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SHEENA KALAYIL MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY ‘ ‘One of us’?: Voices of mixed-race (South Asian and white) Britons.

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Presentation on theme: "SHEENA KALAYIL MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY ‘ ‘One of us’?: Voices of mixed-race (South Asian and white) Britons."— Presentation transcript:

1 SHEENA KALAYIL MANCHESTER METROPOLITAN UNIVERSITY ‘ ‘One of us’?: Voices of mixed-race (South Asian and white) Britons

2 Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: “To one of us” – Hanif Kureishi

3 Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: When bilingualism in Britain is discussed it is seldom if ever with reference to the inner city immigrant populations, yet over half the immigrant pupils in our schools have a mother-tongue which is not English… we should see it as an asset, as something to be nurtured, and one of the agencies which should nurture it is the school. (Bullock Report, 1975, p ) (Bullock Report, 1975, p )

4 Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: It is important to understand multilingualism as a complex matter, far beyond the simplistic mantra of celebrating diversity. (Pagett, 2006, p143)

5 Research Questions Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: 1. Are children with one parent from the Indian sub-continent less likely to maintain knowledge of this parent’s Heritage Language than children with one parent who speaks a European language? 2. Does the particular HL (Hindi, Urdu, Punjabi for example) of the South Asian parent have significance in its loss or maintenance? 3. Does the religion of the South Asian parent (and accompanying issues of capital) have significance in the loss or maintenance of the HL (Bourdieu, 1989)? 4. How do adult mixed-race Britons position the importance of the loss or maintenance of their HL with regards to their perceptions of identity? 5. What can we learn about ownership of HLs, and can we make any recommendations regarding the position of HLs in the educational curriculum? 6. How does society, through channels such as the media, portray the South Asians who marry out of their community and does their portrayal in any way affect the maintenance or loss of the HLs?

6 Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: I think the best thing we can give her [his daughter] is for her to understand where she comes from and to value that and appreciate that. Jones Diaz, C. (2003)

7 Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: You see other British people go there [to India] …. Complete coconuts – brown on the outside but white on the inside, and they don’t know the language …. These people are white, they aren’t true Indians. (Majinder) Knowing the language is really the first step to being Indian. (Saeed) Jaspal,R. and Coyle, A. (2010)

8 Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: schizophrenia which bedevils generational relationships Blunkett,D ( 2002)

9 Comments on methodology Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University:

10 Interview with Tahir Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: For quite a long period of my life I’ve just been struggling to have the identity I want, not the identity other people expected me to have or insisted that I should have.

11 Tahir Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: I just started thinking to myself ‘I don’t need this, what am I going to do with Urdu? I’m going to be in England.’ Why would I expend so much effort, why would I do this, it’s embarrassing when I speak Urdu, everyone [in Pakistan] understands English’.

12 Tahir Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: My identity was supposed to be Asian and I was supposed to speak Urdu, and I was supposed to be religious, and I was neither of those things. I was forever being told what I should be, what my identity should be.

13 Interview with Tahir Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: But now with the emergence of India …as a player in the world economy you sort of think well actually, it might be useful for R to have one of those languages.

14 Interview with Aishwarya Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: I kind of went through I had a rather schizophrenic attitude to towards being part Indian at a certain period in my life because I had a quite confrontational relationship my relationship with my parents …and so part of me was I’m never going to learn Hindi off my dad [indistinct] and part of me wanted to and I had actually wanted to from a young age. Because learning Hindi was kind of was almost like was giving into my dad.

15 Aishwarya Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: I think I liked the classes at the Bhavan because it was part of a bigger cultural package if you like.... it was a feeling that I had a right to be part of it. With the phonetic classes they were taught by an English guy, a white English guy, but my friend Mark speaks fluent Hindi for example because he then went on to live in India for years and years

16 Aishwarya Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: A: Well, I think that that’s almost inevitable there were sort of a whole load of cultural stuff that is just there isn’t it you know you can’t not have it S: But it wasn’t enough..for you.. A: Well I wanted to learn the language..I felt that I kind of almost felt cheated as a child you know that in a way I had to put up with the aggro that you got growing up in the seventies in a mixed-race family but without what I perceived to be the benefits.

