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Enjoyment of Music Essential Listening Edition Chapter 13 Medieval Music Norton Media Library by Kristine Forney Joseph Machlis.

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Presentation on theme: "Enjoyment of Music Essential Listening Edition Chapter 13 Medieval Music Norton Media Library by Kristine Forney Joseph Machlis."— Presentation transcript:

1 Enjoyment of Music Essential Listening Edition Chapter 13 Medieval Music Norton Media Library by Kristine Forney Joseph Machlis

2 13. Medieval Music A.Sacred Music in the Middle Ages 1. Liturgy: set order of services and structure of each service in the church 2.Characteristics of Gregorian chant (plainchant) a.Monophonic texture b.Nonmetric c.Latin text 3.Chant is classified by the way the notes are set to the text a. Syllabic: one note per syllable of text b. Melismatic: many notes per syllable of text 4.Early chants were handed down orally 5.Early chant notation used neumes a.Neumes suggested contours of the melody but not rhythm 6.Scale patterns used are the church modes

3 13. Medieval Music (cont’d) B.The Mass 1.One of two categories of services in the Roman Catholic Church, the other being the Offices 2.The prayers that make up the Mass fall into two categories: a. Proper: texts change according to the day b. Ordinary: texts are the same for every Mass C.Life in the Medieval Cloister 1. Cloister: a place for religious seclusion a. Monastery: men b. Convent: women 2.Cloisters were places of prayer, scholarship, preaching, charity, healing

4 13. Medieval Music (cont’d) D.The Music of Hildegard of Bingen 1.Hildegard of Bingen (1098–1179) founded convent in Rupertsberg, Germany 3.Known for miracles and prophecies 4.Recorded collections of visions and prophecies in manuscript 5.Composed religious poetry with music 6.Characteristics of Hildegard’s poetry a. Brilliant imagery b. Visionary language c. Collected in volume: Symphony of the Harmony of Celestial d. Revelations, for liturgical church year

5 13. Medieval Music (cont’d) E.Hildegard of Bingen: Alleluia, O virga mediatrix (Listening Guide 2) 1.From the Mass Proper a.For feasts of the Virgin Mary 2.Ternary form (A-B-A) 3.Responsorial form (soloist alternates with chorus) 4.Monophonic texture 5.Conjunct melody with few leaps 6.Free, nonmetric rhythm 7.Text setting falls between syllabic and melismatic (neumatic)

6 13. Medieval Music (cont’d) F.The Rise of Polyphony 1.Polyphony evolved toward the end of the Romanesque period (c. 850–1150) 2. Organum: earliest polyphonic music 3.Second melody added above or below the older Gregorian melody 4.Evolved at Cathedral of Notre Dame in Paris 5.Polyphony necessitated the use of notated rhythm and pitch a.Rhythm was chosen from a group of patterns called rhythmic modes 6.A new genre emerged near the end of the thirteenth century 7.Composers wrote texts to second melody in organum

7 13. Medieval Music (cont’d) F.The Rise of Polyphony (cont’d) 8.New genre called motet (mot is French for “word”) a.Sometimes the languages were mixed in one piece i.French and Latin b.Motets can be sacred or secular c.A Gregorian chant is the basis for a motet

8 13. Medieval Music (cont’d) G.Secular Music in the Middle Ages 1.Secular music grew in a separate tradition from sacred polyphony 2.Different classes of secular musicians emerged a. Troubadours were southern French high-class musicians b. Trouvères were northern French high-class musicians 3.The poems of the troubadours and trouvères had diverse subjects a.Poetry of secular song often focused on idealized love and chivalry b.Secular songs sung monophonically, with improvised accompaniment

9 13. Medieval Music (cont’d) H.The French Ars nova and Guillaume de Machaut 1. Ars nova (new art): movement beginning in 14th-century France a.Greater refinement than music of the Ars antiqua (old art) b.New developments in rhythm, meter, harmony, and counterpoint c.Guillaume de Machaut (c. 1300–1377) was the foremost composer i.French poet and composer ii.Double career as cleric and courtier iii.Composed motets, chansons (French for “songs”), and a polyphonic Mass Ordinary iv.Favored fixed text forms: rondeau, ballade, virelai

10 13. Medieval Music (cont’d) I.Machaut chanson: Puis qu’en oubli (Listening Guide 3) 1.Three-voice French chanson 2.Text: rondeau form 3.Music reflects pain of unrequited love a.Low melodic range (depths of despair) J.Early Instrumental Music 1.Instruments played a supporting role in vocal music; sometimes doubling 2.Instrumental music mostly improvised (not notated) for dance a.Performed by ensembles of soft (bas) or loud (haut) instruments i.Soft instruments include recorder ii.Loud instruments include sackbut (early trombone) and shawm (medieval oboe) b.Instruments were categorized by their use (indoor or outdoor)

11 Exploration 3: Chant as Music for Worship A.Ritual music is evidenced in most cultures 1.Western Christian sacred songs take various forms a.Sung or recited to text 2.Early Christian music had several influences a.Singing in Judaism b.Music of the Church of Byzantium 3.In Islam the Koran is chanted a.Call to prayer is chanted

12 Exploration 4: Opening Doors to the East A.Religious wars and exploration opened doors to the east 1.Five organized Crusades (1096–1221) a.An attempt to take the Holy Land of Palestine from the Muslims b.Crusading knights learned military skills and weaponry from Turkish and Moorish warriors c.Advanced medical and scientific knowledge of Arab world imported to Europe

13 Organize, Learn and Connect at StudySpace Download MP3s, Podcasts and Interactive Listening Guides (ilgs) Focus your learning with the Quiz+Knowledge Matrix Access the Online eBook

14 Norton Media Library Independent and Employee Owned This concludes the Norton Media Library Slide Set for Chapter 13 Enjoyment of Music Essential Listening Edition by Kristine Forney Joseph Machlis


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