Presentation on theme: "Speech, Language and Communication Solent Teaching School CPD Alliance programme November 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Speech, Language and Communication Solent Teaching School CPD Alliance programme November 2013
What is speech? What is language? What is communication?
Speech is……… Discriminating sounds Processing speech sounds Articulating sounds in sequence to produce words
Language is…….. Understanding the words being spoken Expression of own ideas Understanding and using grammar and vocabulary Central to all teaching and learning!!!!
Communication is……… Changing the language to suit the situation Following the rules of conversation turn taking Looking at non-verbal behaviours
Come and play Stage in the Communication ProcessSkill usedPossible Area of Difficulty 1. John hears & attends to the message 2. He looks at Tom and is able to note the non-verbal information that helps him to decode the message including body posture, facial expression & gestures. He makes eye-contact with Tom. This promotes interaction & acknowledges that a conversation is happening. 3. John holds the spoken message in his short-term memory (around 20 seconds). 4. John processes the meaning of the message in terms of:- i) sounds ii) vocabulary He understands the individual word meanings, e.g., ‘play’ as opposed to ‘paint’. iii) grammar He understands “Come and play” as an invitation in the present rather than a comment for example “He came and played”. iv) non-verbal behaviour He interprets the tone of voice, volume and facial expression to mean a friendly invitation that requires an answer rather than a command or threat. 4a. To do all of the above he draws upon information stored in his long-term memory. Hearing, listening, attention Social skills Short-term memory, Auditory discrimination, phonological knowledge Understanding vocabulary Understanding grammar Social skills Long-term memory and learning ability Hearing, listening, attention Social communication difficulties Short-term memory difficulties Phonological processing Comprehension Poor language store Pragmatic difficulties Long-term memory Input(understanding )
OK I’m in goal John replies to Tom - Output Expressive Stage in Communication ProcessSkill usedPossible area of difficulty 5. John makes his response in terms of:- i) sounds – he needs to make up the word he has chosen from the range of sounds and sound combinations permitted in the language he speaks. ii) vocabulary – he needs to choose the correct words to express his ideas. iii) grammar – he needs to put the words in the correct order, e.g., “I’m in goal” not “goal I’m in”, with the necessary suffixes and prefixes, e.g., I‘m (am) not ‘was’. iv) non-verbal behaviour – the utterance must be said in the correct tone and volume to match the intention. Facial expression, body posture and gesture should also match. The rules of conversation need to be adhered to, e.g., taking turns, responding to another topic of conversation etc. 6. A response is produced (articulated). Muscles carry out the movement needed for speech, facial and body posture. Sounds and gestures are produced. Good anatomical & physiological functioning of the speech musculature are needed. 7. John listens to his message & corrects any mistakes. This self- monitoring maybe at the sound level, e.g., “car park” not “par cark”, vocabulary level, e.g., “to the best of my ability” not “mobility” or at the non-verbal level, e.g., “will you do it” not “will you do it”. Phonology Expressive vocabulary & word finding Using grammar Social skills Articulation Self-monitoring Phonological disorder Articulation disorder Semantic difficulty Expressive language difficulty Pragmatic difficulty Articulation difficulty
Byers-brown & Edwards 1989 Children who are unable to communicate effectively through language as a basis for further learning are handicapped socially, educationally, and as a consequence, emotionally.
Why do things sometimes go wrong for children with language difficulties? Early in a child’s development language becomes a substitute for an action As they learn to process information they develop the ability to express their needs. Abnormal language development leads to a disruption in the development of behavioural control Child is put under pressure to conform in situations where the ability to respond is compromised. Resulting in tantrums and arousal problems.