17 Works Cited Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: Bakhtin, M. M. [1930s] (1981) The Dialogic Imagination: Four Essays Ed Michael Holquist. Trans. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. Austin and London: University of Texas Press. Bourdieu,P. (2006) The forms of capital. In Education, globalization and social change, ed. H.Lauder, P.Brown, J.-A Dillabough, and A. Halsey, Oxford: Oxford University Press. Blunkett,D ( 2002) Integration with Diversity:Globalistaion and the renewal of democracy and civil society in Griffith, P. And Leonard, M. (eds) Reclaiming Britishness, London, Foreign Policy Centre, pp65-77 Cameron, D., Munich Security Conference, 5 February 2011 Cheng, K (2003) ‘Language shift and language maintenance in mixed-marriages: a case study of a Malaysian- Chinese family’, International Journal of Sociology of Language, Vol 161, pp81-90 Coffin, C. And O’Halloran, K. (2005) ‘Finding the global groove: Theorising and analysing dynamic reader positioning using APPRAISAL, corpus, and a concordancer’ protection’ in Cook,G. And North,S. (eds) (2010) Applied Linguistics Methods A Reader. Abingdon: Routledge (The Course Reader) Creese, A and Blackledge, A. (2011) Separate and flexible bilingualism in complementary schools: Multiple language practices in interrelationship, Journal of Pragmatics, 43 (5), pp 1196–1208Journal of Pragmatics Crystal, D. (2003) ‘Why a global language?’ in Cook,G. And North,S. (eds) (2010) Applied Linguistics in Action A Reader. Abingdon: Routledge (The Course Reader) Cummins, J, (2005) A proposal for action: Strategies for recognising Heritage language competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom, The Modern Language Journal, 89(4),

18 Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: Creese, A and Blackledge, A. (2011) Separate and flexible bilingualism in complementary schools: Multiple language practices in interrelationship, Journal of Pragmatics, 43 (5), pp 1196–1208Journal of Pragmatics Crystal, D. (2003) ‘Why a global language?’ in Cook,G. And North,S. (eds) (2010) Applied Linguistics in Action A Reader. Abingdon: Routledge (The Course Reader) Cummins, J, (2005) A proposal for action: Strategies for recognising Heritage language competence as a learning resource within the mainstream classroom, The Modern Language Journal, 89(4), Carrington, V. and Luke, A. (1997) Literacy and Bourdieu’s Sociological Theory: A reframing, Language and Education, 11:2, pp Casciani, D. (2003),Bilingual Asian children ‘do better’, accessed 15 April 2011www.news.bbc.co.uk COLT (www.mmu.ac.uk/languages/routes-into-languages).www.mmu.ac.uk/languages/routes-into-languages Gregory,E. and Williams, A. (2003) Investigating family literacy histories and children’s reading practices in London’s East End in S. Goodman, T. Lillis, J. Maybin and N. Mercer (Eds.)Language and Literacy and Education: A reader. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books. Phillips, T. (2004) Multiculturalism’s Legacy is ‘Have a Nice Day’ Racism, 28 May 2004, accessed 10 February 2011 Hicks, D. (2003) Discourse, teaching and learning in S. Goodman, T. Lillis, J. Maybin and N. Mercer (Eds.) Language and Literacy and Education: A reader. Stoke on Trent: Trentham Books. Jaspal,R. and Coyle, A. (2010) My language, my people: language and ethnic identity among British-born South Asians, South Asian Diaspora, 2:2, pp

19 Works Cited (cont.) Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: Jones Diaz, C. (2003) Latino/a voices in Australia: negotiating bilingual identity, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, Vol 4, No. 3, pp Mills, J. (2001) Being bilingual: perspectives of third generation Asian children on language culture and identity. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism, 4.6, pp. 383–402. Pagett, L. (2006)Mum and Dad prefer me to speak Bengali at home: code switching and parallel speech in a primary school setting, Literacy, 40:3, pp Ramanathan, V. (1999) “English is here to stay”: A critical look at institutional and educational practices in India in Goodman, S., Lillis, T., Maybin, J., Mercer, N.[eds] (2003), Language, Literacy and Education : a Reader, Stoke-on-Trent : Trentham Books in association with The Open University (The Course Reader) Rassool, N. (2000) Contested and contesting identities: Conceptualising linguistic minority rights within the global cultural economy, Journal of Multilingual and multicultural development, 21:5, pp Rich, S. And Davis, L. (2007) Insights into the strategic ways in which two bilingual children in the early years seek to negotiate the competing demands on their identity in their home and school worlds, International Journal of Early Years Education, 15:1, pp35-57 Street, B. (1997), The implications of the ‘New Literacy Studies’ for literacy education in Goodman,S., Lillis,T., Maybin, J., Mercer,N.[eds] (2003), Language, Literacy and Education : a Reader, Stoke-on-Trent : Trentham Books in association with The Open University (The Course Reader) Zubair, S. (1999)Women’s literacy in a rural Pakistani community in O’Brien, T. (ed) Language and Literacies, Selected papers from the Annual General Meeting of the British Association for Applied Linguistics, University of Manchester, Sept 1998, BAAL/Multingual matters, pp114-25

20 Sheena Kalayil, Manchester Metropolitan University: Shin, S. (2010) ‘ What about me? I’m not like Chinese but I’m not like American: Heritage-language –learning and identity of mixed-heritage adults’, Journal of Language, Identity and Education, 9: Slembrouck, S. (2005) ‘Discourse, critique and ethnography: Class-oriented coding in accounts of child protection’ in Cook,G. And North,S. (eds) (2010) Applied Linguistics Methods A Reader. Abingdon: Routledge (The Course Reader)


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