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World Cities How confident are you?.

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Presentation on theme: "World Cities How confident are you?."— Presentation transcript:

1 World Cities How confident are you?

2 Jan 2012 Study Figure 4, a photograph of a central urban area that has recently undergone redevelopment. Comment on the features of the area shown. (7 marks) Ideas?

3 Jan 2012 Markscheme This is the Brewery Quarter in Cardiff. The developers have regenerated the city centre’s historic Brains Brewery, closed in The photo shows a typical mix of bars, restaurants and apartments incorporating the regenerated brewery building, dating from Notice the prevalence of expensive stainless steel, glass, natural stone paving. The area is encouraging the new ‘cafe culture’ whereby people can sit in the open air and eat and drink throughout the day. Such areas will be busy during the day as well as being vibrant at night creating a 24 hour city image. Cardiff, like many UK cities, has focused on high-end housing, leisure, tourism and retail spending as the key to reinventing its city centre as a lively urban space, fit for the 21st century. Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (mid point 3) Simple listing of features from the photograph such as regenerated old buildings, chairs outside, stainless steel street furniture, plants. No or simplistic, commentary on any aspect. Level 2 (5-7 marks) (mid point 6) Sophisticated commentary on the nature of the evidence as seen (as suggested in the nfa). Some sophistication of description, and/or evidence of geographical thinking.

4 Jan 2012 Outline the process of counter-urbanisation and describe its effects. (8 marks)

5 Jan 2012 Markscheme Counter-urbanisation is the process of migration of people from major urban areas to smaller urban settlements and rural areas. A number of factors have caused the growth of counter-urbanisation: • the negative reaction to city life/nature of built environment in cities • car ownership and greater affluence allow people to commute to work from such areas. Indeed, many sources of employment have also moved out of cities. Improvements in technology such as the internet have allowed more freedom of location • there has been a rising demand for second homes and earlier retirement into rural areas • the need for rural areas to attract income - farmers raise money by selling unwanted land and buildings • the type of people (e.g. age, income) may also be referred to. The effect of counter-urbanisation in an area includes: • an increase in the use of a commuter railway station in the area, including car parking for commuters • increased value of houses in the area • the construction of more executive housing in the area, often on newly designated building land, following the demolition of old properties • more conversions of former farm buildings to exclusive residences. Counter-urbanisation is one of a number of processes contributing to social and demographic change in rural settlements, sometimes referred to as the rural turnaround. The main changes include: the out-migration of young village-born adults seeking education and employment opportunities elsewhere the in-migration of young to middle-aged married couples or families with young children the in-migration of younger, more affluent people, which results in increased house prices. Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (mid point 3) Simple generalised statements of process/impact with no depth or detail, and not attributed to any named area. Level 2 (5-8 marks) (mid point 6) More specific and sophisticated statements of process and impact which may be attributed to a named area, or demonstrate greater depth of understanding and/or knowledge. Allow some imbalance for lower marks. Both elements should be covered well for 7/8 marks.

6 Jan 2012 Discuss the planning and management issues that have arisen in areas that have undergone urbanisation in recent years. (10 marks)

7 Jan 2012 Markscheme This could be answered with reference to a case study. For example, Kibera on the outskirts of Nairobi has had massive urban growth in recent years. It faces huge social, economic and environmental planning and management issues. • Housing comprises of thousands of makeshift shacks built from corrugated iron, mud, timber and any other materials that are to hand. • Average population densities exceed 3000 persons/ha. • Kibera is unplanned and lacks even the most basic infrastructure. Open sewers flow along streets and one million people use the 600 pit latrines. Most households have no piped water and rely on standpipes, tanks or water vendors. Women and children often queue for hours to buy water. There is no organised rubbish collection; garbage is thrown in streets, into water courses and along railway tracks. Only 20% of households are connected legally to the electricity grid. • The narrow, uneven and unpaved roads are inaccessible to vehicles. • Half of Kibera’s inhabitants are HIV positive and there are thousands of abandoned children whose parents have died from AIDS. Meanwhile, unsanitary and overcrowded conditions promote the spread of waterborne disease, diarrhoea and TB. • Four fifths of the population is unemployed. Most people rely on self-employment. Jobs in the formal sector (e.g. construction) are concentrated in Nairobi’s city centre and along the commercial/ industrial spine of Mombasa Road. Many people cannot afford transport and walk long distances to work. • In common with many slum areas in cities, Kibera suffers from high crime rates. In common with other such cities there are issues regarding re-housing, or improving existing spontaneous settlements. Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (mid point 3) Simple statements of planning and management issues which could apply to any area of the world. No specific detail provided, nor any attempt to discuss. Level 2 (5-8 marks) (mid point 6) Specific descriptive and/or sophisticated statements of planning and management issues, some of which can be clearly attributed to a named example(s). Discussion is limited in scope. Level 3 (9-10 marks) (mid point 9) A fully developed answer, with good elaboration and clear understanding of a range of planning and management issues. Discussion is balanced, and mature. (10 marks )

