Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky, West Chester Univeristy KIN 582

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky, West Chester Univeristy KIN 582"— Presentation transcript:

1 By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky, West Chester Univeristy KIN 582
Reverse Inclusion By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky, & Jenna Filipone West Chester Univeristy KIN 582

2 What is Inclusion? Students with disabilities participates in a typical educational classroom setting in order to interact with others and be included in the least restrictive environment Environment includes… Specials Lunch Recess Academic Settings Time included in mainstream setting depends on the individual child’s needs Amount of time student is in the inclusive environment varies from child to child Inclusion opportunities are limited by lack of quality staff, logistics, scheduling and other difficulties when trying to meet the students’ unique needs in the general education setting. Many students with disabilities are served in segregated self-contained classrooms that offer few opportunities Program provided beneficial to all students

3 Challenges of Inclusion
Benefits of Inclusion Challenges of Inclusion Lack of quality staff Logistics Scheduling Funding Difficulties trying to meet the students’ unique needs in the general education setting. Children with disabilities Development of friendships Enhanced self-respect Sense of belonging Peer models. Children W/O disabilities Increase awareness and responsiveness Increase skill acquisition Gains in communication skills ALL Students Develop respect for all Increase understanding of other children’s needs

4 Ways to “Include” Children with Disabilities
Full Inclusion Children are full participants in a general education program Cluster A small group of children with disabilities is embedded within a program for children who are typically developing Reverse Inclusion A small group of children who are typically developing is added to a specialized program for children with disabilities Social Inclusion Children with disabilities are in separate classes but social interactions opportunities are planned for children with and without disabilities

5 Reverse Inclusion Is the process of including developing children in a special education classroom. Providing peer interaction opportunities while providing the support services by bringing the classroom setting for a short period of time to interact socially Students with out disabilities are brought into the special education classroom for part of the school day or for the entire day. ** Peer Modeling helps enhance social skill development

6 Challenges of Reverse Inclusion
Finding student without disabilities to enroll in program Funding for supplies for students who are not disabled Transporting students who are not disabled on fieldtrips Having to work with a large number of students Time to planning for all Training staff to properly facilitate inclusion interactions Appropriate planning of activities in which both disabled and non-disabled can contribute too Need strong communication skills between teachers, staff, and students (communication aids) Implement communication training to help students benefit from inclusion

7 Advantages of Reverse Inclusion
No extra classroom/therapy room needed No collaboration is needed with GE teacher SE Teacher has control of schedule, activities and classroom ALL students have better social development, more empathy, and higher academic achievement ALL students develop friendships and enhances self-respect Allows for peer modeling for students with disabilities which increase skill achievement and communication skills Fosters friends for ALL students

8 Elements of Reserve Inclusion
Administrator Support Inclusion and Collaboration Physical Environment Teaching Strategies Student Selection Administrator Support Need to provide philosophical support of reverse inclusion Inclusion and Collaboration Support from families of children without disabilities Support of staff to facilitate peer interactions Physical Environment Environment may need to be adapted by staff Teaching Strategies Need to create cooperative activities Differentiate instruction for ALL students Create embedded learning opportunities Measureable program goals Student Selection Determined by social IEP goals (social/emotional goals) and what the teacher believed the child could benefit from. IEP goals included specific peer interactions Full inclusion should be tried with student before trying reverse inclusion Students W/O disabilities would have a mode of communication to deliver step-by-step basic instructions and an ability to focus on an activity with other students Able to model acceptable social behaviors- accept other individual differences

9 Resources Needed Parents of children W/O disabilities willing to participate Support from administration Flexible Staff Staff who is willing to implement differentiated instruction

10 Benefits of Reverse Inclusion
Disabled Non-Disabled Build friendships that will last outside of the classroom Learn how to get along with students who are different from them Help to combat stereotypes and embrace diversity and respect Helps make lasting friendships Motivate them to improve their communication skills Help increase success rate on meeting IEP social/emotional skills Improve their chances of eventually joining an inclusion setting


12 Disability Sports- History
Following WWII the demand for rehabilitation programs increased Sir Ludwig Guttman, believed that sports should be an integral pat of rehabilitation programs Rehabilitation sport programs grew into recreational sports and eventually competitive sports 1948- The Stoke Mandeville Games were held at The Stoke Mandeville Hospital in England 1960- First Paralympics held in Rome 1960’s- Special Olympics Paralympics 2012 Soldiers and civilians injured during the war required rehabilitation programs 1948- The Olympics were being held in London The Stoke Mandeville Games was a competition for athletes in wheelchairs More than 400 athletes from 23 different countries participated in the Stoke Mandeville Games The Stoke Mandeville Games were the precursor to the Paralympics Paralympics are governed by the IPC- Int’l Paralympic Committee The Special Olympics were driven by a series of Camps started by Eunice Kennedy Shriver- for individuals with ID

