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Smith-ing in the 19 th Century The first form of Manufacturing metals.

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1 Smith-ing in the 19 th Century The first form of Manufacturing metals

2 “Smithies” The workers Men who worked in Black smiths were known as “Smithies” All forge workers were Male Most men were apprenticed at boy hood and then took over the forge when their master died. Apprentices were called “strikers” “Smithing” often ran in the family. There was often may people in a forge including a Master, and any number of apprentices “Smithies” were often though of as rough and dirty men due to their work with coal for the forge.

3 The Forge the most important of the workshop The forge itself was the heart of the workshop It may also be known as the Hearth It is used to heat the metal so that it will be malleable. In the 19 th Century coal was burnt and bellows was used as an air source. A “striker” was often used to pump the billows and stoke the fire.

4 The Forge (cont.)

5 What was needed The in-puts to run a workshop Iron ore was combined with low levels of Carbon (5%) to provide the “Wrought Iron”. Coal and air to fuel the fire in the Forge An anvil was used to shape the metal on. Smithing tools such as hammers, tongs, and files were used to work with the hot metal.

6 Techniques Ways of shaping the metal There are several different techniques used to shape the metal. “Bending” is used to curve the metal around the horn of the anvil “Twisting” was used to add twists to the metal and was made using tongs “Upsetting” was used to widen one section of the metal while other sections stayed thin. “Flattening” was used to flatten a portion of the metal

7 Products What was being made Blacksmiths produced a range of functional (not decretive) products. Some worked for companies and produced specific items in bulk Others worked as “free-lancers” for their village or town and produced what was needed. Some of the products of a workshop might be Horseshoes, Irons (hand cuffs), cutlery, iron work (for buildings, ships or carriages).

8 In Great Expectations a famous literary “Smithy” Joe Gargery is a village blacksmith who owns his own forge. Pip and Orlick are apprenticed to Joe as a “strikers” Joe is a “crude smith” who produces mainly items such as horse-shoes or Leg Irons. Mrs. Joe often despairs at her being married to a Blacksmith as it is not a very high profession.

9 Bibliography Berendsohn, Roy. "Blacksmithing 101: How to Make a Forge and Start Hammering Metal - Popularmechanics.com." Automotive Care, Home Improvement, Tools, DIY Tips - Popularmechanics.com. Popular Mechanics, n.d. Web. 12 Apr Eyrian. Coal Forge. N.d. Unknown, Unknown. Wikipedia. Web. 9 Apr Kittelsen, Theodor. The Smith and the Baker. N.d. Unknown, Unknown. Answers.com. Web. 12 Apr

10 Bibliography (cont.) Peffers, Kevin. "Kevin Peffers, Blacksmith, PEI, Canada." Kevin Peffers Blacksmith. Prince Edward Island, Canada. Kevin Peffers, n.d. Web. 12 Apr Small, W. Blacksmith Weilding a sledgehammer. N.d. Unknown, Unknown. The Demesne of Dis Pater. Web. 12 Apr Unknown, Unknown. Blacksmith's Sparks. N.d. Unknown, Unknown. Free Digital photos. Web. 10 Apr Wright, Joseph. The Forge. N.d. Unknown, Unknown. Art Experts Inc.. Web. 11 Apr


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