Presentation on theme: "Forest Safety Hazards, Safety and First Aid. Why Safety? Forestry continues to be one of the most dangerous jobs. o 2008 saw 102 deaths, o 2009 saw 51."— Presentation transcript:
Forest Safety Hazards, Safety and First Aid
Why Safety? Forestry continues to be one of the most dangerous jobs. o 2008 saw 102 deaths, o 2009 saw 51 deaths, all deaths were from persons getting struck by an object.
Terms to Know Accident - any sudden or unintentional event that causes injury or property damage. Antiseptic - a substance such as alcohol, iodine, or hydrogen peroxide applied to prevent infection. Anesthetic - is a substance used to stop pain or itching. Laceration - a cut, tear, or mangled place on the skin. Wound - a hurt or injury caused by cutting, stabbing, breaking, etc. Habitat - areas where animals and plants naturally live or grow. Safety - is the action or condition that prevents accidents; free from danger, risk, or injury.
Ways to Protect Ourselves Clothing o Should match the weather conditions. o Long Pants and Leather Boots Will protect from most lower body injuries, will help keep poisonous plants and insects from coming in contact with skin; boots will protect feet from the hazards listed above, they will so help prevent snake bites. o Long Sleeves Will protect like long pants will protect the upper part of the body. Will help prevent sun and wind burn. Shirts should be light in both weight and color. o Head Covering Will protect your head, neck, ears, and face from sun damage. In cold months can help retain heat. Can prevent from falling objects if correct type.
Ways to Protect Ourselves Stay alert o This will keep you from falling into old stump holes, running into spider webs, or falling off a cliff. Pay attention to the weather, this will help protect from many weather related injuries. Animal/Insect Sign o Most animals/insects will leave sign of activity in the area. Hunting Seasons Way to find your way back.
Hazards in the Forest There are several different type of hazards in the forest. o Heat/Cold o Topographical o Wildlife o Plant-life o Insects
Heat/Cold Related Injuries Heat illness can strike virtually anyone. But chronic alcoholics, the elderly, the young, the obese, and individuals whose immune systems may be compromised are at greater risk. High humidity also increases the risk of heat illness because it interferes with the evaporation of sweat, your body's way of cooling itself. Most common heat related injuries are o Heat Cramps o Heat Exhaustion o Heat Stroke o Hypothermia o Frost Bite
Heat Cramps Cause o Caused by a lack of salt and water in the body. Muscles will cramp or lock up limiting the amount of movement by a person. Signs o Severe, sometimes disabling, cramps that typically begin suddenly in the hands, calves, or feet. o Hard, tense muscles. Cure o Getting out of heat, drinking salty drinks or eating salty food. Apply pressure to the cramping area. Severe Cases IV fluids maybe needed.
Heat Exhaustion Cause o Loses of large amounts of water and salt through excessive sweating, particularly through hard physical labor or exercise. This loss of essential fluids can disturb circulation and interfere with brain function. Signs o Fatigue, Nausea, Headaches, Excessive thirst, Muscle aches, Cramps, Weakness, Confusion or Anxiety, Drenching Sweats, Cold Clammy Skin, Slowed or Weakened Heartbeat, Dizziness, Fainting, Agitation Cure o The primary treatment for heat exhaustion is replacement of lost fluids and salt. Victims should be moved to a cool environment, lie flat or with their feet raised slightly above head level, and sip a cool, slightly salty beverage -- such as a salty sports drink, salted tomato juice, cool bouillon, or plain drinking water with salt added (one level teaspoon of salt per quart of water).
Heat Stroke (Sun Stroke) Cause o Occurs when the body suffers from long, intense exposure to heat and loses its ability to cool itself. In prolonged, extreme heat, the part of the brain that normally regulates body temperature malfunctions. This decreases the body's ability to sweat and, therefore, cool down. Heat Stoke can occur with no signs of heat exhaustion. Signs o Nausea and vomiting, Headache, Dizziness or vertigo, Fatigue, Hot flushed dry skin, Rapid heart rate, Decreased sweating, Shortness of breath, decreased urination, blood in urine or stool, Increased body temp (104=106), Confusion, delirium, Loss of consciousness, Convulsions. Cure o While help is on the way, move the victim into the shade; wrap the victim in cool, wet bedding or clothing; or remove the victim's clothes and sponge his or her body with cool water until help arrives. o Ice packs can be placed on the groin, neck, or underarms; or the victim can be fanned by hand or with an electric fan or a blow-dryer set on cold.
