Dimensions of Child Rearing Two Broad Dimensions –(1) Warmth-Coldness: reflective of their own parents, their own beliefs about child rearing practices, and may have genetic factors involved Warm Parents –Affectionate, caring, supportive, less physical discipline Children of Warm Parents –Develop internal standards of conduct, sense of morality, conscience, warmth relates to social and emotional well-being Cold Parents –Don’t enjoy their children, show few affectionate feelings, complain about child’s behavior Children of Cold Parents –Do not fare as well in social and emotional development
Dimensions of Child Rearing Two Broad Dimensions, con’t. –( 2) Restrictiveness-Permissiveness Restrictive Parents –Impose rules and watch children closely Children of Restrictive Parents –Consistent control and firm enforcement of rules combined with strong support and affection can have positive outcomes. –If restrictiveness is paired with physical punishment, interference, or intrusiveness, it can cause disobedience, rebelliousness, and lower levels of cognitive development. Permissive Parents –Supervise less closely; allow child to be “natural”; may allow displays of aggression
Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (1) Authoritative Parenting –Highly restrictive; make strong demands for maturity –Tempered with reason, strong support, and love –Have clear expectations but show respect and warmth –Children show: Self reliance, independence, high self-esteem, high levels of activity and exploratory behavior, and social competence Highly motivated to achieve and do well in school
Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (2) Authoritarian Parenting –Value obedience for its own sake –Have strict guidelines for right and wrong –Demand compliance without question –Controlling; enforce standards with force –Do not communicate well with children, nor respect the child’s point of view
Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (2) Authoritarian Parenting, cont –Generally cold and rejecting –Children Show: Less competence socially and academically; as teens may be conforming and obedient but have low self-esteem and low self-reliance Sons: –Relatively hostile and defiant Daughters: –Low in independence and dominance
Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (3) Permissive-Indulgent Parenting –Low in demands and attempts to control –Easygoing and unconventional –Permissiveness accompanied by high nurturance, warmth, and support
Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (4) Rejecting-Neglecting Parenting –Low in demands for mature behavior and attempts to control child –Low in support and responsiveness –Children are: Least competent, responsible, and mature Less competent in school Show more misconduct and substance abuse Fairly high in social competence and self-confidence
Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards Effects of the Situation and the Child on Parenting Styles –Situation: Life stressors contribute to use of power-assertive techniques. –Characteristics of the Child: If child is aggressive, parents more likely to use power- assertive techniques. Parents prefer power assertion to induction when they believe that children understand the rules they break and are capable of acting appropriately.
Table 10.2 – Advice for Parents in Guiding Young Children’s Behavior
Social Behaviors Influence of Siblings, cont. –Adjusting to the Birth of a Sibling Often a source of stress causing changes in family relationships Child may feel displaced and resentful due to the time and attention required by the newborn Children may show mixture of negative and positive reactions. –Regression: returning to baby-like behaviors and increased naughtiness –But may also show increased independence and maturity, such as doing more for themselves (dressing, feeding, etc.) and helping to care for newborn Parents can help the young child cope with new arrivals by explaining in advance what to expect.
Social Behaviors Influence of Siblings, cont. –Birth Order Personality and achievement are linked to birth order. Parents usually more relaxed and flexible with later-born children. Firstborn: –More highly motivated to achieve; perform better academically »Higher IQ and SAT scores –More cooperative; adult-oriented; less aggressive –Show greater levels of anxiety –Less self-reliant Later-born: –Learn to act aggressively for attention –Have lower self-concepts –Greater popularity with peer group –More rebellious and liberal
Social Behaviors Peer Relationships –Peer interactions foster social skills –Provide emotional support –Physical and cognitive skills also develop in peer groups. At about 2 years: –Children imitate each other. –Show preferences for particular playmates –Early friendships can be fairly stable. –Base friendships on shared activities and fun experiences.