8 Jun 2011 Study Figure 4a which shows the pattern of economic deprivation by Super Output Area (SOA) in a town in north-east England in 1999, and Figure 4b which shows how the level of deprivation changed between 2003 and 2005. Using Figures 4a and 4b, describe the pattern of economic deprivation in the town in1999, and comment on the degree to which the level of deprivation changed between 2003 and (7 marks) Ideas?

9 Jun 2011 Markscheme Background The town in question is Hartlepool, which possibly contrary to many people’s preconceptions has reduced its overall level of economic deprivation since (Economic deprivation is a measure which combines indices of income deprivation with indices of employment deprivation). Notes for answers In 1999, there was a distinct polarity of deprivation: the northeast/coastal area had the highest levels of deprivation (around the harbour area?), with a wedge of deprivation extending south from this through the centre of the borough. To the west, and south east, of this area the levels of deprivation are much lower. Interestingly the least deprived areas are fairly central and not too distant from the most deprived areas (suburban areas within the town proper?). Between 2003 and 2005, the great majority of areas within the borough have either become less deprived or there is no significant change. Many of the less deprived areas within the borough (e.g. the west) have become even less deprived. The areas which have worsened are small in number and scope. Again they tend to be in the east of the town, in the areas already deprived (though there are exceptions which should be credited - e.g. the promontory near the harbour (gentrification?). Overall, is it fair to say that the disparities within the borough have widened? Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (Midpoint 3) Simple generalised statements of pattern but without any sense that the maps have been examined closely. Commentary or description only. Level 2 (5-7 marks) (Midpoint 6) Commentary on the degree of change (2003/05).

10 Jun 2011 With reference to examples, suggest reasons for urban decline. (8 marks)

11 Jun 2011 Markscheme Reasons for urban decline: Economic decline • movement of employment away from the large conurbations tosmaller urban areas and to rural areas • this took place largely in traditional manufacturing industries, formerly based on coal, steam power and railways • the growth of service industries in rural areas and small towns • shortage of suitable land and premises in urban areas for new industries • the restructuring of industry, and the geographical movement of investment to new locations in the UK and overseas • high unemployment creating a downward spiral. Population loss and social decline • outmigration of younger, affluent people from inner areas of cities • suburbanisation and counter-urbanisation • those left behind are the old, the less skilled and the poor. Therefore, economic decline of these areas has led to social decline. A poor physical environment • areas of low-quality housing, empty and derelict properties, vacant factories and unsightly, overgrown wasteland • high levels of vandalism, dereliction, graffiti and flyposting • construction of urban motorways, with flyovers, underpasses and networks of pedestrian walkways • all contribute to the bleak concrete-dominated landscape which is unattractive to investors. Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (Midpoint 3) Simple generalised statements of reasons with no depth or detail, and not attributed to any named area; or one fully developed reason only. Level 2 (5-8 marks) (Midpoint 6) More specific and sophisticated statements of reasoning which are attributed to a named area(s), and/or demonstrate greater depth of understanding and/or knowledge.

