5Dimensions of Child Rearing Two Broad Dimensions(1) Warmth-Coldness: reflective of their own parents, their own beliefs about child rearing practices, and may have genetic factors involvedWarm ParentsAffectionate, caring, supportive, less physical disciplineChildren of Warm ParentsDevelop internal standards of conduct, sense of morality, conscience, warmth relates to social and emotional well-beingCold ParentsDon’t enjoy their children, show few affectionate feelings, complain about child’s behaviorChildren of Cold ParentsDo not fare as well in social and emotional development
6Dimensions of Child Rearing Two Broad Dimensions, con’t.(2) Restrictiveness-PermissivenessRestrictive ParentsImpose rules and watch children closelyChildren of Restrictive ParentsConsistent control and firm enforcement of rules combined with strong support and affection can have positive outcomes.If restrictiveness is paired with physical punishment, interference, or intrusiveness, it can cause disobedience, rebelliousness, and lower levels of cognitive development.Permissive ParentsSupervise less closely; allow child to be “natural”; may allow displays of aggressionAnswer to T-F? # 1 - Parents who are restrictive and demand mature behavior wind up with rebellious children, not mature children. FICTION - Actually, authoritarianism more than restrictiveness is likely to lead to rebelliousness in children.
8Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (1) Authoritative ParentingHighly restrictive; make strong demands for maturityTempered with reason, strong support, and loveHave clear expectations but show respect and warmthChildren show:Self reliance, independence, high self-esteem, high levels of activity and exploratory behavior, and social competenceHighly motivated to achieve and do well in school
9Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (2) Authoritarian ParentingValue obedience for its own sakeHave strict guidelines for right and wrongDemand compliance without questionControlling; enforce standards with forceDo not communicate well with children, nor respect the child’s point of view
10Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (2) Authoritarian Parenting, contGenerally cold and rejectingChildren Show:Less competence socially and academically; as teens may be conforming and obedient but have low self-esteem and low self-relianceSons:Relatively hostile and defiantDaughters:Low in independence and dominance
11Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (3) Permissive-Indulgent ParentingLow in demands and attempts to controlEasygoing and unconventionalPermissiveness accompanied by high nurturance, warmth, and support
12Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards (4) Rejecting-Neglecting ParentingLow in demands for mature behavior and attempts to control childLow in support and responsivenessChildren are:Least competent, responsible, and matureLess competent in schoolShow more misconduct and substance abuseFairly high in social competence and self-confidence
14Parenting Styles (BAUMRIND) How Parents Transmit Values and Standards Effects of the Situation and the Child on Parenting StylesSituation:Life stressors contribute to use of power-assertive techniques.Characteristics of the Child:If child is aggressive, parents more likely to use power-assertive techniques.Parents prefer power assertion to induction when they believe that children understand the rules they break and are capable of acting appropriately.
15Table 10.2 – Advice for Parents in Guiding Young Children’s Behavior
18Social Behaviors Influence of Siblings, cont. Adjusting to the Birth of a SiblingOften a source of stress causing changes in family relationshipsChild may feel displaced and resentful due to the time and attention required by the newbornChildren may show mixture of negative and positive reactions.Regression: returning to baby-like behaviors and increased naughtinessBut may also show increased independence and maturity, such as doing more for themselves (dressing, feeding, etc.) and helping to care for newbornParents can help the young child cope with new arrivals by explaining in advance what to expect.
19Social Behaviors Influence of Siblings, cont. Birth Order Personality and achievement are linked to birth order.Parents usually more relaxed and flexible with later-born children.Firstborn:More highly motivated to achieve; perform better academicallyHigher IQ and SAT scoresMore cooperative; adult-oriented; less aggressiveShow greater levels of anxietyLess self-reliantLater-born:Learn to act aggressively for attentionHave lower self-conceptsGreater popularity with peer groupMore rebellious and liberalAnswer to T-F? # 2 - First born children are more highly motivated to achieve than later-born children. TRUE - but the reasons are not fully clear.
20Social Behaviors Peer Relationships Peer interactions foster social skillsProvide emotional supportPhysical and cognitive skills also develop in peer groups.At about 2 years:Children imitate each other.Show preferences for particular playmatesEarly friendships can be fairly stable.Base friendships on shared activities and fun experiences.
