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Reverse Inclusion By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky, & Jenna Filipone West Chester Univeristy KIN 582.

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Presentation on theme: "Reverse Inclusion By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky, & Jenna Filipone West Chester Univeristy KIN 582."— Presentation transcript:

1 Reverse Inclusion By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky, & Jenna Filipone West Chester Univeristy KIN 582

2 What is Inclusion? Students with disabilities participates in a typical educational classroom setting in order to interact with others and be included in the least restrictive environment Environment includes… Specials Lunch Recess Academic Settings Time included in mainstream setting depends on the individual child’s needs Amount of time student is in the inclusive environment varies from child to child

3 Benefits of Inclusion Children with disabilities Development of friendships Enhanced self-respect Sense of belonging Peer models. Children W/O disabilities Increase awareness and responsiveness Increase skill acquisition Gains in communication skills Development of friendships Sense of belonging ALL Students Develop respect for all Increase understanding of other children’s needs Challenges of Inclusion Lack of quality staff Logistics Scheduling Funding Difficulties trying to meet the students’ unique needs in the general education setting.

4 Ways to “Include” Children with Disabilities Full Inclusion Children are full participants in a general education program Cluster A small group of children with disabilities is embedded within a program for children who are typically developing Reverse Inclusion A small group of children who are typically developing is added to a specialized program for children with disabilities Social Inclusion Children with disabilities are in separate classes but social interactions opportunities are planned for children with and without disabilities

5 Reverse Inclusion Is the process of including developing children in a special education classroom. Providing peer interaction opportunities while providing the support services by bringing the classroom setting for a short period of time to interact socially

6 Challenges of Reverse Inclusion Finding student without disabilities to enroll in program Funding for supplies for students who are not disabled Transporting students who are not disabled on fieldtrips Having to work with a large number of students Time to planning for all Training staff to properly facilitate inclusion interactions

7 Advantages of Reverse Inclusion No extra classroom/therapy room needed No collaboration is needed with GE teacher SE Teacher has control of schedule, activities and classroom ALL students have better social development, more empathy, and higher academic achievement ALL students develop friendships and enhances self- respect Allows for peer modeling for students with disabilities which increase skill achievement and communication skills Fosters friends for ALL students

8 Elements of Reserve Inclusion Administrator Support Inclusion and Collaboration Physical Environment Teaching Strategies Student Selection

9 Resources Needed Parents of children W/O disabilities willing to participate Support from administration Flexible Staff Staff who is willing to implement differentiated instruction

10 Benefits of Reverse Inclusion Disabled Helps make lasting friendships Motivate them to improve their communication skills Help increase success rate on meeting IEP social/emotional skills Improve their chances of eventually joining an inclusion setting Non-Disabled Build friendships that will last outside of the classroom Learn how to get along with students who are different from them Help to combat stereotypes and embrace diversity and respect

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12 Disability Sports- History Following WWII the demand for rehabilitation programs increased Sir Ludwig Guttman, believed that sports should be an integral pat of rehabilitation programs Rehabilitation sport programs grew into recreational sports and eventually competitive sports The Stoke Mandeville Games were held at The Stoke Mandeville Hospital in England First Paralympics held in Rome 1960’s- Special Olympics Paralympics 2012

13 Disabled Sport Organizations International Wheelchair Rugby Federation- IWRF Cerebral Palsy International Sport and Recreation Association- CPISRA International Blind Sports Federation- IBSA International Wheelchair Basketball Federation- IWBF International Wheelchair Amputee Sports Federation- IWAS United States Association for Blind Athletes- USABA International Committee of Sports for the Deaf - ICSD Special Olympics

14 Disability Sports vs. Adapted Sports Adapted sports – traditional sports altered to meet the needs of an individual with a disability Disability sports- sports created specifically for individuals with disabilities Disability sports: Sitting volleyball, Beep Baseball, Goalball, wheelchair sports

15 Sit Volleyball Started in the Netherlands- Paralympic Sport Those eligible to play: neurological, neuromuscular, muscular, bone, joint, and amputation disabilities Differentiated rules: - A portion of the pelvis must be in contact with the floor at all times - Net heights

16 Sit Volleyball in Action Sit Volleyball in Rwanda Incorporating in general PE: All students are seated Lower a badminton net Minimal equipment needed- Rope, Ball, Tape

17 Goalball USA vs. China Hans Lorenzen Blind sport- played by athletes with visual impairments Paralympic sport Teams of 3 attempt to roll the ball past the opposing team’s defense Equipment: -Goaball -Tactile Court -Blind folds

18 Goalball Goalball Germany vs Japan 2011 Remember Me Drill: Spread in a square pass the ball in the same sequence every time, call for ball by tapping Block It: Students stand in a circle around a blindfolded student, trying to pass the ball past the blindfolded student with the underhand Goalball roll Incorporating in General PE: All students are blindfolded Students serve as line judges/ score keepers Nets are not necessarily needed

19 Beep Baseball Blind Sport- athletes with visual impairments Many tournaments held around the country each year Equipment Needed: -Beep baseball -Bases -Bat -Tee -Blindfolds Similar rules used in baseball 6 positions Batter must reach the base before the ball is fielded by an outfielder

20 Beep Baseball Incorporating into General PE: All students wear blindfolds Allow each team to bat an entire cycle Use students as pitchers/ spotters Students in the field wear helmets as well

21 Wheelchair Sports Wheelchair soccer: - Played by individuals with physical disabilities -Played on a basketball court -Manual/ electric wheelchairs Wheelchair rugby: -Murderball -USA- Quad Rugby -Handball, basketball, and hockey -Use manual sports chairs made specifically for gameplay Wheelchair basketball: -Paralympic sport -Similar rules to basketball -Only touch wheels twice after dribbling or receiving a pass “travelling”

22 Wheelchair Sports cont… Wheelchair Basketball Call It Out Drill: Passes as you move down the floor Incorporating into General PE: Borrow wheelchairs for use If no chairs are available use office chairs Adapt rules as needed

23 Resources Building Bridges. (2012) Inclusion-Reverse Inclusion. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from Davis, Ronald W. (2011). Teaching Disability Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Inclusion Collaborative. (2008). Reverse Inclusion. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from Rafferty, Yvonne & Kenneth W. Griffin. (2005). Benefits and Risks of Reverse Inclusion for Preschoolers with and without Disabilities: Perspectives of Parents and Provider. Journal of Early Intervention, 2005, Vol. 27, No. 3, Schoger, Kimberly D. (2006). Reserve Inclusion: Providing Peer Social Interaction Opportunities to Students Placed in Self- Contained Special Education Classrooms. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 2(6) Article 3. Retrieved February 10, 2013 from


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