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Quick Review 1.Background to Spanish Civil War 2.Mussolini 3.Great Depression in the 30s.

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Presentation on theme: "Quick Review 1.Background to Spanish Civil War 2.Mussolini 3.Great Depression in the 30s."— Presentation transcript:

1 Quick Review 1.Background to Spanish Civil War 2.Mussolini 3.Great Depression in the 30s

2 Why did the Spanish Civil War break out in 1936? 1.Long Term Causes 2.Short Term Causes

3 Long Term Causes Monarchy Long Line Historically starting with Ferdinand and Isabella uniting Spain under Catholicism Economic Issues: Landowners, RCC officials, Royal Family: Wealthy; Peasants, workers: Poor 1812 First Attempt with Constitution and Abolish Monarchy

4 Long Term Causes Continued –Mostly a Constitutional Monarchy with occasional uprisings for more liberal or more tradtional (RCC, Monarchy, Military) –1873 King amadeo I abdicated and First Spanish Republic – King Alfonso XIII ruled –1923 Miguel Primo de Rivera Military Dicatoro –1930 Overthrow of Primo de Rivera and 1931 Seconod Spanish Republic

5 Short Term Causes Great Depression caused economic instability in Spain Fear of Communism due to the Soviet Union Popularity of Fascism due to Hitler and Mussolini Republic was young and the reforming –Argrarian Law 1932 Redistributed land to the poor peasants –Head of State, Head of government, Parliament all elected

6 Short Term Causes Military was upset by loss of power and left leaning politicians in the Republic RCC was upset by anti-cleric statements and laws: Freedom of religion, removal of special Catholic rights in the justice system, elected gov t to regulate the church’s power; nuns and monks banned from teachign in Spanish schools; Pope Pius XI condemned the Spanish Government Artistocrats upset by loss of land and the socialist leanings of politicians Fascism was a good choice for ideology because it opposed Communisim and supported the rise of the military in society

7 Short Term Causes Continued 1933 Election there is no clear majority Political Tension and Violence Escalates –1,511 wounded in political violence –213 failed assassination attempts –113 general strikes –160 religious buildings destroyed 1936 Popular Front Socialists Win 33 %, CEDA 34% and Socialists refuse to participate in new government –Remove President Niceto Alcala Zamora –Replace with Prime Minister Manuel Azana (history of cutting military budgets) –CEDA frustrated turn to member of parliament Calvo Sotelo to lead them and he gets murdered in a strange event that involves the police and a socialist getting murdered –It was the excuse the generals needed to start the revolt in Morocco

8 Mussolini Totalitarianism –Totality of live and human nature –Permanent form of society and civilization –Appealed to emergency for justification 1922 Benito Mussolini Seized control and proclaimed Fascismo Wartime debt, postwar depression and unemployment Land seizures Tenant farmers refused to pay rents Peasants burned crops and destroyed livestock Strikes in cities

9 Emergency Powers for 1 year –Mussolini forced law through parliament that any party securing the largest number of votes in an election should receive two-thirds of seats in legislature Eliminate coalition blocs –Squadristi enforcers 1924 Matteotti publicly exposed squadristi violence and Fascist fraud and he was murdered by the Fascists –Opposition and uproar in response –Mussolini took responsibility and moved to consolidate his dictatorship –Italian parliament was a rubber stamp –Press under censorship –Destroyed labor unions –Deprived labor of the right to strike –Abolished all political parties except Fascists

10 National Solidarity State Management of economic affairs Cooperative State or Syndical State –Medieval Guilds Go through training to become a member The members organized and ruled the cooperative Master, journeyman, employer and employees –1930s 22 Corporations Not really syndicalism Each corporations reps of Fascist organized labor groups employers and govt –Each corporation determine working conditions, wages, prices, and industrial policies –National Council the reps were supposed to jointly devise plans for Italy's economic self- sufficiency »National Council eventually became the Chamber of Fasces and Corporations overseen by Minister of Corporations –Government was decisive and the whole 1929 Lateran Accord recognizing the indp and sovereignty of the RCC

11 Economic parliament Social and class conflict ended by decree “dictatorship over the state with many classes cooperating”- Mussolini

12 Italy under the Great Depression –Excuse to explain why the corporatist state wasn’t working –Public works projects Reclaiming swampland in Italy Hydroelectric Plants –Battle of wheat to increase food production Peasants were still peasants –“Fascism failed to provide either the economic security or the material well-being for which it had demanded the sacrifice of individual freedom… substituted widespread psychological exhilaration, a feeling that Italy was undergoing a heroic national revival” –1935 Mussolini military and imperialist adventures

13 Disappointed with WWI Industry in North –Tension in the cities Huge landed estates in South –Peasants and landowners clashed Poor in Raw Materials

14 Corporatism Uncovered –Big business leaders controlled corporate bodies –Workers could not strike so they had little voice in workplace –1939 workers real wages and their purchasing power fell below level of 1922 –Govt planning favored big business and gave loans from Agency for Industrial Reconstruction –Encouraged everyone to have more children but rural farms were overpopulated “everything for the state, nothing against the state, no one outside the state” RCC, Royal Family


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