Social Behaviors Play –More than just fun: Meaningful; voluntary; internally motivated –Helps develop motor and coordination skills –Contributes to social development
Social Behaviors Play, con’t. –Play and Cognitive Development –Piaget’s 4 Types of Play: Functional –Begins in sensorimotor stage and involves repetitive motor activities Symbolic –“ Pretend/imaginative/dramatic” play: emerges toward end of sensorimotor stage, increasing in early childhood; children create settings, characters, and scripts Constructive –Use of objects or materials to make something Formal Games –Games with specific rules enhanced or invented by child; can be “board games” or games involving motor skills; games involving “teams” or “sides” (people often play these games throughout a lifetime)
Social Behaviors Play, con’t. –Play and Cognitive Development –Nonsocial play: Play in which children do not interact socially Involves educational activities that foster cognitive development Occurs more often in 2-3 year olds than older children –Social play: Children are influenced by other children during play time. Becomes common around age 5 2 year olds with older siblings or group experiences may engage more in social play. Girls are somewhat more likely to engage in social play than boys. –Parten’s Six Types of Play: Includes 3 Nonsocial Types and 3 Social Types See table on next slide
Social Behaviors Play, con’t. –Sex Differences in Play: As early as 2 yrs, boys and girls display preference for same sex playmates. Girls and boys differ in choices of toys, environments, and types of activities. –Boys: »Prefer vigorous physical outdoor activities »Spend more time in play groups of 5 or more engaging in competitive play »May avoid girls because they view them as inferior –Girls: »More likely to engage in arts, crafts, domestic play »Spend more time playing with one other child or in a smaller group
Social Behaviors Play, con’t. –Sex Differences in Play, con’t. Explaining early gender-stereotyped preferences Biological: –Boys have greater physical strength and higher activity levels. –Girls have greater physical maturity and coordination. Adult/Peer Treatment: –Adults treat boys and girls differently. –It is expected they will conform to “masculine” and “feminine” roles. –If a child “crosses the line” of gender expectation they may be ridiculed, rejected, or ignored by parents, teachers, and peers. –Boys are most likely to be criticized for inappropriate gender choices in play.
Social Behaviors Prosocial Behavior, con’t. –Perspective Taking: seeing things from someone else’s point of view As perspective taking skills improve with age, children become more prosocial. –Influences on Prosocial Behavior Even though prosocial behavior occurs without regard for reward, it is influenced by rewards and punishments. Peers respond more positively toward prosocial children. Parents of prosocial children are likely to expect mature behavior and are less likely to use power-assertive techniques of discipline.
Social Behaviors Development of Aggression –Aggression refers to behavior intended to hurt or injure another person. –As with other social behaviors, it follows certain developmental patterns. –Younger children tend to resort to aggression more. –Older preschoolers are more likely to resolve conflicts by sharing rather than fighting. –Anger and aggression causes rejection from peers. –By age 6-7 aggression becomes hostile and person- oriented name calling and physical attacks –Predictive of social and emotional problems later in life, especially in boys –But aggressive children of both sexes more likely to have criminal convictions and be abusive as adults.
Social Behaviors Theories of Aggression –Genetic Genes may be involved in aggressive behavior, including criminal and antisocial behavior. Greater concordance (agreement) rates found in MZ twins. Male sex hormone testosterone is connected with high self- confidence and high activity levels including aggressiveness. –Cognitive Children who find aggression a legitimate alternative are more likely to engage in aggressive behaviors to solve issues. Aggressive children lack empathy. Less likely to inhibit aggressive impulses –Social Social theories focus of reinforcement and observational learning. If aggressive behavior is rewarded then it tends to continue. Aggressive children may also associate with peers who value and encourage aggression.
Social Behaviors Media Influences on Aggression –Television is a fertile source of aggressive modeling behaviors. –Children who watch 2-4 hours of TV a day will see 8,000 murders and another 100,000 violent acts. –Bandura’s classic experiment (1963) with modeling violent behavior showed children viewing violence engaged in more aggressiveness.
Social Behaviors Media Influences on Aggression, con’t. How violence on TV contributes to violent behaviors –Observational Learning: TV provides models of aggressive “skills” which children may imitate. –Disinhibition: Punishment inhibits behavior; if the characters on TV “get away”with violence then it disinhibits the aggressiveness of the viewer. –Increased Arousal: Media and video game violence increases viewers’ level of arousal. Aggressive behavior is more likely under higher arousal. –Priming of Aggressive Thoughts and Memories: Media violence “primes” or arouses aggressive ideas and memories. –Habituation: People get used to repeated stimuli. The more violence witnessed, the more acceptable it becomes. We become desensitized to it. Even though exposure to media violence increases the aggressiveness of behavior, according to Social Cognitive Theory, it is still a matter of choice whether or not to imitate the violence seen
Personality and Emotional Development The Self: (the sense of self & self-concept) –Categorical Self: Refers to concrete external traits Children begin to describe themselves in terms of certain categories: age, sex, etc. –Self-Concept (self-esteem): Children with high self-esteem more likely to be securely attached, having parents attentive to their needs. Also more likely to show prosocial behaviors Preschool children make evaluative judgments around 4 yrs. about: –Cognitive and physical competence (what am I good at) »But still cannot distinguish between different areas of competency; just give overall statements –Social acceptance by peers and parents (who likes me)
Personality and Emotional Development Initiative versus Guilt –Erikson views Early Childhood as the stage of Initiative versus Guilt –Children strive to gain independence and master adult behavior. –Are curious to try new things and test new skills –They learn not all plans, hopes, etc. can be fulfilled. –They begin to internalize adult rules. –Fear of violating rules may cause guilt and delay efforts to master new skills; it can be a powerful force in the child’s life –Parents can help children by encouraging their attempts to learn and explore by not being unduly critical and punitive.
