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Chapter 10 Becoming a World Power The Pressure to Expand The Spanish-American War A New Foreign Policy Debating America’s New Role.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 10 Becoming a World Power The Pressure to Expand The Spanish-American War A New Foreign Policy Debating America’s New Role."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 10 Becoming a World Power The Pressure to Expand The Spanish-American War A New Foreign Policy Debating America’s New Role

2 The Pressure to Expand The US had developed into an “INDUSTRIAL POWERHOUSE” US needed to export goods to the world. To protect its interests, the US, like Europe, looked to colonize/imperialize Growth of Imperialism – stronger nations attempts to create empires by dominating weaker nations ◦Why Imperialism Grew  Economic Factors – need for natural resources, new markets  Nationalistic Factors – (devotion to one’s country) – believe their culture, ideas, ways of life are superior and must be shared ( manifest destiny, divine right )  Military Factors – superior forces and need to protect economic interests  Humanitarian Factors – duty to spread blessings of western civilization (law, democracy, religion, medicine, etc ) ◦Europe Leads the Way – better transportation made expansion possible ◦British Empire - “the sun never sets on the British Empire” ◦Competition for new territory grew very intense ◦By 1890 – US eager to join competition. MONROE DOCTRINE meant US would stay out of Africa, but Central/South America and Pacific OK

3 Map Activity Use colored markers or pencils to complete the map. (p. 351) ◦Identify the major countries colonizing ◦Identify which parts of the world EACH took control over ◦ Designate a color for each country ◦ Color map to show regions colonized by each

4 The Pressure to Expand Expanding U.S. Interests ◦MONROE DOCTRINE – Foreign Policy from 1820’s that stated the US would not expand into Africa and Europe would not expand in the Western Hemisphere (N/C/S America) ◦US foreign policy focused on Central America in mid-1800’s ◦Seward’s purchase of Alaska (Seward’s Folly) extended US reach ◦US also showed interest in the Pacific Ocean (1853 Japan, 1860’s China)  Midway Islands and Hawaii for ports Arguments for US Expansionism ◦Economic – needed markets for goods  BANANA REPUBICS – US investments in central Americans countries brought US control to some degree. Money went, but rights did not follow ◦Protecting US Security/Interests – US economic interests needed to be protected. A strong NAVY was deemed necessary  By 1900 – US had one of the strongest, most powerful navies on the seas ◦Preserving the US Spirit – Americans loved to explore  MANIFEST DESTINY – our right/responsibility to expand, share our way of life  SOCIAL DARWINISM – those more powerful should/would dominate weaker. Sadly, this was driven much by racism

5 The Spanish American War YELLOW JOURNALISM – American newspaper used sensationalism to stoke to flames of war ◦Young Cuban girl rescued from evil Spanish ◦Creative headlines sold papers and created an outcry for gov’t action US ready to expand, this gave them the reason ◦To expand, the US would have to take on another country (to prove they were legitimate players in the game) ◦Spain’s treatment of native people in Cuba the excuse needed

6 Setting the Stage for War Displays of US Power – ◦Chile – mobs against American sailors attacked, killed - US gov’t reacted strongly, demanded payment to families ◦Brazil – when rebellion possible, US sent in troops to protect US interests. Stopped rebellion ◦Venezuela – When GB got involved in dispute between V and neighbor, US demanded it go to arbitration (Monroe Doctrine). GB said Monroe Doctrine had not standing in international law. US threatened retaliation and GB backed down The Cuban Rebellion – When GB backed down, US got more confident ◦Cuba – Spain controlled Cuba, violently. Cubans had tried to rebel but failed. In 1895, Cubans tried again when economy dropped. Spain sent troops and put hundreds of thousands of Cubans into “reconcentration camps”. Prisoners lived on little food in horrid conditions for over 2 years. Starvation killed more than 200,000 in this time ◦Jose Marti – Cuban journalist whipped up US support for rebellion. People wanted to help, but presidents McKinley and Cleveland did not. To ‘get the attention’ of the great American presidents, the rebels attacked and burned US interests in Cuba. As a result, US businessmen pressured government to intervene Yellow Journalism – US newspapers took up the cause ◦Hearst and Pulitzer competed to see who could show most horrors. Nationalism and JINGOISM pushed US towards war with Spain ◦JINGOISM – burst of national pride and desire for aggressive foreign policy

