History 1975 Bob Hall raced in Boston Marathon Marked beginning of social acceptance World’s first race to allow wheelchairs Mid-1980’s 3-wheeled chairs were invented 1996 Jean Driscoll became first person to win seven consecutive Boston Marathons
General Information Achilles Track Club Founded in 1983 Encouraging people with all kinds of disabilities to participate in long distance running 10,000 member worldwide Wheelchair Racers usually start before able- bodied runners World Records—refer to Paralympics website
Racing with Assistive Devices Guide Blind athletes may be aided by sighted runner Two may use tether (about 30 inches long) Crutches Prosthetics Walkers Wheelchairs Push Rim Handcycle
Types of Equipment: Chairs First racing chairs were modified hospital chairs 4 wheels Heavy & slow 3 wheel chairs provided better aerodynamics and less rolling resistance 20mph on flat surface 50mph on decline Chairs vary in pushing style & seating position
Types of Equipment: Gloves Specially designed racing glovesgloves Hand Taping Paraplegic Stroke
Types of Equipment: Gloves Hand Taping Quadriplegic Backhand Stoke
Racing Costs Chair $3000-$7500 Helmet $50 Gloves $100 Race entry fee varies Ex.: Boston Marathon-US Resident $95.00 before March 1 or $145.00 after March 1
Competitions Paralympics First included in 1960 Games Under Athletics (aka Track & Field) Classifications Classifications Classes 11, 12 and 13--visual impairment. Class 20--intellectually disability Classes 32-38--cerebral palsy - both wheelchair (32 - 34) & ambulant (35 - 38). Classes 40-46--ambulant with amputations and other disabilities, including les Autres (eg. dwarfism). Classes 51-58--wheelchair athletes with spinal cord injuries & amputations.
Competitions Special Olympics Must run, cannot use wheelchairs Deaflympics First included in 1924 Games Hearing loss of 55dB or greater in the better ear Hearing aids are prohibited during competition Road Races/Marathons Boston NYC Almost every race allows athletes with disabilities, (verify with organizers of the race)
Rules for Wheelchair Marathon (ING Ottawa Marathon) General rules for the wheelchair marathon as stipulated by IPC Rules: The wheelchair shall have at least two large wheels and one small wheel. No part of the body of the chair may extend forward beyond the hub of the front wheel and be wider than the inside of the hubs of the two rear wheels. The maximum height from the ground of the main body of the chair shall be 50 cm. The maximum diameter of the large wheel including the inflated tire shall not exceed 70 cm. The maximum diameter of the small wheel including the inflated tire shall not exceed 50 cm. Only one plain, round, hand rim is allowed for each large wheel. This rule may be waived for persons requiring a single arm drive chair, if so stated on their medical and Games identity cards.
Rules Cont. No mechanical gears or levers shall be allowed, which may be used to propel the chair. Only hand-operated, mechanical steering devices will be allowed. Athlete should be able to turn the front wheel(s) manually both to the left and the right The use of mirrors is not permitted. No part of the chair may protrude behind the vertical plane of the back edge of the rear tires. Hand crank cycles or chairs are NOT permitted Finishing the race: hub of the leading wheel of the chair reach the near edge of the finish line. Athletes MUST wear helmets
Teaching/Coaching Tips (Special Olympics) Demonstrate the ready position. Sit in back of seat, buttocks press against lower part of chair back. Lean upper body forward so shoulders are ahead of hips. Hold knees and feet together, and centered in chair. Grasp wheels or handrails at 11 o'clock position; i.e., just behind highest point of wheel or 12 o'clock position with thumbs inside and fingers outside. Keep head slightly forward and focus several meters ahead.
Teaching/Coaching Tips Cont. Prompt athlete to reposition an arm, hand, leg, etc., by touching it or reposition it in the correct position. For athletes with balance difficulties, position feet up against chair, raising knees to chest. Illustrate stroke, showing a wheel and clock positions for hands. strongest part of a stroke should be from the 12 o'clock to the 4 o'clock position. Caution the athlete to avoid stroking past the 5 o'clock position, as this may cause serious harm to the athlete's hands, arms or shoulders. Concentrate on getting both hands to stroke and recover in unison and with equal strength so the chair's motion is smooth and efficient.
Teaching/Coaching Tips Cont. (Special Olympics) Emphasize keeping body and head still, and moving only the arms and hands. Upper body movement; i.e., bouncing or rocking back and forth will slow the chair's momentum. Conduct practice competitions; work on reacting to the sound of the start command. Wheelchair athletes with arm paralysis may pull their chairs forward, or push their chairs backward with their feet. Athletes who push their chairs must start with the back wheels behind the start line, and must wear helmets.
Crutching Technique (Carl Hilker) Relieves most of the stress on the lower body Swing crutches in front Let body glide between crutches Allow preferred foot to contact ground followed by other foot for balance
Training Considerations Athletes with Paralysis Lower exercise heart rate Lower respiration rate Temperature regulation Every individual varies, when training one must consider the athlete’s abilities & limitations Athletes should listen to their body
Resources Boston Athletic Association http://www.bostonmarathon.org/BostonMarathon/Disabilities.asp Carl Hilker Uses Crutches to Complete Marathon http://www.enquirer.com/editions/1998/11/15/loc_marathon15.html ING Ottawa Marathon http://www.ncm.ca/index.php/en/ing/wheelchair Paralympics http://www.paralympicsontario.ca/Wheelchair%20Racing.pdf http://www.paralympic.org/release/Main_Sections_Menu/ Sit Down Sports http://www.sitdownsports.com/ Special Olympics http://www.specialolympics.org SpinLife.com http://www.spinlife.com/zine/newarticle.cfm?artid=295&typeid=137 Vinje, Kay. Wheelchair Track for the Novice Athlete and Coach. August 1993. Starred Paper. Wheelchair Racing Resource Page http://home.wi.rr.com/birzer/ Wheelchair Sports, USA http://www.wsusa.org