13 Disabled Sport Organizations
International Wheelchair Rugby Federation- IWRF Cerebral Palsy International Sport and Recreation Association- CPISRA International Blind Sports Federation- IBSA International Wheelchair Basketball Federation- IWBF International Wheelchair Amputee Sports Federation- IWAS United States Association for Blind Athletes- USABA International Committee of Sports for the Deaf - ICSD Special Olympics

14 Disability Sports vs. Adapted Sports
Adapted sports – traditional sports altered to meet the needs of an individual with a disability Disability sports- sports created specifically for individuals with disabilities Disability sports: Sitting volleyball, Beep Baseball, Goalball, wheelchair sports Adapted sports may include changes to existing rules Disability sports do not have rule modifications – no traditional sport equivalent

15 Sit Volleyball Started in the Netherlands- Paralympic Sport
Those eligible to play: neurological, neuromuscular, muscular, bone, joint, and amputation disabilities Differentiated rules: - A portion of the pelvis must be in contact with the floor at all times - Net heights Demo sport in the Paralympics – 1976 Men’s sit volleyball Paralympic debut- 1980 Women’s sit volleyball Paralympic debut- 2004 These disabilities may be congenital, acquired, progressive, non-progressive, ambulatory, or non-ambulatory Men height: 1.15 m, Womens height: 1.05 m

16 Sit Volleyball in Action
Sit Volleyball in Rwanda Incorporating in general PE: All students are seated Lower a badminton net Minimal equipment needed- Rope, Ball, Tape Rope for net, ball and tape for lines

17 Goalball USA vs. China Hans Lorenzen- 1946
Blind sport- played by athletes with visual impairments Paralympic sport Teams of 3 attempt to roll the ball past the opposing team’s defense Equipment: Goaball Tactile Court Blind folds Developed for visually impaired soldiers returning home from WWII Goalball rules controlled by IBSF – International Blind Sport Federation

18 Incorporating in General PE:
Goalball Goalball Germany vs Japan 2011 Remember Me Drill: Spread in a square pass the ball in the same sequence every time, call for ball by tapping Block It: Students stand in a circle around a blindfolded student, trying to pass the ball past the blindfolded student with the underhand Goalball roll Incorporating in General PE: All students are blindfolded Students serve as line judges/ score keepers Nets are not necessarily needed

19 Beep Baseball Blind Sport- athletes with visual impairments
Many tournaments held around the country each year Equipment Needed: Beep baseball Bases Bat Tee Blindfolds Similar rules used in baseball 6 positions Batter must reach the base before the ball is fielded by an outfielder

20 Beep Baseball Beep Baseball Incorporating into General PE:
All students wear blindfolds Allow each team to bat an entire cycle Use students as pitchers/ spotters Students in the field wear helmets as well

21 Wheelchair basketball:
Wheelchair Sports Wheelchair soccer: - Played by individuals with physical disabilities Played on a basketball court Manual/ electric wheelchairs Wheelchair rugby: Murderball USA- Quad Rugby Handball, basketball, and hockey Use manual sports chairs made specifically for gameplay Wheelchair basketball: Paralympic sport Similar rules to basketball Only touch wheels twice after dribbling or receiving a pass “travelling” Quad rugby- all players have at least three impaired limbs that classify them as quadriplegic Quad Rugby incorporates aspects from all three sports

22 Wheelchair Sports cont…
Wheelchair Basketball Call It Out Drill: Passes as you move down the floor Incorporating into General PE: Borrow wheelchairs for use If no chairs are available use office chairs Adapt rules as needed

23 Resources Building Bridges. (2012) Inclusion-Reverse Inclusion. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from Davis, Ronald W. (2011). Teaching Disability Sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Inclusion Collaborative. (2008). Reverse Inclusion. Retrieved on February 10, 2013 from .org/programs/inclusion Rafferty, Yvonne & Kenneth W. Griffin. (2005). Benefits and Risks of Reverse Inclusion for Preschoolers with and without Disabilities: Perspectives of Parents and Provider. Journal of Early Intervention, 2005, Vol. 27, No. 3, Schoger, Kimberly D. (2006). Reserve Inclusion: Providing Peer Social Interaction Opportunities to Students Placed in Self-Contained Special Education Classrooms. TEACHING Exceptional Children Plus, 2(6) Article 3. Retrieved February 10, 2013 from

Download ppt "By: Whitney Sharp, Leah Barcusky, West Chester Univeristy KIN 582"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google