12 Jun 2011 Evaluate the effectiveness of one partnership scheme in achieving urban regeneration. (10 marks)

13 Jun 2011 Markscheme There is a wide range of partnership schemes involving different partners that students could refer to, ranging from the City Challenge Partnerships of the 1990s in the UK, to the modern day Flagship schemes of the 21st century, to the slightly smaller scale schemes concerning sustainable communities. Urban Development Corporations of the 1980s were not partnerships and material based on these should not exceed Level 1. An example: Creative Sheffield The city of Sheffield is undergoing considerable regeneration in its central area. The regeneration is to be achieved through a series of public/private partnerships between Sheffield City Council, Creative Sheffield (an economic development company), Yorkshire Forward (a regeneration body) and number of private developers. A Masterplan was established in 2000 to introduce a period of recovery and redevelopment in some parts of the city. Improvements have already taken place in these areas: • St Paul.s Place • the Station Gateway (the railway station and the area immediately in front of it) • the Barkers Pool/ City Hall area. Further developments are planned including a new retail quarter along The Moor, several new business areas in St Paul.s Place and alongside the River Don, and a new Digital Campus alongside the railway station. Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (Midpoint 3) Simple statements of a regeneration scheme. No specific detail provided, nor any attempt to evaluate effectiveness. Level 2 (5-8 marks) (Midpoint 6) Specific descriptive statements of a partnership scheme which can be clearly attributed to a named example. Evaluation is tentative and implicit. Level 3 (9-10 marks) (Midpoint 9) A fully developed answer, with good elaboration and clear detail of the chosen partnership scheme. Evaluation of effectiveness is explicit.

14 Jan 2011 Study Figure 4 which shows a number of trends concerning changes in retailing and other services. Comment on the trends shown in Figure 4. (7 marks)

15 Jan 2011 Markscheme Notes for answers Figure 4 (top) shows that retail floor space overall has grown significantly over the period, and that the majority of the growth is due to the development of OOTC retail parks. Indeed their growth has been ever expanding. However, there has also been small growth of CBD locations, which may not have been expected. Figure 4 (lower) shows the expected falls in food shops, newsagents, comparison goods and financial services. Some of this will be due to competition from OOTCs but some may be due to rationalisation. The falls are relatively small compared to expectations? Increases have been in expected areas: charity shops, restaurants and bars, hair and beauty, with more vacant properties. Note the data shows a sample of small town centres . perhaps they are less affected by decentralisation trends! Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (Midpoint 3) Simple statements of changes/trends, generally no qualification or accurate quantification. No commentary. Level 2 (5-7 marks) (Midpoint 6) Commentary accesses this level following creditworthy description, including qualitative and/or quantitative assessment.

16 Jan 2011 Outline the characteristics of one out-of-town centre retailing area that you have studied. (8 marks)

17 Jan 2011 Markscheme Notes for answers The Trafford Centre, Manchester Nearly 5.5 million people (almost 10% of the UK population) live within 45 minutes. drive of the Trafford Centre. People can travel from Liverpool in the west, Leeds to the east, Stoke-on-Trent in the south and as far as Preston to the north. In 2005, 29.4 million people visited the centre. It was designed to be more than just a shopping centre, with a 1,600-seat food court, an 18-lane ten-pin bowling alley, a LaserQuest arena and a 20-screen cinema. Since its opening various additions have been made, and a further expansion, called Barton Square, aimed at furniture, kitchens and furnishings, was completed in The Trafford Centre offers the following: • very good motorway links . being close to Junctions 9 and 10 of the M60, with easy links to the M6, M61, M62 and the M602 to Manchester city centre. • 11,000 free car parking spaces, broken up into discrete segments each of which has its own automatic capacity monitoring system which can relay messages to the advice-signing on the on-site roads and on public roads approaching the centre from the motorway network • a bus station with the capacity to deal with 120 buses per hour • facilities for the disabled which are regularly spaced within the complex. These include a Shop Mobility Unit offering scooters and wheelchairs • a weatherproof, air-conditioned and safe environment • its own security system, with a tannoy and a meeting point for lost children • a full range of peripheral services, such as a post office, banks and travel agents. Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (Midpoint 3) Statements of general features of OOTC areas, with no sense of location to the named area. Basic or limited statements of the named area only. No depth of understanding. Level 2 (5-8 marks) (Midpoint 6) Detailed statements of the characteristics of the chosen OOTC area. There is a clear sense of place, and a sense of individuality. Depth is apparent.