21Social Behaviors Play More than just fun: Meaningful; voluntary; internally motivatedHelps develop motor and coordination skillsContributes to social development
22Social Behaviors Play, con’t. Play and Cognitive Development Piaget’s 4 Types of Play:FunctionalBegins in sensorimotor stage and involves repetitive motor activitiesSymbolic“Pretend/imaginative/dramatic” play: emerges toward end of sensorimotor stage, increasing in early childhood; children create settings, characters, and scriptsConstructiveUse of objects or materials to make somethingFormal GamesGames with specific rules enhanced or invented by child; can be “board games” or games involving motor skills; games involving “teams” or “sides” (people often play these games throughout a lifetime)
23Social Behaviors Play, con’t. Play and Cognitive Development Nonsocial play:Play in which children do not interact sociallyInvolves educational activities that foster cognitive developmentOccurs more often in 2-3 year olds than older childrenSocial play:Children are influenced by other children during play time.Becomes common around age 52 year olds with older siblings or group experiences may engage more in social play.Girls are somewhat more likely to engage in social play than boys.Parten’s Six Types of Play:Includes 3 Nonsocial Types and 3 Social TypesSee table on next slide
24Table 10.3 – Parten’s Categories of Play This is Fig on p. 169 of CDEV
25Social Behaviors Play, con’t. Sex Differences in Play: As early as 2 yrs, boys and girls display preference for same sex playmates.Girls and boys differ in choices of toys, environments, and types of activities.Boys:Prefer vigorous physical outdoor activitiesSpend more time in play groups of 5 or more engaging in competitive playMay avoid girls because they view them as inferiorGirls:More likely to engage in arts, crafts, domestic playSpend more time playing with one other child or in a smaller group
26Social Behaviors Play, con’t. Sex Differences in Play, con’t. Explaining early gender-stereotyped preferencesBiological:Boys have greater physical strength and higher activity levels.Girls have greater physical maturity and coordination.Adult/Peer Treatment:Adults treat boys and girls differently.It is expected they will conform to “masculine” and “feminine” roles.If a child “crosses the line” of gender expectation they may be ridiculed, rejected, or ignored by parents, teachers, and peers.Boys are most likely to be criticized for inappropriate gender choices in play.
28Social Behaviors Prosocial Behavior, con’t. Perspective Taking: seeing things from someone else’s point of viewAs perspective taking skills improve with age, children become more prosocial.Influences on Prosocial BehaviorEven though prosocial behavior occurs without regard for reward, it is influenced by rewards and punishments.Peers respond more positively toward prosocial children.Parents of prosocial children are likely to expect mature behavior and are less likely to use power-assertive techniques of discipline.
29Social Behaviors Development of Aggression Aggression refers to behavior intended to hurt or injure another person.As with other social behaviors, it follows certain developmental patterns.Younger children tend to resort to aggression more.Older preschoolers are more likely to resolve conflicts by sharing rather than fighting.Anger and aggression causes rejection from peers.By age 6-7 aggression becomes hostile and person-oriented name calling and physical attacksPredictive of social and emotional problems later in life, especially in boysBut aggressive children of both sexes more likely to have criminal convictions and be abusive as adults.
30Social Behaviors Theories of Aggression Genetic Cognitive Social Genes may be involved in aggressive behavior, including criminal and antisocial behavior.Greater concordance (agreement) rates found in MZ twins.Male sex hormone testosterone is connected with high self-confidence and high activity levels including aggressiveness.CognitiveChildren who find aggression a legitimate alternative are more likely to engage in aggressive behaviors to solve issues.Aggressive children lack empathy.Less likely to inhibit aggressive impulsesSocialSocial theories focus of reinforcement and observational learning.If aggressive behavior is rewarded then it tends to continue.Aggressive children may also associate with peers who value and encourage aggression.Answer to T-F? #3 - Children who are physically punished are more likely to be aggressive than children who are not. - TRUE - children who are physically punished are more likely to be aggressive themselves than children who are not physically punished. Physically aggressive parents serve as models for aggression a d also stoke their children’s anger.
31Social Behaviors Media Influences on Aggression Television is a fertile source of aggressive modeling behaviors.Children who watch 2-4 hours of TV a day will see 8,000 murders and another 100,000 violent acts.Bandura’s classic experiment (1963) with modeling violent behavior showed children viewing violence engaged in more aggressiveness.Answer to T-F? #4 - Children who watch 2-4 hours of TV a day will see 8,000 murders and another 100,000 acts of violence by the time they have finished elementary school. TRUE
33Social Behaviors Media Influences on Aggression, con’t. How violence on TV contributes to violent behaviorsObservational Learning:TV provides models of aggressive “skills” which children may imitate.Disinhibition:Punishment inhibits behavior; if the characters on TV “get away”with violence then it disinhibits the aggressiveness of the viewer.Increased Arousal:Media and video game violence increases viewers’ level of arousal. Aggressive behavior is more likely under higher arousal.Priming of Aggressive Thoughts and Memories:Media violence “primes” or arouses aggressive ideas and memories.Habituation:People get used to repeated stimuli. The more violence witnessed, the more acceptable it becomes. We become desensitized to it.Even though exposure to media violence increases the aggressiveness of behavior, according to Social Cognitive Theory, it is still a matter of choice whether or not to imitate the violence seenAnswer to T-F? # 5 - Children mechanically imitate the aggressive behavior they view in the media. FALSE - Children frequently weight the pros and cons of imitating the behavior they observe.
