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Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

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Presentation on theme: "Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment"— Presentation transcript:

1 Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment

2 Main Ideas - Ideas laid the foundation for a modern worldview based on rationalism and secularism - Enlightenment intellectuals advocate individual rights, paving the way for the rise of democracy - Man’s concept of his place in the universe changes - New philosophies bring about social change

3 Background “Natural Philosophers” did not make observations but relied on ancient authorities (especially Aristotle). This slowly began to change as Technical problems stimulated scientific activity Printing Press spread new ideas

4 What’s Changing? Systematic doubt Sensory Verification/Empiricism
Separation of Sciences/specialization view of the “clockwork” universe

5 3 Universes (Two of which could get you burned at the stake)

6 Ptolemaic Universe geocentric- Earth centered
universe is a series of concentric spheres the spheres move around the Earth

7 Copernican Universe Heliocentric- sun centered
believed the sun contained God Humans are no longer the “center” of the universe

8 Copernicus was a mathematician, astronomer, physician, classical scholar, translator, Catholic cleric, jurist, governor, military leader, and economist. Astronomy was just a hobby for him…….and he changed the world through it!

9 Keplerian Universe Heliocentric- sun centered
paths of orbit are elliptical instead of circular perfectly predicted planetary motions

10 Galileo Galilei Provided the Empirical discoveries that clinched the Copernican-Keplerian view of the universe used the telescope to systematically study the heavens, realizing the moon was not gaseous (saw mountains), and discovering planets (moons) orbiting Jupiter was charged with heresy by the Catholic church

11 Number Systems Calculate this:
MDMCXLVII x CCCLXXIII Exactly. - Roman numerals were difficult to deal with - The adoption of Arabic numerals (which were actually Hindu) in the Middle Ages enabled the calculations which led to Ptolemy’s model being overthrown

12 Rene Descartes Philosopher, Mathematician, Tutor, Mercenary, And……….

13 Inventor of the Matrix!

14 Descartes’ Ideas Descartes’ “demon”- How do you know a demon is not tricking you into believing this is all real? Cogito Ergo Sum- “I think therefore I am” - the only thing man can really be sure of is his existence Dualism- mind vs. matter Reason=chief form of knowledge= Rationalism

15 Sir Isaac Newton

16 Newton Published Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy (Principia Mathematica) Defined three laws of motion that governed the universe Universal law of gravitation= every object in the universe is attracted to another object by gravity (this explains the elliptical orbits of the planets) Invented calculus (along with Leibniz) ***BY THE WAY, IS MATH INVENTED OR DISCOVERED?***

17 Philosopher Francis Bacon most responsible for Scientific Method
He emphasized inductive reasoning – making generalizations about nature from observation & experiments organized to test a hypotheses (educated guess)

18 The Enlightenment 18th century philosophical movement built on Scientific revolution Philosophical Characteristics: - The universe is fundamentally rational, that is, it can be understood through the use of reason alone - Truth can be arrived at through empirical observation, the use of reason, and systematic doubt - Human society is governed by natural laws just like the Newtonian physical universe - Human beings can be improved through education and the development of their rational facilities - Religious doctrines have no place in the understanding of the physical and human worlds

19 Philosophes Means= “Philosopher”
Not all were French and few were actually philosophers Central ideas: - Progress- human history is a history of progress - Deism- God created the world, but is not involved in its everyday affairs (Watchmaker) - Tolerance- religious tolerance does not just include tolerance among Christian religious sects/denominations but other religions as well

20 French Philosophers Denis Diderot
Edited a 28-volume collection of knowledge (Encyclopedia) published in 1751 Instrumental in spreading ideas of the Enlightenment

21 French Philosophers Baron de Montesquieu
Studied governments, identified 3 types (republics, despotism, & monarchies) Argued government works best through separation of powers controlled by checks and balances

22 French Philosophers Voltaire
Best known for criticism of Christianity & what he saw as its lack of “religious toleration” He championed deism – believed the world is like a clock that God created and set according to natural laws, and then let to run without God’s intervention (free will)

23 Author of Two Treatises of Government (1690)
John Locke Author of Two Treatises of Government (1690) Said man is born with natural rights of life, liberty, and property To establish these rights, man and government must establish a “social contract” where man respects govt. and govt. protects rights If contract broken= man can overthrow govt. Ideas were key to American Revolution

24 John Locke Greatly influenced Enlightenment with his “theory of knowledge.” Argued man is born with a mind that is tabula rasa (blank slate) Knowledge comes to mind via 5 senses (sight, touch, smell, taste, sound)

25 Adam Smith Founder of modern economics
Authored Wealth of Nations (1776) Smith, along with French Physiocrats, argued for “laissez-faire” (let it be) economic policy – government should not interfere with free market

26 Jean-Jacques Rousseau
Wrote The Social Contract (1762) Members of a society agree to be governed by general will of the people or society as whole Wrote novel Emile (1761) Education should nurture, not restrict children’s natural instincts

27 Mary Wollstonecraft Considered founder of European and American movement for women’s rights Wrote A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792) Argued women were as rational as men & criticized those who believed women ought to be ruled by men, equal rights

28 Social World of Enlightenment
Largely reserved for urban upper class & literate elite Printed works (books, magazines, daily papers) spread ideas and serve as topics of discussion, especially in salons of wealthy homeowners

29 Religion in the Enlightenment
Most philosophes attacked Christian churches, however, most were believers One new religious movement was Methodism John Wesley – stressed importance of God’s grace in attaining salvation, stressed importance of hard work Methodists played important role in abolishing slave trade in early 1800’s

30 Enlightenment Impact on Culture
Architecture: European monarchs created new kind of architecture by early 18th Century – rococo Previous style of baroque emphasized grandeur and power but rococo emphasized grace, charm, and gentleness Baroque Rococo

31 Enlightenment Impact on Culture
Music: Johann Sebastian Bach Mass in B Minor George Frederick Handel Messiah Franz Joseph Haydn The Creation Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Symphonies, operas

32 Enlightened Absolutism
Philosophers believed in natural rights for all people, therefore, they tried to influence & encourage monarchs to rule in an Enlightened manner (enlightened despots) Enlightened Absolutism = refers to rulers who supposedly made reforms based on the Enlightenment – (debated among historians) Examples: Prussia, Austria, and Russia Voltaire meeting with Frederick the Great

33 Prussia Frederick William I Frederick II “The Great”
Made Prussia an 18th Century power Maintained efficient bureaucracy that honored obedience to the king Frederick II “The Great” One of Europe’s most cultured kings Abolished torture, except for treason & murder Granted limited free speech, free press, religious toleration “The Soldier King”

34 Austria Maria Theresa Joseph II Centralized the Austrian Empire
Abolished serfdom & death penalty Recognized equality before the law Religious toleration Not all reforms well received – why?


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