The first steps A baby makes the distinction between feelings of dis/comfort and distress/contentment but these feelings are not labelled by the baby. This is done with the help of a parent/carer therefore they develop emotional literacy The reliance on others to manage these emotions then progresses into self regulation
Feelings state talk A parent or carer helps a child to become aware of their own feelings by using Feelings State talk. A child falls over - pain/discomfort – pacified and soothed – emotions and feelings are labelled by the parent/carer In time the child will rehearse events with language The quality of the Feelings State talk at 3 years will predict empathetic skills at 6 years
Emotional literacy Learning emotional language helps children to understand emotions and talking about emotional states helps children to manage and control emotions Children first learn to recognise and control their own emotions before they can understand and respond to the emotions of others Only then does ‘how do you think he felt when you…………?’ become meaningful
Self regulation Only once we have learned to recognise emotions in ourselves and others can we learn to control them. Small children rely on carers to regulate their states of arousal High cortisol levels leads to lower threshold for stress and sensitivity to stress triggers Cortisol is the stress hormone and levels are set @ 6months
Language and self regulation Language plays a key role in the development of self regulation Thinking process – Have I seen this before, what did I do, did it work, what alternatives do I have, try it and see?! EV ENT RESPONSE Executive function Evaluate Prioritise Select responses
Language as a tool for self regulation At 2 years – children have some impulse control with the support of adults. Their understanding of language may not be clear yet 3 – 4 years – children use their language as a method of self regulation eg commentary in play 6 – 7 years – the commentary becomes internalised ‘private speech’ and this is used to guide behaviour
Summary From the early years children with language difficulties may show High states of arousal and sensitivity to stress Poor peer relationships Limited emotional literacy and empathy Limited ability for self regulation of their behaviour. These difficulties will persist without appropriate intervention
KILLER FACTS Communication disorder is the most common disability seen in childhood affecting up to 10% of children in society. 7% of 5 year olds entering school have significant speech, language and communication needs (SLCN) Up to 55% of children in deprived areas do not have the necessary speech and language skills needed to learn to read and write 70% of young offenders have SLCN
Stoke on Trent 2004 All 3 year olds children screened in 2004 84% language levels 2 years or below Unable to access the curriculum, implications for behaviour and life chances Post interventions – 39% significant delay Basingstoke October 2009 found significant delay 33% Nursery aged children 39% Year R
Children from low income families are found to be generally 16 months behind in vocabulary at point of entry to school Vocabulary at 5 years is the best predictor of children in social deprivation who ‘escape’ the poverty trap Vocabulary must be a priority in Foundation stage (Report The EYFS (0-%) Curriculum September 2012: Prioritisation of Speaking and Listening Cycle of Deprivation
So what are the implications for schools? Poor communication skills impact on……… Educational achievement vocabulary at 5 year is the best predictor of GCSE results Behaviour and exclusions 2/3 of children 7 – 14 years with challenging behaviour have language impairment. increased risk of exclusions Mental Health 40% 7 – 14 years referred to CAMHS have undetected LI. Long term – more unemployment, redundancy, low income
Missing children? A study of 7 year olds (Conti-Ramsden and Bolting) showed that children with clear speech may have language problems that are difficult to recognise. We miss 4 out of 5 of them What to look out for to spot them? Attention and listening, Vocabulary, Early number skills, Story telling, Expressive grammar, Reading comprehension
Activity Work in pairs. One person faces the screen the other person faces away from the screen. The person facing away from the screen will need a pencil and paper Person A describes the picture on the screen to person B using only gesture Person B draws the picture as described by person A
Factors affecting development of speech, language and communication Social difficulties/lack of opportunity to communicate. This may be as a result of poor parent/child interaction and living in a language poor environment. Learning difficulties. The child who experiences general learning difficulties will also have language difficulties. His levels in language will be commensurate with his general cognitive ability. Emotional and behavioural difficulties. The child with EBD may also have weak understanding and expressive language skills. Sensory impairment, for example, hearing impairment. Hearing impairment has a direct and significant impact on the child’s language development. Intermittent and low- level hearing loss can also have an impact on language development and social interaction..
