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Chapter 19 (LeUnes): Athletes With Disabilities Injured Athletes Sport Psych Nov 2-4, 2009 Classes #28-29.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 19 (LeUnes): Athletes With Disabilities Injured Athletes Sport Psych Nov 2-4, 2009 Classes #28-29."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 19 (LeUnes): Athletes With Disabilities Injured Athletes Sport Psych Nov 2-4, 2009 Classes #28-29

2 Paralympics Contested since 1960 19 sports Athletes are blind or visually impaired, amputees, have spinal cord injuries, motor impairments due to cerebral palsy, traumatic brain injury or stroke, and with intellectual disabilities

3 Paralympic Games History 1992 initial winter games 1996 Atlanta Games, athletes with intellectual disabilities were allowed to participate for the first time 1998 initial summer games 2001 International Olympic Committee (IOC) and International Paralympic Committee (IPC) agree to hold the Paralympic Games three weeks after the Olympic Games in the host city using the same facilities

4 Different DISABILITIES in PARALYMPIC GAMES Year Host City Nation Number of Athletes/Nations Disabilities Paralyzed/Amputee/Blind/Cerebral Palsy/Les Autres 1948 Stoke Mandeville Games,UK Paralyzed 1952London,UK 300 / 2 Paralyzed 1960 I Rome, Italy 400 / 23 Paralyzed 1964 II Tokyo, Japan 390 / 22 Paralyzed 1968 III Tel Aviv, Israel 750 / 29 Paralyzed 1972 IV Heidelberg, Germany 1,000 / 44 Paralyzed 1976 V Toronto, Canada 1,600 / 42 Paralyzed/Amputee/Blind 1980 VI Arnhem, Holland 2,500 / 42 Paralyzed/Amputee/Blind/Cerebral Palsy 1984 VII New York, USA Stoke Mandeville, UK 4,080 / 42 Paralyzed/Amputee/Blind/Cerebral Palsy/Les Autres 1988 VIII Seoul, Korea 3,053 / 61 Paralyzed/Amputee/Blind/Cerebral Palsy/Les Autres 1992 IX Barcelona, Spain 3,020 / 82 Paralyzed/Amputee/Blind/Cerebral Palsy/Les Autres 1996 X Atlanta, USA 3,195 / 103 Paralyzed/Amputee/Blind/Cerebral Palsy/Les Autres 2000 XI Sydney, Australia 3,843 / 127 Paralyzed/Amputee/Blind/Cerebral Palsy/Les Autres 2004 XII Athens, Greece 4,000 / 136 Paralyzed/Amputee/Blind/Cerebral Palsy/Les Autres

5 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) Founded in 1989 as an international not- for-profit organization International governing body of sports for athletes with a disability and acts as the International Federation for 12 sports Supervises and coordinates the Paralympic Summer and Winter Games and other multi-disability competitions, e.g., World Championship

6 International Paralympic Committee (IPC) 160 National Paralympics Committees (NPCs) Four disability specific organizations (ISODs) –Cerebral Palsy International Sport and Recreation Association (CP-ISRA) –International Blind Sports Federation (IBSA) –International Sports Federation for Persons with Intellectual Disabilities (INAS-FID) –International Wheelchair and Amputee Sports Federation (IWAS)

7 Disability Categories Amputee Cerebral Palsy Intellectual Disability Wheelchair Visually Impaired Les Autres

8 Iceberg Profile Asken (1991) –Elite disabled athletes closely paralleled those of able-bodies athletes

9 Doping Paralympians are often described as inspirational, even heroic. But as the Paralympics has grown and become more competitive, some advantage-seeking athletes are following the lead of their less scrupulous able-bodied peers: that is, they cheat. Though rare, doping does occur in parasports Eleven athletes were busted at the 2000 Paralympics in Sydney, Australia

10 Doping Prior to the 2004 games, Canada's best-known disabled athlete, single-amputee sprinter Earle Connor, received a 2-year suspension after testing positive for testosterone and nandrolone He celebrates after winning the final of the Men's 100M -T42 Athletics event at the National Stadium during day eight of the 2008 Paralympic Games on September 14, 2008 in Beijing, China.

11 Special Olympics More than 3.1 million athletes of all ages are involved in Special Olympics sports training and competition in more than 170 countries. The organization offers year-round training and competition in 30 Olympic-type summer and winter sports

12 Unified Sports® A registered program of Special Olympics that combines approximately equal numbers of athletes with and without intellectual disability on sports teams for training and competition All players, both athletes and special partners, are of similar age and matched sport skill ability

13 The Injured Athlete Powell and Barber-Foss (1999) –2 Million youth injuries –500,000 visits to physicians –30,000 hospitalizations

14 Injury-Prone Pros Ken Griffey Jr is a classic case

15 Anderson and Williams Theory (1988) A theoretical model of stress and athletic injury The model proposes that athletes with a history of many stressors, personality characteristics that exacerbate the stress response, and few coping resources will, when placed in a stressful situation, be more likely to appraise the situation as stressful and to exhibit greater physiological activation and attentional disruptions The severity of the resulting stress response is the mechanism proposed to cause the injury risk The model also proposes interventions for reducing injury risk

16 Anderson and Williams Theory (1988)

17 The Personality-Injury Relationship Jackson (1978) –Used Catell’s (1946) PF: Factor A (reserved vs. outgoing) Factor I Scale (tender-minded vs. tough-minded) –Athletes scoring near the reserved and tender-minded ends of these scales are more prone to injuries Hardy and Crace (1991) –Extraverts and those with a low sense of responsibility are susceptible to acute injuries

18 The Personality-Injury Relationship Williams (2001): –Review of literature (see page 365-366 of LeUnes textbook) POMS: negative mood states seem to lead to injuries Type A Personality: seems to be a link More research needed for the following: –Psychological Hardiness: not sure –Locus of Control: not sure –Self-Concept: not sure –Trait Anxiety: no meaningful link

19 Affective Cycle Theory Heil and Fine (1993) –Distress –Denial –Determined Coping

20 Cognitive Appraisal Theory Brewer (1994) –An athlete’s response to injury is a function of the interaction between personality and situational factors

21 Recent Study Osborn, Blanton, and Schwebel (in press) – –On hockey players: Those scoring high on Zuckerman’s Boredom Susceptibility and total SSS had most injuries

22 Overuse injuries More research needed for injuries such as overuse injuries –The causes and the mechanisms are largely unknown

23 Bargaining with God Hardy and Crace (1991) –These researchers speculate that injured athletes go through something akin to Kubler-Ross’s five stages of death and dying: DenialAngerBargainingDepression Acceptance and Reorganization

24 Credits Some of the slides in this presentation prepared with the assistance of the following web site: – Barrow.ppt#261,3,Introduction Barrow.ppt#261,3,Introduction Barrow.ppt#261,3,Introduction

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