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 Shi’a Hierarchy The Ayatollahs.  The Classification of this Presentation is….. UNCLASSIFIED Conclusions presented in this lecture are derived from.

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Presentation on theme: " Shi’a Hierarchy The Ayatollahs.  The Classification of this Presentation is….. UNCLASSIFIED Conclusions presented in this lecture are derived from."— Presentation transcript:

1  Shi’a Hierarchy The Ayatollahs

2  The Classification of this Presentation is….. UNCLASSIFIED Conclusions presented in this lecture are derived from independent analysis from an objective point of view with the intention to educate military personnel regarding indigenous culture. Please respect the policy of academic freedom and do not release this material publicly without prior consent.

3  Objective Action: Identify key aspects of the Shia Hierarchy. Conditions: Given instruction. Standards: Identified key aspects of Shia Hierarchy.

4  Administrative Data Safety Requirements: None Risk Assessment Level: Low Environmental Considerations: None Evaluation: Exam

5  Overview ► Najaf, Brief History ► Shi’a Hierarchy ► Previous/Current Grand Ayatollahs ► The Big 5 ► Persons of Interest ► Important Deceased Religious Figures ► Association Chart

6  Najaf Shrine of Ali, 4 th Caliph of Islam and 1 St Imam of Shi’a Islam. He is the spiritual founder of all Shi’a sects. The Shi’a religious seminary and center of religious scholarship. Shiites comprise 60% of Iraq’s 26 million people but has traditionally been in the political minority

7  Shi’a Hierarchy Grand Ayatollah – “great sign of God” Ayatollah – “sign of God” Hojat al Islam – “authority on Islam” Mubellegh al Risala – “carrier of the message” Mujtahid – “graduate of religious seminary” Talib ilm – “religious student”

8  Previous Grand Ayatollahs GA Muhsin al Hakim GA Imam Abul Qassim al Khoei GA Muhammed Sadiq al Sadr GA Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani 1999 to Present

9  Five (?) Current Grand Ayatollahs Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani Grand Ayatollah Muhammed Sayid al Hakim Grand Ayatollah Bashir Hussain al Najafi Grand Ayatollah Muhammed Ishaq Fayadh Grand Ayatollah Kazim al Ha’eri-Yazdi

10  Grand Ayatollah Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani ► Reclusive, brilliant Islamic scholar, viewed as the Religious Authority in Iraq. ► Controls the Najaf Hawza al Ilmiya (circle of learned Islamic scholars). ► Several assassination attempts ► Born 1930/Iranian ► Prolific writer ► Operates from a conservative or “quietist” Shi’a tradition ► Resides in Najaf ► Supports the United Iraqi Alliance for January 2005 elections ►

11  Grand Ayatollah Sistani Associations Grandfather Sayyid Ali Father Sayyid Mohammed Baqir Son Mullah Mohammed Rida (Redha) Ali al Sistani  eldest son, public representative Son Mohammed Rida (Redha) al Sistani Mentor Grand Ayatollah Imam Abul Qassim al Khoei  GA from 1970 to 1992 Associate Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim  Iraqi Provisional Government 2003  Controls SCIRI and Badr Brigade  Son of GA Muhsin al Hakim ( )  Nephew of GA Muhammad Sayid al Hakim (Current GA)  Brother of GA Sayid Mohammad Baqir al Hakim ( )

12  Grand Ayatollah Bashir Hussain al Najafi ► Pakistani ► Prominent cleric after Sistani ► Reclusive, yet colorful ► Regarded as a source of religious emulation and his written opinion carries the force of law ► Political conservative ► Resides in Najaf ► Two significant assassination attempts 6 JAN 99 (grenade tossed into his home) 9 JUL 03 (assassin hid in his home) ► “ The Iraqi people are so deprived and they’ve been suffering for a long time. We want to spare them another war.” 10/22/03

13  Grand Ayatollah Muhammed Sayid al Hakim ► Iraqi ► Resides in Najaf ► Head of one of Iraq’s most powerful cleric families ► Not associated with SCIRI ► Assassination attempt on 24 AUG 03 Bomb detonated in his home but he was unharmed ► Associated with: the late Grand Ayatollah Muhsin al Hakim (brother) Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim (nephew) the late Grand Ayatollah Sayid Muhammad Baqir al Hakim (nephew/founder of SCIRI and Islamic Movement)

14  Grand Ayatollah al Hakim Associations Brother GA Muhsin al Hakim ( ) Nephew Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim  Iraqi Provisional Government 2003  Controls SCIRI and Badr Brigade  Son of GA Muhsin al Hakim ( )  Brother of GA Sayid Mohammad Baqir al Hakim ( ) Nephew GA Sayid Muhammad Baqir al Hakim  Brother of Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim  Founded SCIRI and Badr Brigade  Assassinated 2003 in a car explosion

