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New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills.

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Presentation on theme: "New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills."— Presentation transcript:

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2 New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Basis for the Industrial Revolution (FC. 111) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Invention of a more efficient steam engine by James Watt (1769) W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone British textile prod. & profits soar Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads

3 Why not China? FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

4 Why not China? -Irrig.  Authoritarian & rigid  Tech seen as a threat FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

5 Why not China? -Irrig.  Authoritarian & rigid  Tech seen as a threat

6 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Cistercian monks do what? FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

7 Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Labor shortage so far from society  ? Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

8 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

9 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

10 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

11 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

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13 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient Breast wheel combining the undershot location with the overshot’s better efficiency Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

14 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

15 In the early 1800s many Americans were experimenting with different new waterwheel designs. One of these men, Calvin Wing of Maine, patented the reaction wheel in October It consisted of a hollow iron disk with a large hole on one side to allow pressurized water in from a penstock and six angled holes on the rim to allow water to exit. The force of water squirting through these six angled jets turned the wheel in reaction to the force of the exiting water. The reaction wheel, in some ways the predecessor of the modern turbine, operated on water pressure obtained by confining the water as it fell. It was fairly efficient, could operate in a wide range of water levels, including flooded back-water conditions. Its cast iron construction made it extremely durable, so it didn’t rot like a wooden wheel. It was also compact, achieving high speeds and generating a lot of power while taking up little space and eliminating the need for costly gearing. It did require precision manufacturing and installation, and thus was somewhat expensive compared to a simple wooden wheel. The 1830s miller who bought one was taking a risk and making an investment in new technology.

16 Modern Hydroelectric Turbine Water power is still a vital source of energy in the 21 st century. However, instead of generating mechanical energy to be used on-site, the energy of falling water is converted to electrical energy and transmitted for use elsewhere. In a turbine water is smoothly funneled into a restricted space where it turns the turbine’s blades which are connected to a gear box and electrical generator.

17 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank What new sorts of jobs Can now be done? Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

18 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

19 Here the waterwheel performs two tasks, one with the crank and one with the cam. The crank in the back works a bellows to stoke the smith’s furnace. The cam on the right (D) operates a trip hammer (E).

20 Sawmill

21 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

22 Wilkinson’s cylinder borer (1775)

23 This milling complex at Arles in Roman Gaul had 16 waterwheels that could mill enough grain to feed 80,000 people. Since the local population was probably only about 10,000, we figure the milling complex at Arles was the center of a vast redistribution network, indicating the large scale of trade in the Roman Empire.

24 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

25 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

26 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

27 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

28 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

29 Two watermills operating between bridge abutments. Notice the spiral shaped millstone in the foreground being taken in the replace one that is worn down.

30 The numerous depictions of waterwheels in European art are further evidence of their ubiquity.

31 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

32 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

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34 A horse-powered treadmill in Belgium for threshing wheat

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36 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

37 1 A tidal mill used different water pressures to function. (1) The high tide forces open a gate, thus letting water into a holding tank.

38 12 A tidal mill used different water pressures to function. (1) The high tide forces open a gate, thus letting water into a holding tank. When the tank is full and the tide goes out the higher pressure in the holding tank forces the gate shut (2). 2

39 123 A tidal mill used different water pressures to function. (1) The high tide forces open a gate, thus letting water into a holding tank. When the tank is full and the tide goes out the higher pressure in the holding tank forces the gate shut (2). Then a second gate can be opened to let water down to turn a water wheel (3). 2

40 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

41 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

42 The first mechanical clock was built during the Sung Dynasty in China around 900 C.E. It was an astrological/astronomical clock with seven faces to mechanically track the motion of the sun, moon, and five known planets at that time (Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn).

43 It was also a water clock with sophisticated machinery to regulate the flow of water in order to keep time. The clock was a royal monopoly to help emperors decide propitious times for acts of state, such as making war or peace. The emperors relied on it so much that, when an ambassador to the north reported that the heavenly bodies were not in line with the clock, the emperor replied that the clock was right and the sky was wrong.

44 Somehow, the idea and design of the Chinese clock made its way west, where and Italian, Giovanni di Dondi, built the most sophisticated clock of the Middle Ages between 1348 and Like the Chinese clock, it had 7 faces showing the movements of the sun, moon and five known planets. It had no hourly dials, which he said were too simple, and was so sophisticated that it wasn't duplicated until the 1800's. One difference from the Chinese model was that his clock was weight driven with a mechanical escapement system since water froze in the wintertime. There is a working model of di Dondi’s clock in the Smithsonian Institute.

45 The inner workings of a clock in Salisbury, England

46 Clock fever While some of the earliest European clocks, such as the town clock in Prague, continued to chart the heavens for astrological purposes, Europeans scaled them down just to keep daily time

47 Is it us keeping time…. The first clock recorded as just striking equal hours was in Milan in the early 1300's. From then on, it was a matter of pride for every medieval town to have its own clock tower, and they appeared in rapid succession in Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), and Paris (1370). Sighisoara,Romania Ottery, England St Albans, England Milan

48 …or time keeping us? However, it was the clock in Paris that triggered a real turning point in Western Civilization when Charles V of France ordered the churches to ring their bells on the hour in coordination with the clocks, thus subordinating the Church’s schedule to that of secular business. While Charles may have thought that he was capturing time, to a large extent time was capturing us, tying us to ever more precise schedules over the coming centuries so we know exactly when we have to get up, be at work, eat lunch, get off work, pick up the kids at soccer practice, and get to watch our favorite TV show. I could continue this list, but I don’t have time.