Pervasive developmental disorders and syndromes. Many syndromes and pervasive developmental disorders have associated language difficulties, for example, Autistic Spectrum Disorder, Down Syndrome, Fragile X Syndrome, etc. Neurological conditions, for example, epilepsy, brain injury, cerebral palsy. Some of these conditions may have associated language difficulties but this is not always the case. Turbulence. The child who has been exposed in the early years to rapid and sometimes traumatic changes in environments and languages may have some degree of language difficulties. Physical impairments, for example, cleft lip and palate
Listening Hearing Medical disorders e.g. ADD Environmental factors e.g. sensory Development al delay Voice e.g. speed, volume Language e.g. too complex, too long
Problems with understanding.. Descriptions of classroom behaviour may include…. He won’t do as he is told He is in a world of his own He is always one step behind everyone else He just doesn’t care He doesn’t even try He is just a naughty boy
Listening and understanding Child listens Receptive language problems – does not understand Child stops listening Understanding does not improve Listening time becomes shorter
Support for understanding in the classroom Visual experiential support for learning Clear routines. Visual timetables Demonstrate/show whenever possible Opportunities for hands on learning Use natural gestures – it helps to engage attention Mind mapping. Use topic and concept webs Diagrams to represent text Visual dictionaries for topic vocabulary
Support understanding in the classroom Adult language Mark clearly when listening is expected Keep verbal instructions short and simple Simplify instructions Repeat key words and ask for the pupil to repeat back to you Keep order of instructions the same as the order of action
Think about your own language Common words that have an alternative specific meaning may cause difficulty e.g. ‘light’ Early social use – light/dark Key stage 1 and 2 use – light and heavy Key stage 3 and 4 use – white light (science) and light fingered (figurative) Be aware of idioms, metaphor, simile as those may be taken literally
Teaching vocabulary Identify key content words (e.g. igneous) and process words (e.g. compare and contrast) that are essential to know. Try to link new words to familiar words and experiences. Child describes the word by meaning and by attributes such as colour, first letter etc. Provide opportunities to use and repeat the words
Help them with…… The language of adults in the classroom Speed Chunking Repeating your sentence Check understanding Simplifying language Sequencing tasks Idioms Support your language with visual cues/actual objects/written key words
Why do some children have difficulty expressing themselves? Fear Not understanding what is being asked Lack of vocabulary Cannot structure a narrative Cannot organise the words so that they can be understood Cannot organise sounds
In a classroom we may notice Waiting a long time before responding Starting to speak and then pausing mid- sentence/or repeats what he has just said Struggles to find the right word and makes substitutions e.g. bottle/battle; clock/watch Word order problems in sentences, sequencing ideas e.g. to describe an experiment Slow delivery of conversation Limited use of abstract language e.g. trust
Pupil wordsWhat is wrong? In response to a question from the teacher: she did it to him and he did too He she? Who I learned my brother to ride him bikePossessives John is angry and he forgot his money and no get drink Muddle word order The horse is eat some hayEndings - ing Dad went shop in car got beertelegrammatic Last night the sheeps get out Plural Tenses Mark said he was going and Mark bangs the door. Mark runned off in the road Irregular plurals Q; how much did you weigh when you were born A; about a year Abstract? quantify It’s his turn to shake the dominoWrong word
Emotional responses may include Social isolation – few friends Distress in response to verbal teasing Physical responses to social situations High levels of frustration/anxiety Problems explaining what they have done instead – swearing (lack of narrative skills)
Oral narrative Oral narrative is a natural conversation between people and can be an internal function Narrative can be a social skill a survival skill an education skill Deficits result in poor relationships, being in trouble all the time and poor academic success
Support for expressive language in the classroom What do we do already? Give extra time to reply Avoid letting others talk for him or anticipating needs Use modelling Pre prepare responses to planned class questions Use reduced options or alternatives Support for less structured time
Modelling If a pupil makes a mistake with grammar or word order don’t correct it but model back the correct way of saying it By repeating what was said pupil - the mices runned under the sofa Adult – Oh the mice ran under the sofa, did they? Pupil – Kate is my friend he is Staff – oh she likes you does she?
HOW language is used Descriptions from staff may include; He never stops talking He doesn’t know when to stop talking He will just say anything He keeps butting in…….. Always pestering me when I’m busy or talking to another pupil He is really naughty or disruptive
Signs associated with pragmatic difficulties Does the pupil know……. How to end a conversation without being rude Reading and providing non-verbal cues such as facial expressions, eye contact, prosody, loudness of voice, gesture, inferences about feelings and proximity Adjusting what is said and how it is said to the audience Knowing when to talk and when to be quiet!!
Social skills are taught therefore they can be learned Pragmatic skills is one area of social skills you can teach, along with…… Eye contact Appropriate age behaviour Adjusting to different people and contexts Turn taking Initiating conversation Proximity Negotiation Tone of voice
Language and behaviour Children are invariably trying to solve problems rather than be one Their solutions to problems are often misguided because of their concept of the problem is faulty or because their skills leave much to be desired Martin Herbert (1985)