Presentation on theme: "Roots of the Reformation William of Ockham. English Cleric who many believe is the first true “Reformation” thinker. God is known by faith in his revelation,"— Presentation transcript:
Roots of the Reformation William of Ockham. English Cleric who many believe is the first true “Reformation” thinker. God is known by faith in his revelation, not by reason examining his creation. Scholastic Model Creation and salvation are the manifestations of the divine will that call each person to a covenant partnership. The claim of the papacy to be supreme over the secular realm is to be rejected.
Roots of the Reformation William of Ockham was a Franciscan friar and philosopher, from Ockham (near Ripley, Surrey), England Summoned to Avignon (The French Papacy) in 1324 by Pope John XXII on accusation of heresy, William spent four years there in effect under house arrest while his teaching and writing were being investigated. Ockham concluded that Pope John XXII was a heretic, a position that he later put forth in writing.
Roots of the Reformation After criticizing the pope, he is believed to have been excommunicated, although historical sources vary. Ockham spent much of the remainder of his life writing about political issues, including the relative authority and rights of the spiritual and temporal powers.
Roots of the Reformation John Wycliffe (1320-1384) was a theologian and early proponent of reform in the Roman Catholic Church during the 14th century. He initiated the first translation of the Bible into the English language and is considered the main precursor of the Protestant Reformation. Wycliffe argued heavily against the greed of the Papacy, how the Church had become incompatible with the teachings of Christ.
Roots of the Reformation Wycliffe also saw autonomy of the King, and power that we would later refer to as “Divine Right.” It is a sin to oppose the power of the king, which is derived immediately from God. Those in the service of the Church must have regard for the laws of the State. When the king turns over powers to the clergy, he places them under his jurisdiction, from which later pronouncements of the popes cannot release them.
Roots of the Reformation “It is not necessary to go either to Rome or to Avignon in order to seek a decision from the pope, since the true God is everywhere. Our pope is Christ.” And, the Bible is the ultimate authority, not those who would interpret and preach the Bible for the masses. Hence, we see in Wycliffe what we will call “Sola Scriptura” in Martin Luther’s time, though Wycliffe precedes him by 150 years.
Roots of the Reformation Jan Hus – (Czech -1369 – 1415) actively promoted Wycliffe’s ideas: that people should be permitted to read the Bible in their own language, and they should oppose the tyranny of the Roman church that threatened anyone possessing a non-Latin Bible with execution Hus was burned at the stake in 1415, with Wycliffe’s manuscript Bibles used as kindling for the fire.
Roots of the Reformation The following statement is simply amazing when you consider the timing...as Hus is being burned alive, he states: “in 100 years, God will raise up a man whose calls for reform cannot be suppressed.” Almost exactly 100 years later, in 1517, Martin Luther nailed his famous 95 “Theses of Contention: to the door of the Wittenberg Cathedral. Jus believed that no Pope or Cleric could take up arms in the name of the Lord. He spoke out also about the Crusades as being unjust, and not reflective of God’s words.