Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Infection of Bad Company: Stigma-by- Association John B. Pryor, Ph.D. Illinois State University United States of America Presentation at the 2008.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Infection of Bad Company: Stigma-by- Association John B. Pryor, Ph.D. Illinois State University United States of America Presentation at the 2008."— Presentation transcript:

1

2 The Infection of Bad Company: Stigma-by- Association John B. Pryor, Ph.D. Illinois State University United States of America Presentation at the 2008 European Association of Experimental Social Psychology Opatija, Croatia

3 My collaborators Glenn D. Reeder Andrew Monroe Arati Patel Briana Muehlbauer

4 Outline of Today’s Talk 1) What is a stigma? Some basic concepts. 2) A dual process model of reactions to stigma 3) Application of the dual process model to stigma-by- association effects 4) Study 1: Obese Relatives 5) Study 2: Smoking Friends 6) Study 3: Sitting with Black Guys 7) Conclusions

5 Goffman (1963) defined stigma as “an undesired differentness from what we had anticipated.” “By definition, we believe the person with a stigma is not quite human.” “We construct a stigma-theory, an ideology to explain his inferiority and account for the danger he represents, sometimes rationalizing an animosity based upon other differences, such as those of social class (p. 5).”

6 Erving Goffman (1963) identified three basic types of stigma: - abominations of the body - moral character flaws - tribal stigmas

7 an abomination of the body Persons with Disabilities

8 an abomination of the body Persons with HIV/AIDS

9 an abomination of the body Obese People

10 an abomination of the body Persons with facial dermatitis

11 blemishes of individual moral character Persons with Mental Illness

12 blemishes of individual moral character Homosexual People

13 blemishes of individual moral character Drug addict

14 blemishes of individual moral character Smoker

15 tribal stigma of race, nation, religion, family, or other social group African American

16 tribal stigma of race, nation, religion, family, or other social group Japanese Korean

17 tribal stigma of race, nation, religion, family, or other social group Muslim cleric

18 tribal stigma of race, nation, religion, family, or other social group Mexican

19 All of these stigmas evoke negative implicit attitudes ABOMINATIONS OF THE BODY persons with disabilities (Pruett & Chan, 2006)persons with disabilities (Pruett & Chan, 2006) people with AIDS (Neumann, Hulsenbeck, & Seibt, 2004)people with AIDS (Neumann, Hulsenbeck, & Seibt, 2004) obese persons (Bessenoff & Sherman, 2000; Wang, Brownell, & Wadden, 2004)obese persons (Bessenoff & Sherman, 2000; Wang, Brownell, & Wadden, 2004) people with facial dermatitis (Grandfield, Thomson, & Turpin, 2005)people with facial dermatitis (Grandfield, Thomson, & Turpin, 2005) MORAL CHARACTER FLAWS persons with mental illness (Teachman, Wilson, & Komarovskaya, 2006)persons with mental illness (Teachman, Wilson, & Komarovskaya, 2006) homosexuals (Jellison, McConnel, & Gabriel, 2004)homosexuals (Jellison, McConnel, & Gabriel, 2004) drug abusers (Brener, von Hippel, & Kippax, 2007)drug abusers (Brener, von Hippel, & Kippax, 2007) people who smoke (Pryor, 2007)people who smoke (Pryor, 2007) TRIBAL STIGMAS White Americans have negative implicit attitudes toward Black Americans (Kawakami, Phills, Steele, & Dovidio, 2007) White Americans have negative implicit attitudes toward Black Americans (Kawakami, Phills, Steele, & Dovidio, 2007) Japanese have negative implicit attitudes toward Koreans and visa versa (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) Japanese have negative implicit attitudes toward Koreans and visa versa (Greenwald, McGhee, & Schwartz, 1998) Christians have negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims (Park, Felix, & Lee, 2007)Christians have negative implicit attitudes toward Muslims (Park, Felix, & Lee, 2007) Hispanics have negative implicit attitudes toward other Hispanics who have a darker skin color (Uhlmann, Dasgupta, Elgueta, Greenwald, Swanson, 2002)Hispanics have negative implicit attitudes toward other Hispanics who have a darker skin color (Uhlmann, Dasgupta, Elgueta, Greenwald, Swanson, 2002)

20 A Dual Process Model of Reactions to Stigmas Pryor, Reeder, Yeadon, & Hesson-McInnis (2004) NegativeAffectiveReaction AvoidanceBehavior Stigma Reflexive Processes evokes

21 A Dual Process Model of Reactions to Stigmas StigmaReflexiveProcesses NegativeAffectiveReaction DeliberativeProcesses AvoidanceBehavior AttributionalAttributionalAnalyses PC concernsPC concerns Ideological RationalizationsIdeological Rationalizations AttributionalAttributionalAnalyses PC concernsPC concerns Ideological RationalizationsIdeological Rationalizations Approach or Avoidance Behavior Positive or NegativeAffect

22 Pryor, Reeder, Monroe & Patel (in press)

23 Goffman’s 4 th Type of Stigma: “Courtesy Stigma” or Stigma-by-Association Goffman theorized that stigma is spread by social structure associations. “Thus, the loyal spouse of a mental patient, the daughter of an ex-con, the parent of the cripple, the friend of the blind, the family of the hangman, are all obliged to share some of the discredit of the stigmatized person to whom they are related (p. 30).”