15  Grand Ayatollah Muhammed Ishaq Fayadh ► Afghani ► Resides in Najaf ► Political conservative ► Regarded as a source of religious emulation

16  Grand Ayatollah Kazim al Ha’eri-Yazdi ► Often called the 5 th Grand Ayatollah ► Born 1939 (?) ► Resides in Qom Iran ► Living in exile since 1979 but keeps an office in Najaf ► Favors a Khomeini style government in Iraq Velayet-e Faqih ► Muqtada al Sadr is his professed lieutenant ► Frequent anti-American/anti-Semitic expressions

17  Grand Ayatollah al Ha’eri-Yazdi Associations Student Muqtada al Sadr Brother Ayatollah Mohammed Hussein Ha’eri  Younger brother and spokesman

18  Other Persons of Interest Muqtada al Sadr Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (SCIRI) Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadallah

19  Muqtada al Sadr ► No formal Islamic training ► Born (?) 1974 ► Head (by death and default) of his influential family ► Ultra Shi’a conservative/Velayet-e Faqih ► Owes his support base to: family name/legacy control of Sadr City markets and infrastructure Mehdi Army ► Dual motivation: Oppose US and trump Iraqi rivals

20  Muqtada al Sadr and Conflict in Najaf ► Fighting and unrest in Najaf August 2004 ► Iraqi Decisions, Coalition Might

21  Muqtada al Sadr and a Move Toward Peace in Najaf ► Disarmament/Weapons for Cash/Prisoner Release Left the good guns at home, hedging against peace and the reality of cash ► $5 for a hand grenade ► $50 for an automatic weapon (AK-47) ► $1,000 for a heavy caliber machine gun ► Sadr City support 500M in pledged support Rebuild Sadr City infrastructure and reconstruction

22  Muqtada al Sadr Associations FatherGA Muhammad al Sadr  GA from 1992 to 1999  Assassinated on orders from Uday Hussein  Hussein regime prohibited all mourning services UncleGA Sayid Mohammad Baqir al Sadr  Founded the Islamic Movement Party with Ayatollah Sayid Mohammed Baqir al Hakim  Assassinated 1980 by Hussein regime BrothersMustafa al Sadr / Mu’ammal al Sadr  Assassinated 2003 with their father and a nephew  Sadr is raising their children Associate Mentor GA Kazim al Ha’eri-Yazdi  Possible financial backer for Sadr

23  SCIRI The Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq ► Political party ► Membership composed of Shi’ites ► Formed by GA Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Hakim ► Iran based (supported Iran during Iran-Iraq War) ► Established the Badr Corps (Badr Bde or Org) ► Currently directed by Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim ► Avoids confrontations with GA Sistani ► Iraqi Nationalist stance under Aziz al Hakim ► Heavily invested in 30 January 2005 elections

24  Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim ► Leader of SCIRI ► Public leader of a very influential/powerful family ► Participant in Iraqi Provisory Government in 2003 ► Liaison for GA Sistani to Iraqi Governing Council ► Politically savvy/Understands Globalization ► Refers to Iraq resistance fighters as “terrorists” ► Assassination attempt, 27 December 2004

25  Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim Associations Father GA Muhsin al Hakim ( ) Uncle GA Muhammad Sayid al Hakim Current GA Brother Ayatollah Sayid Mohammed Baqir al Hakim  Founded SCIRI and Badr Brigade  Founded Islamic Movement with GA Sayid Mohammed Baqir al Sadr  Assassinated in 2003 car explosion Brother Mohsen Hakim  Member of Iraqi Governing Council 2003 Brother Sayed Mahdi al Hakim  Assassinated in the Sudan, 1988 Associate GA Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani  Current Primary GA

26  Grand Ayatollah Muhammad Hussein Fadallah ► Spiritual inspiration for Lebanon’s Hizbullah Party ► Established himself in Lebanon in 1965 ► Originally from Najaf

27  Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi ► Director of Iraqi National Congress ► Iraqi Interim Governing Council President (Sep 03) ► One time Pentagon favorite ► His party supported in Jan 05 elections ► Shia Arab, left Iraq in 1956 ► Convicted of bank fraud in Jordan ► Warrant for arrest issued in Iraq for counterfeiting (9 August 04) ► Nephew, Salem, charged with the murder of general director of the Finance Ministry, Haithem Fadhil (9 August 04)

28  Important Deceased Religious Figures

29  Grand Ayatollah Sayid Mohammad Baqir al Hakim ► Born 1939, Najaf ► Assassinated 29 August 2003 ► Founded SCIRI ► Openly condemned Ba’thist rule ► Extensive family connections ► Welcomed as Iraq’s great hope for national unity

