4/29/201515 Stalin: the Red Empire period (late 1930s-early 1950s) Division of spheres of influence (first with Hitler, then with Churchill) Attempts to revive Tsarist claims – coupled with a revolutionary appeal Deportation of whole ethnic groups from Crimea and the Caucasus US-led policies of containment: the Baghdad Pact, CENTO Turkey and Iran as battlegrounds Afghanistan as a neutral buffer state

16 4/29/201516 Mid-1950s to late 1970s The apex of Soviet influence in Asia Post-Stalin reforms; return of the deportees The Soviet system looked successful and attractive to many in the Global South USSR supported independence and modernization of post- colonial states – economic and military assistance USSR supported non-alignment in Asia Geopolitical successes and failures

17 4/29/201517 Late 1970s – early 1990s Stagnation and decline of the Soviet model The rise of neoliberalism China moves into a quasi-alliance with the US Revolutions in Afghanistan and Iran Soviet intervention in Afghanistan The rise of radical Islam Rise of ethnopolitical conflicts inside the USSR Role of the South in the collapse of the USSR? MARGINAL

18 4/29/201518 From USSR to Russian Federation Russia moves to dissolve the USSR Abandons competition with the West Cuts its support for the Communist regime in Afghanistan Turns inward, experiences a severe crisis of transformation Emergence of 8 New Independent States Turmoil in the Caucasus and Central Asia

19 4/29/201519 Recent Russian policies on the Southern frontier

20 The first post-Cold War period (1992-99) Wars on the Chechen separatists Interventions in civil wars in CIS (Georgia, Tajikistan) Conflict resolution and peace-keeping policies in multilateral contexts

21 The second post-Cold War period (2000-08) Cooperation with the US and NATO against radical Islamists Competition for control of Caspian and Central Asian energy resources Growth of strategic partnership with China Moves to limit Western influence

22 heartland/how-america-wants-to- check-chinas-expansion/897

23 The “Southern Corridor” to bypass Russia

24 Russia and the Muslim world: a brief overview

25 A mosque in Siberia

26 A Moslem cleric greets the Russian Patriarch

27 Strategic partners: Uzbek President Islam Karimov and Russian President Vladimir Putin

28 Muslims praying in a Tatarstan mosque

29 Protester in Tatarstan demanding that the Tatar language be given the status of the second state language in the republic

30 Chechnya, 2003: pro-Russian warriors

31 Putin’s man in Chechnya: President Ramzan Kadyrov

32 A Chechen official talking to Russian soldiers in Chechnya, showing them who is the boss: http://roman- http://roman-

33 Historical evolution of Russia’s relations with the Muslim world

34 1. Tsarist Russia Liberation from The Golden Horde (14 th -15 th centuries) Conquest of Tatar Khanates on the Volga and in the Crimea (16 – 18th centuries) Wars with the Ottoman Empire (18 th - early 20 th centuries) Wars with the Persian Empire (18 th -early 19 th centuries) Conquest of the North Caucasus (18 th -19 th centuries) Conquest of Central Asian Khanates (19 th century)

35 2. The Soviet Union The end of imperial rivalry with Turkey Support of secular nationalism in the Muslim world Socialist modernization in Muslim lands of the USSR State-driven atheistic campaigns in the USSR Suppression of Islamist rebellions Strict government control of religious activities 1970s: The Soviet Union becomes a target of radical Islam: Iran and Afghanistan Conflict with Islam becomes one of the factors of the collapse of the USSR

36 3. The post-Soviet Russian Federation Independence for most Muslims outside RF Wide autonomy for Muslim republics inside RF Official recognition of Islam as “an inseparable part of the historical heritage of Russia's peoples” (along with Christianity, Buddhism, Judaism and others) Full freedom of religious practices Conflicts with radical Islam (North Caucasus, Central Asia) Active engagement with the Muslim world (economic cooperation in the first place) Attempts to present Russia as part of the Muslim world Attempts to position Russia as mediator between Islam and the West – dialog of civilizations, opposition to Western use of force against Muslim states)

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