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FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular.

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Presentation on theme: "FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular."— Presentation transcript:

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3 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Invention of a more efficient steam engine by James Watt (1769) Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. British textile prod. & profits soar Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Basis for the Industrial Revolution (FC. 111)

4 Why not China? FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

5 Why not China? -Irrig.  Authoritarian & rigid  Tech seen as a threat FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION

6 Why not China? -Irrig.  Authoritarian & rigid  Tech seen as a threat

7 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Cistercian monks do what?

8 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Labor shortage so far from society  ?

9 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels

10 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient

11 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient

12 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient

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14 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient Breast wheel combining the undershot location with the overshot’s better efficiency

15 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills

16 In the early 1800s many Americans were experimenting with different new waterwheel designs. One of these men, Calvin Wing of Maine, patented the reaction wheel in October It consisted of a hollow iron disk with a large hole on one side to allow pressurized water in from a penstock and six angled holes on the rim to allow water to exit. The force of water squirting through these six angled jets turned the wheel in reaction to the force of the exiting water. The reaction wheel, in some ways the predecessor of the modern turbine, operated on water pressure obtained by confining the water as it fell. It was fairly efficient, could operate in a wide range of water levels, including flooded back-water conditions. Its cast iron construction made it extremely durable, so it didn’t rot like a wooden wheel. It was also compact, achieving high speeds and generating a lot of power while taking up little space and eliminating the need for costly gearing. It did require precision manufacturing and installation, and thus was somewhat expensive compared to a simple wooden wheel. The 1830s miller who bought one was taking a risk and making an investment in new technology.

17 Modern Hydroelectric Turbine Water power is still a vital source of energy in the 21 st century. However, instead of generating mechanical energy to be used on-site, the energy of falling water is converted to electrical energy and transmitted for use elsewhere. In a turbine water is smoothly funneled into a restricted space where it turns the turbine’s blades which are connected to a gear box and electrical generator.

18 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank What new sorts of jobs Can now be done?

19 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt

20 Here the waterwheel performs two tasks, one with the crank and one with the cam. The crank in the back works a bellows to stoke the smith’s furnace. The cam on the right (D) operates a trip hammer (E).

21 Sawmill

22 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur

23 Wilkinson’s cylinder borer (1775)

24 This milling complex at Arles in Roman Gaul had 16 waterwheels that could mill enough grain to feed 80,000 people.

25 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

26 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

27 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver

28 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day

29 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

30 Two watermills operating between bridge abutments. Notice the spiral shaped millstone in the foreground being taken in the replace one that is worn down.

31 The numerous depictions of waterwheels in European art are further evidence of their ubiquity.

32 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

33 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

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35 A horse-powered treadmill in Belgium for threshing wheat

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37 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

38 1 2 3 A tidal mill used different water pressures to function. (1) The high tide forces open a gate, thus letting water into a holding tank. When the tank is full and the tide goes out the higher pressure in the holding tank forces the gate shut (2). Then a second gate can be opened to let water down to turn a water wheel (3).

39 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64)

40 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

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43 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

44 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

45 Some of the earliest European clocks, such as the town clock in Prague, continued to chart the heavens for astrological purposes.

46 The inner workings of a clock in Salisbury, England

47 From the 1300s on, it was a matter of pride for every medieval town to have its own clock tower. Sighisoara, Romania Ottery, England St Albans, England Paris, 1370

48 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

49 Clocks even started showing up in medieval art, indicating a more mechanistic view of the universe centuries before Newton’s work.

50 "Never will we find truth if we content ourselves with what is already known... Those things that have been written before us are not laws but guides. The truth is open to all, for it is not yet totally possessed."--Gilbert de Tournai (c ) "We are as dwarfs mounted on the shoulders of giants, so that although we perceived many more things than they, it is not because our vision is more piercing or our stature higher, but because we are carried and elevated higher thanks to their gigantic size."--Bernard of Chartres (c.1115) "Not all the arts have been found; we shall never see an end of finding them. Everyday one could discover a new art...It is not 20 years since there was discovered the art of making eyeglasses which help one to see well, an art which is one of the best and most necessary in the world. And that is such a short time ago that a new art which had never before existed was invented..."--Fra Giordano (1306)

51 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun Problem with ripsaws?

52 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun What do they find to replace charcoal?

53 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used Problem with deep shaft mines?

54 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used How do they deal with water seepage?

55 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

56 Hiero of Alexandria’s aeropile, the first known steam engine. However, because of the abundance of cheap free & slave labor, the Greeks and Romans never exploited the potential usefulness of this invention.

57 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used Larger bellows  ?

58 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

59 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used Finally able to do what?

60 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron  30x production

61 A puddling furnace, as the name implies, gathers the molten iron into a puddle, exposing it to air pumped in from above which burns off extra carbon, giving a crude type of steel known as wrought iron

62 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron  30x production Importance for the industrial revolution?

63 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron  30x production

64 Iron also made possible iron bridges with much longer spans than possible with masonry bridges

65 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production Problem British texile ind’s had in 1700s?

