Presentation on theme: "French endocentric compounds bateau-mouche N masc + N fém N masc maison-témoin N fém + N masc N fém jaune-citron Adj citron-vert N."— Presentation transcript:
French endocentric compounds bateau-mouche N masc + N fém N masc maison-témoin N fém + N masc N fém jaune-citron Adj citron-vert N
Exocentric compounds black belt N = black Adj + belt N –person who has a black belt –neither a kind of belt nor a kind of black –the semantic head is not part of the compound exocentric compound –problem of the syntactic head
More exocentric compounds scarecrow (V + N) porte-manteau (V + N) blouson noir (N + Adj)
Meaning relations in compounds windmill, flour mill, pepper mill, etc. N + mill – morphologically constructed meaning: “mill having some relation to N” Lexeme meanings: –Windmill = mill that uses wind as energy source –Flour mill = mill that produces flour –Pepper mill = mill that grinds pepper
Derivational morphology Derivational morphemes –Derivational prefixes re-, dis-, trans-, un- –Derivational suffixes -ish, -ness, -ly Apply to a stem and give a derived lexeme Affixes are signs : form + meaning Grammatical (abstract, instructional) meaning
Meaning of affixes desirable likely inspired happy developed sophisticated ADJECTIVE undesirable unlikely uninspired unhappy undeveloped unsophisticated Form: UN- + ADJECTIVE Meaning: not + “adjective”
Categorial and meaning constraints on affixes: un- Adj → Adj Categorial constraints: un- Adj → Adj Meaning: the meaning of the adjective obtained by prefixing un- to an adjective stem is ‘not “adj1” ’, where “adj1” is the meaning of the stem adjective. –un- Adj → Adj + true Adj untrue Adj –‘untrue’ = ‘not true’
Meaning constraints on stems unhappy vs. ??unsad untrue vs. ??unfalse unsafe vs. ??undangerous unequal, unpublished, unquestionable
Categorial and meaning constraints on affixes: un- V → V –wrap/unwrap –wind/unwind –tie/untie Categorial constraints: un- V → V Meaning: the meaning of the verb obtained by prefixing un- to a verb stem is ‘reverse of the action v1” ’, where “v1” is the meaning of the stem.
Meaning constraints on stems ??unanswer a question ??ungive a gift ??unmake Generally, people make acquaintances after saying hi and exchanging a few pleasantries.It's important to know that you cannot unmake an acquaintance.
Categorial and meaning constraints on affixes: un- N → V N V maskunmaskhe unmasked the spy horseunhorsehe unhorsed his enemy saddleunsaddlehe unsaddled the horse Semantics: to un-N NP = remove N from NP or remove NP from N
Meaning constraints on affixes: un- V → V and un- N → V Fromkin et al. p. 90 undo: reverse doing untread: reverse treading unearth: remove something from the earth unfrock: remove his frock (from the cleric) deprive a cleric of his ecclesiastic rank unnerve: remove the nerve from (=frigthen, bother)
Meaning constraints on affixes: un- V → V and un- N → V unrip unloosen
Categorial and meaning constraints on affixes –happy/happiness –faithful/faithfulness –cold/coldness Categorial constraints: -ness Adj → N Meaning: the meaning of the noun obtained by suffixing –ness to an adjective stem is ‘state denoted by “adj” ’, where “adj” is the meaning of the stem.
Rule productivity Synchronic productivity in neology –wide Adj width N –long Adj length N – strong Adj strength N One cannot form new nouns from adjectives using the suffix –th, thus -th is non productive
Rule productivity and lexical gaps Limited applicability of affixes to bases of the correct category and meaning -ness Adj → N -ity Adj → N (rapidity, stupidity, certainty) rapidity??rapidness *slowityslowness certainty??certainness *saditysadness stupidity%stupidness
Order of derivations unhappily = un + happy + ly 3 possible orders of derivation