18 Jan 2011 With reference to one or more example(s), evaluate the success of redevelopment of urban centres in response to recent trends in retailing. (10 marks)

19 Jan 2011 Markscheme Despite the negative predictions of the previous section, CBDs do continue to flourish alongside the new out-of-town locations. In some cases, the CBD has moved slightly in one or more directions; in other cases it has re-invented itself with new indoor shopping areas or malls. A number of strategies are being devised to help reverse the decline of city centres, including: • the establishment of business and marketing management teams to coordinate overall management of CBDs and run special events • the provision of a more attractive shopping environment with pedestrianisation (which increases pedestrian safety), new street furniture, floral displays, paving and landscaping • the construction of all-weather shopping malls which often have integral low-cost parking • the encouragement of specialist areas, such as attractive open street markets, cultural quarters and arcades • the extensive use of CCTV and emergency alarm systems to reduce crime and calm the fears of the public, particularly women • the organisation of special shopping events such as Christmas fairs, late-night shopping and Sunday shopping - sometimes referred to as .the 24-hour city.. Many cities are also encouraging the development of functions other than retailing to increase the attractions of a CBD, including: • encouraging a wider range of leisure facilities, including cafe bars, restaurants, music venues (such as the .Arenas. in many city centres), cinemas and theatres that people visit in the evening • promoting street entertainment, such as at Covent Garden in London • developing nightlife, such as clubbing, for example in Manchester and Leeds. (There are negative issues associated with this, including the high level of policing that is necessary.) • establishing theme areas, such as the gay area in Manchester and the cultural quarters in Sheffield and Stoke • developing flagship attractions, for example the photographic museum in Bradford • constructing new offices, apartments, hotels and conference centres • encouraging residential activities to return to city centres by providing flats to rent above shops; redeveloping old buildings (a form of gentrification) or building new up-market apartments (re-urbanisation) • economic statements of success e.g. greater footfall and greater spending could also feature. Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (Midpoint 3) Simple statements of urban centre redevelopment schemes/policies which could apply to any area of the country. No specific detail provided, nor any attempt to evaluate success. Level 2 (5-8 marks) (Midpoint 6) Specific descriptive statements of an urban centre redevelopment scheme(s)/policy(ies) some of which can be clearly attributed to a named example(s). Evaluation is tentative and implicit. Level 3 (9-10 marks) (Midpoint 9) A fully developed answer, with good elaboration and clear detail of the chosen urban centre redevelopment scheme(s)/policy(ies). Evaluation is explicit.

20 Jan 2011 Study Figure 4, a photograph of an area of a city in India. Using Figure 4 only, comment on the characteristics of the urban landscape shown. Suggest how it could be improved. (7 marks)

21 Jan 2011 Markscheme This is a photograph of the Dharavi slum in Mumbai from the National Geographic magazine. It writes of the photo: Failed urban renewal attempts stick out above a warren of metal-roofed shacks. Built to provide more modern facilities, the towers became dilapidated after only a few years because of poor maintenance. A current redevelopment plan calls for razing all slum housing in Dharavi and replacing it with more high-rises. But the free housing promised will house only a fraction of those losing their homes.. Candidates are likely to recognise the classic signs of shanty town development, with its high density of population, poor sanitation and other service provision, etc. All of this will be creditworthy at Level 1. Commentary will access Level 2. Improvements given could include self-help schemes, sites and services schemes, total redevelopment. Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (mid point 3)) Simple generalised statements of conditions in such areas but without any sense that the photo has been examined closely. No commentary. Generalised statements of improvement. Level 2 (5-7 marks) (mid point 6) Detailed description of features that can be identified in the photo, e.g. the continuity of metal roofs, the poor quality high rise flats that appear above them. Commentary on the characteristics shown in the photograph. Statements of improvement that could clearly apply to the area shown

