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IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions INTRODUCTION By: Negin Ahmadi.

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Presentation on theme: "IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions INTRODUCTION By: Negin Ahmadi."— Presentation transcript:

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2 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions INTRODUCTION By: Negin Ahmadi

3 Iran History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions HISTORY IRAN   Only Shia government in the world   Capital city: Tehran   Islamic republic in 1979   Muhammad Reza: King of Iran from   1979: Shah leaves Iran

4 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions HISTORY   Ayatollah Khomeini returned from France   Many people leave Iran   December 2 nd, 1979: Iran, an Islamic country   July 27th, 1980 Shah died   1980: Saddam Hussein attacks the Iranian cities   American hostages released on January 1981   July 1988 the Iraq/Iran war ended   On June 4 th,1989 Khomeini died

5 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING A. Location   In the Middle East   Bordering the Gulf of Oman, the Persian Gulf, and the Caspian Sea B. Climate   variable climate   Northwest: cold winters and heavy snowfalls, Spring and Fall weather is mild, while summer is dry and hot   South: Mild winter, very hot summer

6 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING C. Topography   Consists of rugged, mountainous rims surrounding high interior basins   Center of Iran consists of closed basins called the Central Plateau   Eastern part of the plateau covered by salt-desserts: Dashte kavir & Dashte Lut   No major rivers in the country D. Minerals and Resources   Has one of the oldest oil industries in the Developing Countries   Second largest country in Natural Gas reserves

7 IRAN History Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING E. Transportation   Highways: 167,157 km Air Service   303 Airports with only 125 paved runways Geographical Setting

8 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions Religion Living Conditions GEOGRAPHICAL SETTING F. Communication   14,571,100 telephone lines (2003)   Radio broadcasting stations: AM 72, & FM 5   Internet Hosts: 5, 269 (2004)   Internet Users: Only 4,3 Million (2003)

9 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS   Population: approximately 70 Million people   Average Life expectancy: 69,66 %   Capital: Tehran   Divided into 28 provinces   Religion: 89% follows Shia Islam, 9% Sunni Islam, other 2% are Jewish, Christian and Other

10 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS Political System   Islamic Republic of Iran since 1979   President: Muhammad Khatami   Supreme Leader: Ali Khamenei   Constitution revised in 1989 and eliminated Prime Ministership

11 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions Social Institutions Monarch   King of Iran from   During WWII, Britain and USSR   In 1941 the two countries occupied large areas of Iran   Forced Reza Shah Pahlavi to abdicate   Muhammad Reza Shah given the thrown Muhammad Reza Shah & his wife Farah

12 IRAN History Geographic al Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions SOCIAL INSTITUTIONS   Shah reviving the army   In 1963: “White Revolution”   In 1967: crowned himself as king of the kings (Emperor of Iran) - & Farah Diba, as Shahbanoo (Emperess)   By mid-70’s had many enemies   Created the “SAVAK”   January 1979 Shah fled Iran   The exiled cleric Ayatollah Khomeini back to Iran

13 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions New Gov. Living Conditions New Government   Khomeini as Islamic leader from   1962 he telegraphed Reza Shah & the prime minister   June 1963: Khomeini delivered a speech (warning shah)   Shah sent for Khomeini’s arrest   Released after less than a month, but arrested again later   Sent to Turkey

14 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions New Gov. Living Conditions New Government   Left Turkey and lived in Iraq for 13 years   On October 3 rd, 1978 he moved to Paris   Shah was overthrown by people   December 2 nd, 1979: Islamic republic of Iran   “First day of God’s government”

15 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 year war Living Conditions Iran/Iraq War   Lasted from   Shatt al Arab   The 1847 treaty   1975 treaty

16 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 year war Living Conditions Iran/Iraq War OTHER REASONS   Both countries, Muslim nations   Sunni Iraqi leader vs. Shii Iranians   Saddam trying to establish himself as leader of Arab world   Iran as primary competition for regional dominance.

17 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 year war Living Conditions Iran/Iraq War   Syria, Lybia, China, and North Korea as Iran’s ally’s.   Israel supported Iran: - Iraq viewed as a more immediate danger. - A large number of Jews in Iran.   United States’ concerns

18 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Conditions Iran/Iraq War   The security of weaker nations in region at risk   Economic security of western nations that depended on Gulf oil at risk   Reagan selling weapons to Iran   Initial sales through Israel   Using money to fund the Nicaraguan resistance in 1985   War finally ended in 1989   Iraq’s use of poison gas

19 IRAN History Geographical Setting Social Institutions 8 Year War Living Condition   Freedom of thought and expression   Freedom of the press   Release of political prisoners   Khatami as “elected reformer”?   Iranians rejecting tyranny and oppression   2003 Nobel Peace Prize (Shirin Ebadi)


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