Presentation on theme: "Power-Sharing in Iraq. “Contract” between groups specify the rights and responsibilities, political privileges, and access to resources of each."— Presentation transcript:
“Contract” between groups specify the rights and responsibilities, political privileges, and access to resources of each group.
Typical safeguards include: political power-sharing arrangements; minority control over critical economic assets ; and maintenance of group balance within the military or police forces.
British administration (prior to 1958) Since access to the military and political elite was largely denied to them, upward mobility for the Shi’a was achieved mainly through land accumulation or entrepreneurial activities. In 1958 Shi’a Arabs comprised close to 50 percent of Iraq’s larges land owners, and 7 of Iraq’s 15 millionaires.
The Republic (1958-1968) A three-man Council of Sovereignty (essentially a collective presidency):each of Iraq’s three major groups – Kurds, Sunni Arabs, and Shi’a Arabs – were allocated seats. Important political ally – the ICP – was a party that spanned the sectarian and ethnic divide Real power did not reside in the Council of Sovereignty, the ICP, but with the military (i.e. the bastion of Sunni power).
The Ba’ath regime (1968-) a policy of affirmative action to incorporate more Shi’a into the governing structures; The reinstitution of the Parliament; Elections along regional lines; While the political system as a whole became more representative of Iraq’s diversity over the period, real decision-making power became significantly more concentrated in the hands of Sunni
The Kurdish problem March Manifesto (1970): for the first time referred to the “autonomy” of the Kurds, accepted the use of Kurdish languages in Kurdish- dominated areas, guaranteed a share of wealth from the huge Kirkuk oil filed, and promised to implement democracy (complete with elections) in Kurdistan.
Shi’a opposition to the Ba’ath regime Al-Dawah al Islamiyah (the Islamic Call), The politicization of religion under the charismatic influence of leading cleric Muhammed Baqir-al-Sadr, formation of the al-Badr Brigade, which began a guerilla battle against the Iraqi government.