Presentation on theme: "Henry Tudor at Home and Abroad: Consolidation, Obedience, & Efficiency Henry VII Character & Claim Securing the Realm Early Threats Marriage; Arthur Subduing."— Presentation transcript:
Henry Tudor at Home and Abroad: Consolidation, Obedience, & Efficiency Henry VII Character & Claim Securing the Realm Early Threats Marriage; Arthur Subduing the Nobility Reassertion of Kingship Numbers of Nobility The Accountant King Fiscal Policies Enforcement of Old Laws Foreign Policy Financially-Minded Politically Savvy Bust of Henry VII, by Pietro Torrigiano, 1511; Victoria and Albert Museum, London
Henry VII: r. 1485-1509 Youth & Character Welsh Stock; Owen Tudor (G-father) Brittany, 1471-85 (Safe Haven) Not a Great Military Man Careful of Nobility Wary of Threats to the Crown Detailed Eye Watching Overall Efficient: Cutting Losses/Expenses Claimed Throne as Lancastrian Edmund Tudor, Earl of Richmond Henry VI’s Favor Margaret Beaufort (Edward III) G-G-G-daughter Illegitimate via Catherine Swinford Thomas More’s Poems for Henry VIII, 1509; NB the Tudor Rose Combining the Red of Lancaster and White of York; BL, Cotton MS Titus D. IV, fol. 12v.
Polydore Vergil on Henry VII His body was slender but well built and strong; his height above the average. His appearance was remarkably attractive and his face was cheerful, especially when speaking; his eyes were small and blue, his teeth few, poor and blackish; his hair was thin and white; his complexion sallow. His spirit was distinguished, wise and prudent; his mind was brave and resolute and never, even at moments of the greatest danger, deserted him. He had a most pertinacious memory.... In government he was shrewd and prudent, so that no one dared to get the better of him through deceit or guile. He was gracious and kind and was as attentive to his visitors as he was easy of access... he was fond of having foreigners at his court and he freely conferred favours of them. But those of his subjects who were indebted to him and who did not pay him due honour or who were generous only with promises, he treated with harsh severity. He well knew how to maintain his royal majesty and all which appertains to kingship at every time and in every place.... He cherished justice above all things; as a result he vigorously punished violence, manslaughter and every other kind of wickedness whatsoever....
Securing the Realm Early Threats The de la Pole Brothers John, Edmund, Richard Edward, Earl of Warwick Nephew of Edward IV Edmund & Richard Fled to Mainland Edward Sent to the Tower Rebellion led by Lord Lovell, 1486 Yorkist Sympathizers Battle of Stoke, June, ‘87 John de la Pole and Lambert Simnel Pretender of Edward E. Warwick Marriage to Elizabeth of York, Jan. ’86 Arthur Born, September, ’86; Margaret ‘89; Henry ‘91; Mary, ‘96. Coin of Henry VII; Minting Coins with the King’s Image was Powerful Propaganda
Papal Recognition, 1486 Relevant Section: “publice et generaliter celebrato ius ip[s]i[us] Regni Anglie ad ip[su]m henricum.vij. Anglie rege[m] suosque heredes suo ex corpore p[ro]creandos indubitanter et de iure p[er]tineret” “publically and generally... this law of the realm of England pertains indisputably and by right to this King Henry VII and to his own begotten heirs” Papal Declaration as Printed, ‘94
Subduing the Nobility Reassertion of Kingship Strong, Sure Handling of Threats Perkin Warbeck: Pretender, d. ‘99 Richard, D. York (Prince in Tower) Few Nobles Elevated Vs. Over-mighty Nobles Royal Wardship; Marriage Control No More Armed Retainers Reluctant to Grant Hereditary Titles Relied More on Merit than Magnates Numbers of Nobility Nobility Fell in Wars of the Roses Fewer Super-nobles in Henry’s Interest Nobility in 1487: 54 Nobility in 1509: 41 (drop of 1/4) Henry VII with Six Councilors; Thomas Littleton’s Tenures, 1510.
The Accountant King Fiscal Policies: Enforced and Efficient Squeezing the Nobility Attainder (Lands & Titles) Slow, Conditional Reversals Bonds & Recognizances Obedience or Large Fines Administration of Crown Lands Enforcement of Customs Duties Royal Household – Chamber Personal Oversight, Initials Bypassing Exchequer Generally Unpopular Policies Richard Empson; Edmund Dudley Digging Up Old Laws for Crown Revenues Henry’s Royal Signature
Early Tudor Foreign Policy Financially-Minded Enhancing Trade & Commerce Sold off Brittany to France Malus Intercursus with the Netherlands Financing New World Exploration Politically Savvy Marriage Alliance with Spain Medina del Campo, ’89 Arthur & Katherine, 1501 Marriage Alliance with Scotland Treaty of Perpetual Peace, 1502 Margaret & James IV Plans for Mary: Milan, Castile, France Katherine of Aragon, c. 1503