35Personality and Emotional Development The Self: (the sense of self & self-concept)Categorical Self:Refers to concrete external traitsChildren begin to describe themselves in terms of certain categories: age, sex, etc.Self-Concept (self-esteem):Children with high self-esteem more likely to be securely attached, having parents attentive to their needs.Also more likely to show prosocial behaviorsPreschool children make evaluative judgments around 4 yrs. about:Cognitive and physical competence (what am I good at)But still cannot distinguish between different areas of competency; just give overall statementsSocial acceptance by peers and parents (who likes me)
36Personality and Emotional Development Initiative versus GuiltErikson views Early Childhood as the stage of Initiative versus GuiltChildren strive to gain independence and master adult behavior.Are curious to try new things and test new skillsThey learn not all plans, hopes, etc. can be fulfilled.They begin to internalize adult rules.Fear of violating rules may cause guilt and delay efforts to master new skills; it can be a powerful force in the child’s lifeParents can help children by encouraging their attempts to learn and explore by not being unduly critical and punitive.
37Personality and Emotional Development Fears: The Horrors of Early ChildhoodNumber of fears peaks between yrs then tapers offPreschool years marked by decline in fears of loud noises, falling, sudden movement, strangersNow more likely to fear animals, imaginary creatures, the dark, and personal dangersFantasies and stories can be frightening and persist.Many preschoolers want a night light on.Real object and situations may also be cause for fear: storms, heights, being cut by something sharp, blood, bugs, strange or unfamiliar people
39Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Stereotypes and Gender RolesFeminine Traits:Dependent; gentle; helpful; warm; emotional; submissive; home orientedMasculine Traits:Aggressive; self-confident; independent; competitive; competent in business, math, and scienceGender Role Stereotypes Develop in Stages:1st stage at yrs: learn to label the sexes and can identify photos of girls and boysBy 3 yrs: display knowledge of gender stereotypes for toys, clothing, work, and activitiesPerceptions:Children become increasingly more traditional in stereotyping.They perceive their own sex in a better light.
41Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex DifferencesEvolution and HeredityAccording to this theory, sex differences were caused by natural selection over thousands of generations.Genes that increase the chance of survival are more likely to be transmitted.Therefore we all possess the genetic codes that helped our ancestors survive, including:Structural sex differences in the brain and differences in body chemistry such as hormonesWe see social differences evidenced by mate selection practices.Males emphasize physical attractiveness.Females emphasize financial status and reliability.
42Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex DifferencesBrain OrganizationBrain organization is largely genetic.Use of right and left hemispheres in male and females may be different.In studies with rats and humans, the use of the hippocampus (brain structure involved in forming memories and relaying sensory information) is used differently by males and females.Males use the hippocampus in both hemispheres when navigating.Females use the right hemisphere and the right prefrontal cortex (area of brain that evaluates and plans).
43Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex DifferencesSex HormonesSex hormones and other chemical stoke prenatal differentiation of sex organs.At end of embryonic stage, androgens (male sex hormones) take part in development of male genital organs.These chemicals may also “masculinize” or “feminize” the brain, giving rise to behavioral tendencies that are in some ways consistent with gender-role stereotypes.
44Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex DifferencesSocial CognitiveThis theory incorporates the roles of reinforcements (rewards and punishments) in gender typing.Children learn what society considers “masculine” and “feminine” by observing and imitating same sex models: parents, other adults, other children, and TV & video game charactersSocialization plays a role by providing children with information about what is expected of them.They are rewarded for “gender-appropriate” behaviors and punished for “inappropriate” behaviors.Boys are encourage to be independent.Girls are more likely to be restricted.Less stereotyping is exhibited by children when role models engage in non-sex-specific roles.
45Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex DifferencesCognitive-Developmental: (Kohlberg)Children form concepts about gender and then fit their behavior to the concepts.These developments occur in stages mixed with general cognitive development.Three concepts of gender typing:Gender IdentityThe knowledge that one is male or femaleUsually around age 2 yrs can discriminate anatomic sex differencesGender StabilityRecognition that people retain their sexes for a lifetimeUsually around age 4-5Gender ConstancyRecognition that people’s sex does not change even if their clothing and behavior is inconsistent with stereotypical expectationsUsually are age 5-7. But some studies have placed it as early as yrs.
47Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex DifferencesGender-SchemaFrom this viewpoint, gender identity alone inspires “gender-appropriate” behaviors.Once labeled boy or girl, the child tries to live up to those expectations.Both boys’ and girls’ self-esteem depend on how they measure up to the schema.Boys show better memory for “masculine” objects, activities, and occupations and girls show more for “feminine.”
48Development of Gender Roles and Sex Differences Theories of the Development of Sex DifferencesPsychological AndrogynyCultural stereotypes tend to polarize males and females.The polarized view assumes that “east is east and west is west and never the twain shall meet.”Emotional boys that show feminine traits are thought of as less masculine.Outspoken, competitive girls as viewed as masculine and unfeminine.But in the Androgyny view both masculine and feminine traits can be found in both sexes to varying degrees.People high in both masculine and feminine traits are termed psychologically androgynous.It is suggested promoting psychological androgyny would be an asset in meeting life challenges.Androgynous children have better social relations and adjustment and greater creativity and are more willing to pursue non-stereotypical occupations.