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Power-Sharing in Iraq. “Contract” between groups specify  the rights and responsibilities,  political privileges, and  access to resources of each.

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Presentation on theme: "Power-Sharing in Iraq. “Contract” between groups specify  the rights and responsibilities,  political privileges, and  access to resources of each."— Presentation transcript:

1 Power-Sharing in Iraq

2 “Contract” between groups specify  the rights and responsibilities,  political privileges, and  access to resources of each group.

3 Typical safeguards include:  political power-sharing arrangements;  minority control over critical economic assets ; and  maintenance of group balance within the military or police forces.

4 British administration (prior to 1958)  Since access to the military and political elite was largely denied to them, upward mobility for the Shi’a was achieved mainly through land accumulation or entrepreneurial activities.  In 1958 Shi’a Arabs comprised close to 50 percent of Iraq’s larges land owners, and 7 of Iraq’s 15 millionaires.

5 The Republic ( )  A three-man Council of Sovereignty (essentially a collective presidency):each of Iraq’s three major groups – Kurds, Sunni Arabs, and Shi’a Arabs – were allocated seats.  Important political ally – the ICP – was a party that spanned the sectarian and ethnic divide  Real power did not reside in the Council of Sovereignty, the ICP, but with the military (i.e. the bastion of Sunni power).

6 The Ba’ath regime (1968-)  a policy of affirmative action to incorporate more Shi’a into the governing structures;  The reinstitution of the Parliament;  Elections along regional lines;  While the political system as a whole became more representative of Iraq’s diversity over the period, real decision-making power became significantly more concentrated in the hands of Sunni

7 The Kurdish problem March Manifesto (1970):  for the first time referred to the “autonomy” of the Kurds,  accepted the use of Kurdish languages in Kurdish- dominated areas,  guaranteed a share of wealth from the huge Kirkuk oil filed,  and promised to implement democracy (complete with elections) in Kurdistan.

8 Shi’a opposition to the Ba’ath regime  Al-Dawah al Islamiyah (the Islamic Call),  The politicization of religion under the charismatic influence of leading cleric Muhammed Baqir-al-Sadr,  formation of the al-Badr Brigade, which began a guerilla battle against the Iraqi government.


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