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8 The Spanish American War Early 1898, riots broke out in Havana, Cuba ◦President McKinley sent warships to Havana Harbor (USS MAINE) ◦Several events will push the US towards war  The deLome letter – a letter stolen from Spain’s ambassador called President McKinley “weak and a bidder for the admiration of a crowd.” Press used to intensify anti-Spanish sentiment  The explosion of the USS Maine – An explosion sank the USS Maine in Havana Harbor. More than 250 US sailors killed. The explosion was probably an accident but the press used yellow journalism to blame Spain. The enraged US public demanded war  Preparing in the Philippines – US attacked another Spanish colony, the Philippines. It was a key location the US wanted. Used conflict to take from Spain. Told US Navy to attack if war broke out with Spain  McKinley’s War Message – McKinley made demands of Spain (end concentration camps, Cuban independence, compensation). Spain agreed to all but Cuban independence. McKinley decided it wasn’t enough and asked Congress to declare war on Spain

9 The Spanish American War “A splendid little war” - ◦1 st Action in Philippines – surprise attack on Spanish Fleet ◦In 7 hours, entire Spanish Pacific Fleet destroyed ◦US troops gathered in Florida to prepare to invade Cuba ◦ Spanish Fleet tried to escape, sunk in Havana Harbor ◦Though 1,500 Americans died, only 400 died in battle The Treaty of Paris ◦Cuban independence recognized by Spain ◦US paid $20 million but got Puerto Rico, Philippines and Guam ◦Treaty met with great debate before narrowly passing ◦ Some wanted annexation for new territories ◦ Others horrified at tactics used by US to drum up war and take territory

10 New Challenges After the War Dilemma in the Philippines ◦Now need to take control, Filipino people wanted their independence ◦Uprising against US troops, 100,000’s filipino’s died ◦US finding imperialism/expansion messy Fate of Cuba ◦US set up military occupation, Cuban people wanted independence ◦US did not believe Cubans capable of self-government ◦Platt Amendment – limited independence  US reserved right to intervene is US interests were at risk The US and Puerto Rico ◦US took Puerto Rico as a territory with no plans to make a state ◦Puerto Ricans agreed to follow US control ◦Still a territory today

11 Other Claims in the Pacific Annexation of Hawaii ◦Economic control taken by US capitalists. Governing power taken from Queen Lilioukalani (she tried to resist and failed) ◦Pearl Harbor used as major port for US Navy and for trade Samoa ◦Deal struck with the leaders of Samoa. US only would have access to their ports. If they allowed any other country to use, the US would intervene/attack Open Door to China ◦Spheres of Influence  Splitting up China into regions, each colonizing country would sell/trade within their region ◦Open Door Policy  China would be open to all countries to trade throughout the entire country  US believed it could beat out all competition if the rule for trade were equal for all

12 A New Foreign Policy Use your book (p. 366 – 371) to find information to fill out a chart like the one below on a piece of paper. Foreign Policy After the Spanish American War Panama Canal Big Stick Diplomacy Dollar Diplomacy Moral Diplomacy ****** ****** ****** ******

13 The Panama Canal Building the Canal ◦US had need to be able to get their Navy/business goods to both the West (China, Japan) and East (Europe) ◦Had to sail all the way around South America or keep 2 fleets ◦A canal had been proposed by the French in the late 1800’s but failed due to diseases and money issues ◦US tried to secure rights to build the canal from Colombia, who demanded an outrageous sum ($100 million). The US refused and the price fell to $40M. Congress passed act to OK the deal as long as Colombia agreed. ◦Colombia stalled, hoping french deal would expire and they could raise the price for the canal zone ◦The US got creative in gaining control of the canal zone  Panamanian rebel had tried several times to gain independence from Colombia  US made a deal with rebels to block Colombia from Panama during the rebellion and in return, when they were independent, they would sell us the rights to build the canal for a reasonable price ($10M)  It worked and construction began in It would be complete in 1914