30  Grand Ayatollah al Hakim Associations Father GA Muhsin al Hakim ( ) Uncle GA Muhammed Sayid al Hakim Brother Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim  Iraqi Provisional Government 2003  Controls SCIRI and Badr Brigade Brother Mohsen Hakim  Member of Iraqi Governing Council 2003 Brother Sayed Mahdi al Hakim  Assassinated in the Sudan 1988 Associate GA Sayid Mohammed Baqir al Sadr  Partner in founding Islamic Movement Party  Assassinated in 1980 by Hussein regime Associate Ayatollah Abdul Majid al Khoei  Eldest son and spokesman of GA al Khoei  Assassinated 2003, knifed in Najaf mosque

31  Grand Ayatollah Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Sadr ► Born 1933 ► Assassinated 1980 by Hussein regime ► Founded the Islamic Movement Party ► Uncle of Muqtada al Sadr

32  Grand Ayatollah Muhammad al Sadr ► The GA and Iraq’s spiritual leader from ► Born 1933 ► Assassinated 1999 by Hussein regime (Uday) ► All public mourning services were prohibited ► Father of Muqtada al Sadr

33  Grand Ayatollah Imam Abul Qassim al Khoei ► GA and Iraq’s spiritual leader from 1970 to 1992 ► GA Sistani’s and GA Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Sadr’s mentor ► Historically has been controlled by Hussein regime ► Died of old age ► Embittered and betrayed by US rejection of support during Shi’a uprising in 1991 (reportedly his son waited for days to see General Schwarzkopf to seek aid. The son sought exile in London.) ► Son was Ayatollah Abdul Majid al Khoei Darling of the Pentagon Assassinated in 2003, knifed in a Najaf mosque while under US protection. Ordered by Sadr.

34  Grand Ayatollah al Khoei Associations SonAyatollah Abdul Majid al Khoei  Eldest son and spokesman  Assassinated 2003, knifed in Najaf mosque, allegedly by the order of Muqtada al Sadr because he was “pro- American”  Went to General Schwarzkopf in 1991 to seek aid during the Shi’a uprising. He was never seen and fled to London. SonSayed Muhammed Taqi al Khoei  Died mysteriously in 1994 StudentGA Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani  Current primary GA StudentGA Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Sadr  Uncle of Muqtada al Sadr  Founded Islamic Movement  Assassinated by the Hussein regime in 1980

35  Ayatollah Sheikh Murtada al Burajerdi ► Assassinated in April 1998 by Hussein regime ► Serious congregational prayer leader and candidate for Grand Ayatollah

36  Grand Ayatollah Sheikh Mirza Ali al Gharawi ► Assassinated in June 1998 by Hussein regime ► Respected religious scholar and senior spiritual leader

37  Association Chart GA Sayyid Ali Husaini Sistani son Mullah Mohammed Redha Ali al Sistani son Mohammed Sayid Redha al Sistani GA Muhammed Sayid al Hakim---- nephew Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim nephew GA Sayid Muhammad Baqir al Hakim▲ brother GA Muhsin al Hakim▲ GA Bashir Hussain al Najafi son Sheikh Ali al Najafi GA Muhammad Ishaq Fayadh GA Kazim al Ha’eri-Yazdi $ associate Muqtada al Sadr son Ayatollah Mohammed Hussain Ha’eri GA Muhsin al Hakim▲ son Mohsen Hakim son Sayed Mahdi al Hakim▲ son GA Sayid Mohammad Baqir al Hakim▲ son Ayatollah Abdul Aziz al Hakim brother GA Muhammed Sayid al Hakim GA Imam Abul Qassim al Khoei▲---- son Ayatollah Abdul Majid al Khoei▲ son Sayed Mohammed Taqi al Khoei▲ GA Muhammad Sadiq al Sadr▲ son Muqtada al Sadr son Mustafa al Sadr▲ son Mu’ammad al Sadr▲ brother GA Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Sadr▲ GA Sayid Muhammed Baqir al Sadr▲---brother GA Muhammed Sadiq al Sadr▲ nephew Muqtada al Sadr GA Sayid Mohammed Baqir al Hakim▲ GA Sheikh Mirza Ali al Gharawi▲ GA Muhammad Hussein Fadallah▲ = Dead $ = financial association

38  Questions ?

39  The Classification of this Presentation is….. UNCLASSIFIED Conclusions presented in this lecture are derived from independent analysis from an objective point of view with the intention to educate military personnel regarding indigenous culture. Please respect the policy of academic freedom and do not release this material publicly without prior consent.


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