24 “Sorority Evictions Raise Issue of Looks and Bias” The 23 members included every woman who was overweight. They also included the only Korean and Vietnamese members “Worried that a negative stereotype of the sorority was contributing to a decline in membership that had left its Greek-columned house here half empty, Delta Zeta’s national officers interviewed 35 DePauw (University) members in November, quizzing them about their dedication to recruitment. They judged 23 of the women insufficiently committed and later told them to vacate the sorority house. The 23 members included every woman who was overweight. They also included the only Korean and Vietnamese members. The dozen students allowed to stay were slender and popular with fraternity men — conventionally pretty women the sorority hoped could attract new recruits.” Sam Dillon, February 25, 2007

25 courtesy stigma - acquired through social structure associations Spouse of Obese Person

26 courtesy stigma - acquired through chosen affiliation Friend of Smoker

27 courtesy stigma - acquired through chosen affiliation Acquaintance of a Black Man

28 How does stigma-by- association work?

29 NegativeAffectiveReaction automatically evokes Affect associated with A Reflexive Process

30 Three studies, three stigmas: Obesity Smoking Race Some common elements: 1.Use of Affective Misattribution Procedure to measure implicit anti-stigma attitudes 2.Measurement of explicit attitudes with feeling thermometers & Likert scales 3.Measurement of PC concerns

31 Some hypotheses Stigma-by-association effects are driven by reflexive processes The potential for stigma-by-association is related to the strength of implicit attitudes evoked by a stigma Explicit stigma-related attitudes will not be connected to stigma-by-association effects PC concerns will be connected to explicit, but not implicit anti-stigma attitudes

32 Study 1: Obese Relatives

33 Affective Misattribution Procedure (AMP): Measuring Implicit Anti-Fat Attitudes Before and after photos of 30 women taken from commercial weight-loss websites 1 second before after signal photo pictographrating Make rating of pictograph Make rating of pictograph

34 Pleasantness of Pictographs

35 Measures of Explicit Attitudes Feeling thermometers (0-100 favorability ratings)Feeling thermometers (0-100 favorability ratings) Likert Scale (Crandall’s 1994 Anti-Fat Attitudes Scale) – examples:Likert Scale (Crandall’s 1994 Anti-Fat Attitudes Scale) – examples: –“I really don’t like fat people very much” –“One of the worst things that could happen to me would be if I gained 25 pounds” –“Fat people tend to be fat pretty much through their own fault.”

36 3 sec. rating Thin Relative Heavy Relative Basic Procedure of Photo Rating Task 32 men were rated in 2 conditions conditions

37

38 Study 2: Smoking Friends

39 Modified AMP: Measure of Implicit Attitudes toward Smokers How pleasant is the painting? 1 second How pleasant is the painting? signal photo abstract painting rating

40 Pleasantness of Paintings

41 2 sec. rating Smoker Non-Smoker Basic Procedure of Photo Rating Task Participants rated the attractiveness of 32 men & 32 women Half were accompanied by smokers & half by non-smokers

42 Attractiveness

43 Study 3: Sitting with Black Guys

44 Measuring Implicit Anti-Black Attitudes with the AMP Make rating of pictograph Make rating of pictograph 1 sec 30 White Faces 30 Black Faces signalpictograph rating

45 Pleasantness of Pictographs

46 Manipulation of Arbitrary Association Participants examined application file of applicant for an IT job.

47

48 * ** * * * Significant correlations with explicit attitudes

49 * * * *

50 Conclusions The ability of a stigma to “infect” associated others is related to the degree to which the stigma evokes spontaneous affect.The ability of a stigma to “infect” associated others is related to the degree to which the stigma evokes spontaneous affect. Stigma-by-association seems to largely involve reflexive processes.Stigma-by-association seems to largely involve reflexive processes. The current studies examined individual differences in implicit attitudes as moderators of this process. Some stigmas may evoke spontaneous affect for almost all people.The current studies examined individual differences in implicit attitudes as moderators of this process. Some stigmas may evoke spontaneous affect for almost all people.

51 Stigma-by-association is a well known phenomenon "…and keep them (children) from all ill, especially the infection of bad company." John Locke (1632–1704) from Some Thoughts Concerning Education. "Associate yourself with men of good quality if you esteem your own reputation for 'tis better to be alone than in bad company." George Washington ( )

52 The infection of bad company? A silver lining to the dark cloud…

53 A stigma automatically evokes negative affect and this affect spreads to associated others Aarrgg!!


Download ppt "The Infection of Bad Company: Stigma-by- Association John B. Pryor, Ph.D. Illinois State University United States of America Presentation at the 2008."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google