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Essential Listening Edition

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1 Essential Listening Edition
Norton Media Library Enjoyment of Music Essential Listening Edition Chapter 13 Medieval Music by Kristine Forney Joseph Machlis

2 13. Medieval Music Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
Liturgy: set order of services and structure of each service in the church   Characteristics of Gregorian chant (plainchant) Monophonic texture Nonmetric   Latin text Chant is classified by the way the notes are set to the text Syllabic: one note per syllable of text Melismatic: many notes per syllable of text Early chants were handed down orally   Early chant notation used neumes Neumes suggested contours of the melody but not rhythm Scale patterns used are the church modes

3 13. Medieval Music (cont’d)
The Mass One of two categories of services in the Roman Catholic Church, the other being the Offices The prayers that make up the Mass fall into two categories: Proper: texts change according to the day Ordinary: texts are the same for every Mass Life in the Medieval Cloister Cloister: a place for religious seclusion Monastery: men Convent: women Cloisters were places of prayer, scholarship, preaching, charity, healing

4 13. Medieval Music (cont’d)
The Music of Hildegard of Bingen Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179) 1150 founded convent in Rupertsberg, Germany   Known for miracles and prophecies   Recorded collections of visions and prophecies in manuscript   Composed religious poetry with music Characteristics of Hildegard’s poetry Brilliant imagery Visionary language Collected in volume: Symphony of the Harmony of Celestial Revelations, for liturgical church year

5 13. Medieval Music (cont’d)
Hildegard of Bingen: Alleluia, O virga mediatrix (Listening Guide 2) From the Mass Proper For feasts of the Virgin Mary Ternary form (A-B-A)   Responsorial form (soloist alternates with chorus) Monophonic texture   Conjunct melody with few leaps   Free, nonmetric rhythm   Text setting falls between syllabic and melismatic (neumatic)

6 13. Medieval Music (cont’d)
The Rise of Polyphony Polyphony evolved toward the end of the Romanesque period (c. 850–1150) Organum: earliest polyphonic music   Second melody added above or below the older Gregorian melody   Evolved at Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris   Polyphony necessitated the use of notated rhythm and pitch Rhythm was chosen from a group of patterns called rhythmic modes A new genre emerged near the end of the thirteenth century Composers wrote texts to second melody in organum  

7 13. Medieval Music (cont’d)
The Rise of Polyphony (cont’d) New genre called motet (mot is French for “word”) Sometimes the languages were mixed in one piece French and Latin Motets can be sacred or secular   A Gregorian chant is the basis for a motet

8 13. Medieval Music (cont’d)
Secular Music in the Middle Ages Secular music grew in a separate tradition from sacred polyphony Different classes of secular musicians emerged Troubadours were southern French high-class musicians Trouvères were northern French high-class musicians The poems of the troubadours and trouvères had diverse subjects Poetry of secular song often focused on idealized love and chivalry Secular songs sung monophonically, with improvised accompaniment

9 13. Medieval Music (cont’d)
The French Ars nova and Guillaume de Machaut Ars nova (new art): movement beginning in 14th-century France Greater refinement than music of the Ars antiqua (old art)   New developments in rhythm, meter, harmony, and counterpoint Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300–1377) was the foremost composer French poet and composer Double career as cleric and courtier   Composed motets, chansons (French for “songs”), and a polyphonic Mass Ordinary   Favored fixed text forms: rondeau, ballade, virelai

10 13. Medieval Music (cont’d)
Machaut chanson: Puis qu’en oubli (Listening Guide 3) Three-voice French chanson   Text: rondeau form   Music reflects pain of unrequited love Low melodic range (depths of despair) Early Instrumental Music Instruments played a supporting role in vocal music; sometimes doubling Instrumental music mostly improvised (not notated) for dance Performed by ensembles of soft (bas) or loud (haut) instruments Soft instruments include recorder Loud instruments include sackbut (early trombone) and shawm (medieval oboe) Instruments were categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor)

11 Exploration 3: Chant as Music for Worship
Ritual music is evidenced in most cultures Western Christian sacred songs take various forms Sung or recited to text Early Christian music had several influences Singing in Judaism Music of the Church of Byzantium In Islam the Koran is chanted Call to prayer is chanted

12 Exploration 4: Opening Doors to the East
Religious wars and exploration opened doors to the east Five organized Crusades (1096–1221) An attempt to take the Holy Land of Palestine from the Muslims   Crusading knights learned military skills and weaponry from Turkish and Moorish warriors   Advanced medical and scientific knowledge of Arab world imported to Europe

13 Organize, Learn and Connect at StudySpace
Organize, Learn and Connect at StudySpace Download MP3s, Podcasts and Interactive Listening Guides (ilgs) Focus your learning with the Quiz+Knowledge Matrix Access the Online eBook

14 Norton Media Library Independent and Employee Owned
This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 13 Enjoyment of Music Essential Listening Edition by Kristine Forney Joseph Machlis

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