14 Panama Canal To accomplish the task, the US had to overcome tough obstacles ◦Disease – malaria, yellow fever ◦Terrain – 51 miles from coast to coast ◦Technology of the day – no big earth moving machines, everything was dug by hand. All that earth had to be moved out

15 Reaction to the Canal Method used opposed by Roosevelt’s opponents “Foul play in American politics” Most Americans saw canal as a necessity for American prosperity and security This and other dealings in Central America left the region with a really bad opinion of the US

16 Roosevelt’s BIG STICK Diplomacy “Speak Softly and Carry a BIG STICK” TRoosevelt The Roosevelt Corollary – added onto the Monroe Doctrine ◦Only wanted to see our neighbors be orderly and prosperous ◦US would intervene if not in US interests (Platt Amendment) ◦If forced to use “police power” to prevent other nations from taking advantage, we would ◦1 st attempt in Dominican Republic. It went bankrupt. When European nations threatened to intervene, Roosevelt took over. US banks oversaw finances. Tho Congress tried to block, President used an “executive order” to make a deal with the D.R. ◦US intervention in Latin America became common during this era Roosevelt as a Peacemaker (wins Nobel Peace Prize for efforts) ◦#1 issue was to keep “open door” in trade with China ◦War between Japan and Russia threatened this ◦Roosevelt mediated a peace agreement. Both nations sent representatives to US. Japan agreed to small land concessions while Russia agreed to leave Manchuria

17 Foreign Policy after Roosevelt Foreign Policy under Roosevelt had been to use force to get our way (“Big Stick”). Presidents that followed saw different methods as better TAFT and Dollar Diplomacy ◦2 Goals: Open Door with China, stability in Latin America ◦Dollar Diplomacy replaced bullets with dollars. Investing in these nations would increase US wealth and make countries our allies rather than our enemies ◦Did not work as well as Taft had hoped. US invested millions in railroads in China. Money/investments lost when revolution hit China ◦In Latin America, US backed some bad governments because they would protect US interests, angering local rebel leaders WILSON and Moral Diplomacy ◦Revolution in Mexico risked US investments. European countries made deals with new leader in Mexico (who had assassinated his opponent). Wilson refused to deal with “the butcher” ◦US would intervene in Mexico

18 Foreign Policy after Roosevelt WILSON and Moral Diplomacy ◦American troops briefly arrested in Mexican town ◦Wilson uses as provocation, and sends in US military ◦After brief occupation, Mexican leader resigns. US Navy withdraws ◦Mexican rebel, Pancho Villa will draw US back. Attack on US town across border give Wilson reason to send troops into Mexico. After many clashes (and deaths on both sides), US withdraws without ever catching Villa ◦Moral Diplomacy did not work well at all. Wilson’s intervention in Mexico began ill feelings between the two countries that still exists today

19 Anti Imperialism Moral and Political Arguments ◦“Liberty for All” ◦The Constitution should follow the flag (don’t benefit from US takeover) ◦Shouldn’t be forced to wait for liberty ◦Went against democratic principles ◦PREBUTTAL – people weren’t ready for democracy Racial Arguments ◦Many people, at this time, believed white people were superior ◦Policies were racist because the US only went into areas where people of color lived African Americans were torn – wanted to support their country but had been and were the subject to racial discrimination Economic Arguments ◦Not right for the US to expand (cost too much in $$ and lives) ◦People from annexed areas were coming to America and taking jobs

20 Appeal of Imperialism New Frontier ◦Exploring new regions ◦Frontier mentality Celebration of American power & traditions Needed to gain new US markets to maintain economic growth GREAT WHITE FLEET – Navy trip designed to demonstrate the US’s huge naval powers

21 Imperialism viewed from Outside Central/South American countries saw US imperialism as a threat. It DID NOT benefit the majority of their people ◦YANKEE GO HOME!! But, US was now so powerful, that needy nations felt the only nation they could turn to for help/aid

22 Chapter 10 Essays 1) Compare and Contrast the 3 types of diplomacy discussed. (big stick, dollar, and moral) 2) According to Anti-Imperialists, how was imperialism inconsistent with basic American principles? 3) Why was the Roosevelt Corollary to the Monroe Doctrine considered by many to be a bad foreign policy?


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