What is Hypothermia Occurs when the body gets cold and loses heat faster than the body can make it. A normal rectal body temperature ranges from 97.5°F (36.4°C) to 99.6°F (37.6°C) and for most people is 98.6°F (37°C). Your body temperature can drop to a low level at temperatures of 50°F (10°C) or higher in wet and windy weather, or if you are in 60°F (16°C) to 70°F (21°C) water. If you have mild hypothermia, home treatment may be enough to bring your body temperature back up to normal.
Hypothermia Cause o Can occur when you are exposed to cold air, water, wind, or rain. Signs o Early symptoms include: Shivering, Cold pale or blue-gray skin, Lack of interest or concern, Poor judgment, Mild unsteadiness in balance or walking, Slurred Speech, Numb hands and fingers, Difficulty performing tasks. o Late symptoms include: Trunk of the body is cold to touch, Muscles become stiff, Slow pulse, Breathing that is shallow and slower, Weakness or sleepiness, Confusion, Loss of consciousness, Shivering which can stop if the body temp drops below 90°F (32°C). Cure o Medical treatment for hypothermia depends on the severity of the hypothermia. Treatment of mild hypothermia includes getting out of the cold or wet environment, using warm blankets, heaters, and hot water bottles. o Moderate to severe hypothermia generally is treated in the hospital, where health professionals can give warmed intravenous fluids and warm, moist oxygen in addition to other treatments to warm the core body temperature.
Topographical Hazards Hazards that deal with the earth, water or air. o Earth Hazards Sink holes, stump holes, old wells, ditches, drop off, animal dens or borrows. o Water Hazards Frozen rivers, lakes, streams, fast flowing water, flooding. o Air Poor air quality, pollution.
What happens if we get Injured Every person in the woods needs to know basic First Aid. Everyone will preform basic first aid at some point in their life. Every person should have a first aid kit and water with them in the woods at all times. Frist Aid kit should include these basic items o Antiseptic, Bandages, Gauze pads, Gauze Roll, Triangular Bandages, Straight Pen, Scissors, Tweezers, Knife, Lighter, Burn Cream, Benadryl, Aspirin, Tums, Baking Soda, Elastic Bandages, Inflatable splint, Latex Gloves.
First Aid Can be very important in the over health of the victim. Being able to help your self until help can arrive can be very important. Common injuries that occur in the woods. o Bug/Insect stings o Broken legs, arms or broken or twisted ankles o Punctures/Lacerations/Abrasions o Burns
Bug/Insect Stings Insects will leave the stinger behind (bees) or it may not be left behind (wasps, ect). These stings can be deadly due to allegoric reaction in the body. o An Epi-pen should be carried by people with allergies at all times in the woods. Basic First Aid for Bug/Insect Stings o First remove the stinger if present, then take crushed up tums or baking soda and place on wet hand. Take the Benadryl and seek medical attention.
Broken Bones or Ankles, Twisted or Sprained Joints If the bone is broken, try to splint it with the splint in you kit or use the bandage and limbs to stop the bone from moving. If a compound fracture, splint the bone and seek medical attention. Sprained or Twisted Joints wrap with ace bandage and take aspirin to stop swelling, seek medical attention.
Punctures, Lacerations, Abrasions First Stop Bleeding o Direct pressure on the wound or pressure point located around the body at joints. o Do not remove the object that is punctured the body if it can be helped o Apply aseptic cream on lacerations if not more than ¼ inch deep and on Abrasions, and apply bandage o Seek medical attention if needed.
Burns First Degree o Sunburn, only the surface layer of skin has been affected, apply burn cream and keep the area cool and dry Second Degree o The first and second layers of the skin have been damaged, keep the area cool and dry seek medical attention. This will be the most painful of the three. Third Degree o All three layers of skin has been damaged, keep the area cool and dry and seek medical attention. Victim will feel no pain.