22 Jan 2011 Explain the process of suburbanisation and describe its effects. (8 marks)

23 Jan 2011 Markscheme Suburbanisation has resulted in the outward growth of urban development that has engulfed surrounding villages and rural areas. During the mid- to late-twentieth century, this was facilitated by the growth of public transport systems and the increased use of the private car. The presence of railway lines and arterial roads has enabled relatively wealthy commuters to live some distance away from their places of work. To a large extent the towns and cities of the UK demonstrate the effects of past suburbanisation. In the 1930s, there were few planning controls and urban growth took place alongside main roads - this was known as ribbon development. By the 1940s this growth, and the subsequent growth between the .ribbons., became a cause for concern. This led to the creation of green belts - areas of open space and low-density land use around existing urban areas where further development was strictly controlled. Since 1950, suburban expansion has increased and has been better planned. During the 1950s and 1960s large-scale construction of council housing took place on the only land available which was the suburban fringe. In the 1970s, there was a move towards home ownership, which led to private housing estates being built, also on the urban fringe. Building in these areas allowed people to have more land for gardens and more public open space, compared with housing areas nearer the town centre. The edge of town, where there is more land available for car parking and expansion, also became the favoured location for new offices, factories and shopping outlets. In a number of cases, the .strict control. of the green belts was ignored (or at best modified) in the light of changing circumstances. Suburbanised areas have experienced much change in recent years. Local shopping centres have been constructed, along with a large number of primary schools and a smaller number of secondary schools. Suburbanised areas also demonstrate other key elements of the rural. urban fringe, such as residual woodlands and parks, cemeteries, golf courses and playing fields. Many are now well-established housing areas, highly sought after in the property market. Suburbanisation in developing countries is also valid. Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (mid point 3) Simple generalised statements of process and impact with no depth or detail, and not attributed to any named area. If only process or impact, MAX L1. Level 2 (5-8 marks) (mid point 6) More sophisticated and/or specific statements of process and impact which may be attributed to a named area, or demonstrate greater depth of understanding and/or knowledge.

24 Jan 2011 Evaluate the success of one urban regeneration scheme or policy that you have studied. (10 marks)

25 Jan 2011 Markscheme There are a multitude of regeneration schemes that candidates can refer to. Accept any form of regeneration from gentrification to propertyled schemes to partnerships. Some may involve a single area within a city; others may cover a whole city. For example, Sheffield: several organisations have been created in the past 20 years with the purpose of regenerating the city of Sheffield. The Sheffield Development Corporation was established in 1988 in order to regenerate Lower Don Valley area of Sheffield, which had been the location of much of the city’s traditional industry. In its eleven year existence it replaced much of the derelict land with new business ventures, the most famous project being the creation of Meadowhall shopping centre. More recently a new city economic development company, Creative Sheffield, has been established and in April 2007, Sheffield First for Investment, Sheffield One and the Cultural Industries Quarter Agency were all integrated into this one organisation. Some of the projects proposed or currently under construction in Sheffield are the improvement of Sheffield Midland Station, the New Retail Quarter, Victoria Quays and Riverside Exchange, and the redevelopment of The Moor shopping district. As well as these large-scale projects, there are lots of other public works buildings, luxury accommodation and office space is being built in the city. The city centre population is expected to increase from 5000 in 2005, to by £250 million has also been invested in the city during the first half of Mark scheme Level 1 (1-4 marks) (mid point 3) Simple statements of urban regeneration schemes/policies which could apply to any area. No specific detail provided, nor any attempt to assess success. Level 2 (5-8 marks) (mid point 6) Specific descriptive statements of an urban regeneration scheme/policy some of which can be clearly attributed to a named example. Assessment is tentative and implicit. Level 3 (9-10 marks) (mid point 9) A fully developed answer, with good elaboration and clear detail of the chosen urban regeneration scheme/policy. Assessment is explicit.

26 Essay Questions To what extent can urban areas be sustainable? (Jan 2012) With reference to examples, assess the degree to which the level of economic development of a country affects planning and management in urban areas. (Jun 2011) With reference to examples, evaluate the success or otherwise of urban regeneration schemes in combating the causes and consequences of urban decline. (Jan 2011) With reference to either waste management in urban areas or transport management in urban areas, discuss the extent to which sustainability can be achieved. (Jun 2010)

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