66 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production 1st invention?

67 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production Mech. handloom (1733)  impact on textile prod.? impact on textile prod.?

68 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production

69

70 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production Problem that slowed weaving & solution?

71 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production Spinning Jenny (1760s)  How much faster?

72 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production

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74 The Jacqard loom, patented in 1805, made use of punched cards to weave complexly patterned textiles. The binary on-off feature of this loom would be the forerunner of the binary system used in today’s computers.

75 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) British textile prod.? Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production

76 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. British textile prod. & profits soar Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production

77 Cross-section of Quarry Bank Mill in England, showing the size & power of its waterwheel and how it powered the factory’s looms. Built in 1783 with a second waterwheel added in 1801.

78 Carding Mill Before wool can be spun into yarn for knitting or weaving into cloth, it first must be brushed, or carded. This tedious task was successfully mechanized in the second half of the 18th century by several British inventors, principally Richard Arkwright and James Hargreaves. By the late 1780s carding machines began to be built in the United States, carding as much wool in minutes as a hand-carder could do in as many hours. By 1811 the federal government estimated that on average every town had at least one carding mill where farm families could bring their wool and pay to have it carded. This made the domestic production of cloth much easier by removing this time-consuming step. As textile factories multiplied in the 19th century, however, people stopped making their own cloth at home, and custom carding mills declined Since 1773, carding machines have had the same basic design as they do today. They consist of a series of round brushes that align wool fibers as the wool passes from one end of the machine to the other. Each cylinder is covered with bent iron wires, which grab wool in one direction and release it in another. Clean but tangled wool is fed into the machine from a conveyor belt, called a feed apron. Two small cylinders-- called licker-ins—transfer the wool from the apron to the tumbler, which deposits it on the large main cylinder. This cylinder carries the wool through the machine. Along the way, it is removed by workers. Strippers then take it from the workers and deposit it back on the main cylinder. Near the end of the machine, a fancy with long bristles fluffs the wool up on the main cylinder so that a doffer can remove it. The wool is rolled up into rolls or silvers for spinning as it passes between a fluted cylinder and a concave shell.

79 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. British textile prod. & profits soar Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production Problem with powering these factories?

80 FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. British textile prod. & profits soar Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production Solution?

81 The Newcomen Engine used for pumping water out of mines. Unfortunately, it was so inefficient, it used up nearly as much coal as was being mined.

82 The main problem with the Newcomen engine was it had only one cylinder for heating and cooling, making it very inefficient since so much energy was wasted in repeatedly heating and cooling that one chamber.

83 The major innovation of James Watts’ engine was having two cylinders, one for heating and one for cooling. Which saved considerable amounts of fuel by not having to heat and cool the same cylinder.

84

85 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Invention of a more efficient steam engine by James Watt (1769) Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. British textile prod. & profits soar Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57)

86 Q: Why not China? -Irrig  Need authoritarian govt.  Tech seen as a threat Grk. waterwheels -Horiz-1hp  10% efficient -Undershot  2-3hp/20-30%efficient -Overshot  5-7hp/50-70% efficient -500 Cistercian houses by 1300, some w/5 or more mills - Cam & crank  Ripsaws, bellows, pumps, grind glass, polish metal spin silk; bore holes; pound hemp, flax, paper, sugar, & malt - c.40 mechanized ind's in med. Eur mills in Sax. Eng  1/50 fam's - “Lord”= loaf giver -Saved avg woman 2-3 hrs/day - 68 mills on Seine R, 30 in16km - Other power sources windmills by Ypres - Tidal mills k flour, 15k indus & 500 iron mills in France -1st clocks w/7 faces for astrology - Giovanni di Dondi- 1 st Eur. clock -Genoa (1353), Florence (1354), Bologna (1356), Ferrara (1362), Paris (1370) Charles V of Fr orders bells to ring acc. to clock, not sun - Grks invent steam eng.  Not used - Rolling & puddling  stronger iron - 30x production FC.110 THE TECHNOLOGICAL BACKGROUND TO INDUSTRIALIZATION Labor shortage so far from society  Start using water wheels Cam & crank to convert circular to oscillating motion  Multitude of jobs done with water power More ideas for new uses of technology Continued spread of waterwheel tech’s Invention of a more efficient steam engine by James Watt (1769) Larger bellows  can get hotter fires Finally able to smelt iron completely Stronger & more metal for building steam engines Ripsaws cut more wood  deforest Br. Develop coke from coal for hotter fires Develop steam pumps vs. water seepage in coal mines New textile tech. in Br. to compete vs. cheaper Asian goods Spinning Jenny (1760s)  Spun 7X threads Mech. handloom (1733)  Could double textile prod. British textile prod. & profits soar Need new power source when all waterfront prop. for waterwheels is gone Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Adoption of the clock in W. Eur. W. Civ’s mechanistic view of the universe Cistercian monks move into hills to avoid worldly temptations (FC.64) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Invention of clock in China (FC.57) Basis for the Industrial Revolution (FC. 111)


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