49 Clocks and clock-like devices even started showing up in medieval art, indicating a more mechanistic view of the universe centuries before Newton’s work. Along those lines, there was an emerging cultural mindset that was tuned into mechanical principles and how to exploit them. Even more striking was an expectation, replacing the static unchanging view of the universe that such innovations would keep coming indefinitely. In short, people were starting to think in terms of something called progress.

50 "Never will we find truth if we content ourselves with what is already known... Those things that have been written before us are not laws but guides. The truth is open to all, for it is not yet totally possessed."--Gilbert de Tournai (c ) "We are as dwarfs mounted on the shoulders of giants, so that although we perceived many more things than they, it is not because our vision is more piercing or our stature higher, but because we are carried and elevated higher thanks to their gigantic size."--Bernard of Chartres (c.1115) "Not all the arts have been found; we shall never see an end of finding them. Everyday one could discover a new art...It is not 20 years since there was discovered the art of making eyeglasses which help one to see well, an art which is one of the best and most necessary in the world. And that is such a short time ago that a new art which had never before existed was invented..."--Fra Giordano (1306)

51 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

52 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology

53 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

54 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun Problem with ripsaws? Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

55 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. What do they find to replace charcoal?

56 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Problem with deep shaft mines?

57 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. How do they deal with water seepage?

58 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

59 Hiero of Alexandria’s aeropile, the first known steam engine. However, because of the abundance of cheap free & slave labor, the Greeks and Romans never exploited the potential usefulness of this invention.

60 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Larger bellows  ?

61 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

62 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Finally able to do what?

63 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron  30x production FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

64 A puddling furnace, as the name implies, gathers the molten iron into a puddle, exposing it to air pumped in from above which burns off extra carbon, giving a crude type of steel known as wrought iron

65 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron  30x production FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Importance for the industrial revolution?

66 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron  30x production FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur.

67 Iron also made possible iron bridges with much longer spans than possible with masonry bridges

68 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Problem British texile ind’s had in 1700s?

69 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. 1st invention?

70 New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production impact on textile prod.?

71 New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production

72 New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Problem that slowed weaving & solution? Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production

73

74 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Problem that slowed weaving & solution?

75 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads

76

77 The Jacqard loom, patented in 1805, made use of punched cards to weave complexly patterned textiles. The binary on-off feature of this loom would be the forerunner of the binary system used in today’s computers.

78 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads British textile prod.?

79 New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone British textile prod. & profits soar Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Problem with powering these factories? Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production

80 Cross-section of Quarry Bank Mill in England, showing the size & power of its waterwheel and how it powered the factory’s looms. Built in 1783 with a second waterwheel added in 1801.

81 Carding Mill Before wool can be spun into yarn for knitting or weaving into cloth, it first must be brushed, or carded. This tedious task was successfully mechanized in the second half of the 18th century by several British inventors, principally Richard Arkwright and James Hargreaves. By the late 1780s carding machines began to be built in the United States, carding as much wool in minutes as a hand-carder could do in as many hours. By 1811 the federal government estimated that on average every town had at least one carding mill where farm families could bring their wool and pay to have it carded. This made the domestic production of cloth much easier by removing this time-consuming step. As textile factories multiplied in the 19th century, however, people stopped making their own cloth at home, and custom carding mills declined Since 1773, carding machines have had the same basic design as they do today. They consist of a series of round brushes that align wool fibers as the wool passes from one end of the machine to the other. Each cylinder is covered with bent iron wires, which grab wool in one direction and release it in another. Clean but tangled wool is fed into the machine from a conveyor belt, called a feed apron. Two small cylinders-- called licker-ins—transfer the wool from the apron to the tumbler, which deposits it on the large main cylinder. This cylinder carries the wool through the machine. Along the way, it is removed by workers. Strippers then take it from the workers and deposit it back on the main cylinder. Near the end of the machine, a fancy with long bristles fluffs the wool up on the main cylinder so that a doffer can remove it. The wool is rolled up into rolls or silvers for spinning as it passes between a fluted cylinder and a concave shell.

82 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone British textile prod. & profits soar Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Problem with powering these factories?

83 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production Solution? New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone British textile prod. & profits soar Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads

84 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Invention of a more efficient steam engine by James Watt (1769) W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone British textile prod. & profits soar Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads

85 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Basis for the Industrial Revolution (FC. 111) Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s More ideas for new uses of technology Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Invention of a more efficient steam engine by James Watt (1769) W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone British textile prod. & profits soar Flying shuttle (1733)  Could double textile prod. Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads

86 The Newcomen Engine used for pumping water out of mines. Unfortunately, it was so inefficient, it used up nearly as much coal as was being mined.


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