Personality and Emotional Development Fears: The Horrors of Early Childhood –Number of fears peaks between 2.5-4 yrs then tapers off –Preschool years marked by decline in fears of loud noises, falling, sudden movement, strangers –Now more likely to fear animals, imaginary creatures, the dark, and personal dangers –Fantasies and stories can be frightening and persist. –Many preschoolers want a night light on. –Real object and situations may also be cause for fear: storms, heights, being cut by something sharp, blood, bugs, strange or unfamiliar people
Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Stereotypes and Gender Roles –Feminine Traits: Dependent; gentle; helpful; warm; emotional; submissive; home oriented –Masculine Traits: Aggressive; self-confident; independent; competitive; competent in business, math, and science –Gender Role Stereotypes Develop in Stages: 1st stage at 2-2.5 yrs: learn to label the sexes and can identify photos of girls and boys By 3 yrs: display knowledge of gender stereotypes for toys, clothing, work, and activities –Perceptions: Children become increasingly more traditional in stereotyping. They perceive their own sex in a better light.
Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex Differences –Evolution and Heredity –According to this theory, sex differences were caused by natural selection over thousands of generations. –Genes that increase the chance of survival are more likely to be transmitted. –Therefore we all possess the genetic codes that helped our ancestors survive, including: Structural sex differences in the brain and differences in body chemistry such as hormones We see social differences evidenced by mate selection practices. –Males emphasize physical attractiveness. –Females emphasize financial status and reliability.
Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex Differences –Brain Organization –Brain organization is largely genetic. –Use of right and left hemispheres in male and females may be different. –In studies with rats and humans, the use of the hippocampus (brain structure involved in forming memories and relaying sensory information) is used differently by males and females. Males use the hippocampus in both hemispheres when navigating. Females use the right hemisphere and the right prefrontal cortex (area of brain that evaluates and plans).
Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex Differences –Sex Hormones –Sex hormones and other chemical stoke prenatal differentiation of sex organs. –At end of embryonic stage, androgens (male sex hormones) take part in development of male genital organs. –These chemicals may also “masculinize” or “feminize” the brain, giving rise to behavioral tendencies that are in some ways consistent with gender-role stereotypes.
Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex Differences –Social Cognitive –This theory incorporates the roles of reinforcements (rewards and punishments) in gender typing. –Children learn what society considers “masculine” and “feminine” by observing and imitating same sex models: parents, other adults, other children, and TV & video game characters –Socialization plays a role by providing children with information about what is expected of them. They are rewarded for “gender-appropriate” behaviors and punished for “inappropriate” behaviors. Boys are encourage to be independent. Girls are more likely to be restricted. Less stereotyping is exhibited by children when role models engage in non-sex-specific roles.
Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex Differences –Cognitive-Developmental: (Kohlberg) –Children form concepts about gender and then fit their behavior to the concepts. –These developments occur in stages mixed with general cognitive development. –Three concepts of gender typing: Gender Identity –The knowledge that one is male or female –Usually around age 2 yrs can discriminate anatomic sex differences Gender Stability –Recognition that people retain their sexes for a lifetime –Usually around age 4-5 Gender Constancy –Recognition that people’s sex does not change even if their clothing and behavior is inconsistent with stereotypical expectations –Usually are age 5-7. But some studies have placed it as early as 1.5 - 3 yrs.
Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex Differences –Gender-Schema –From this viewpoint, gender identity alone inspires “gender-appropriate” behaviors. –Once labeled boy or girl, the child tries to live up to those expectations. –Both boys’ and girls’ self-esteem depend on how they measure up to the schema. –Boys show better memory for “masculine” objects, activities, and occupations and girls show more for “feminine.”
Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex Differences –Psychological Androgyny –Cultural stereotypes tend to polarize males and females. –The polarized view assumes that “east is east and west is west and never the twain shall meet.” –Emotional boys that show feminine traits are thought of as less masculine. –Outspoken, competitive girls as viewed as masculine and unfeminine. –But in the Androgyny view both masculine and feminine traits can be found in both sexes to varying degrees. –People high in both masculine and feminine traits are termed psychologically androgynous. –It is suggested promoting psychological androgyny would be an asset in meeting life challenges. –Androgynous children have better social relations and adjustment and greater creativity and are more willing to pursue non-stereotypical occupations.