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Learning and assessing (in and) out of the classroom John MacBeath and Sue Swaffield AAIA National Conference 15 September 2010 Newcastle.

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Presentation on theme: "Learning and assessing (in and) out of the classroom John MacBeath and Sue Swaffield AAIA National Conference 15 September 2010 Newcastle."— Presentation transcript:

1 Learning and assessing (in and) out of the classroom John MacBeath and Sue Swaffield AAIA National Conference 15 September 2010 Newcastle

2 Learning and assessing (in and) out of the classroom How can we use what we know about learning and assessment to support learning (in and) outside the classroom?

3 Things we know about learning Things we know about learning Key points about assessment Key points about assessment Applying what we know to learning outside the classroom Applying what we know to learning outside the classroom Thinking about assessment issues Thinking about assessment issues Implications for us individually and as an organisation Implications for us individually and as an organisation Input Discussion Notemaking - Plenary Groups

4 What’s the difference between learning in and out of the classroom?

5 Connect Extend Challenge A Visible Thinking Routine from David Perkins Connect How does this connect with what I already know? Extend How does this extend my thinking? ChallengeWhat challenges my thinking? What is still challenging? What do I want to challenge?

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7 Children: the new commodities We no longer look at children as children with all their quirks, idiosyncrasies, and all the things that make them unique human beings. We see them as grade enhancers and grade detractors. Will they add value or lower our scores? (David Berliner, AERA, 2006) (David Berliner, AERA, 2006)

8 A world of learning A paradox: Education is par excellence about long term development of people and society but dominated by short-term thinking and decision-making (OECD, 2008)

9 7 things we know about learning 1. Cognitive conflict (Piaget) 2. Leverage (Dewey) and Bandwidth (Qvortrup) 3. Mediated by emotional centres (Damasio) 4. Attention to the learning moment (Perkins) 5. Learning by teaching (Bruner) 6. A social activity (Vygotsky) 7. Context is critical (Gardner)

10 7 things we know about learning 1. Cognitive conflict (Piaget) 2. Leverage (Dewey) and Bandwidth (Qvortrup) 3. Mediated by emotional centres (Damasio) 4. Attention to the learning moment (Perkins) 5. Learning by teaching (Bruner) 6. A social activity (Vygotsky) 7. Context is critical (Gardner) feedback

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12 Broad and narrow bandings A broad bandwidth allows a high volume of intellectual and emotional traffic to flow from person to person A narrow band requires careful tuning to find the right wavelength so as to meet the expectations, readiness and engagement of the recipient

13 Leverage Without insight into the psychological structure and activities of the individual, the educative process will, therefore, be haphazard and arbitrary. If it chances to coincide with the child’s activity it will get a leverage; if it does not, it will result in friction, or disintegration, or arrest of the child nature. (Dewey, 1897, My Pedagogic Creed, The School Journal, Volume LIV, Number 3).

14 The KFD principle Knowing Feeling Doing Feeling Doing

15 FLOW APATHYBOREDOM ANXIETY

16 The learning moment The “learning moment” is that precise instant when an educational opportunity naturally presents itself in an interesting manner and in context, so that knowledge can be built upon and expanded through conversation or more discovery. Recognizing the Learning Moment: Making the Most of Natural Learning Opportunities a39285#ixzz0yjwdbbP0 Recognizing the Learning Moment: Making the Most of Natural Learning Opportunities a39285#ixzz0yjwdbbP0

17 Catching the learning moment It’s the spontaneity that’s gone. I mean if it had snowed we used to run to the window and we’d stop and do some creative poetry. That’s gone now because everything is very much structured now, very planned and that’s a shame. (in Galton and MacBeath, Teachers under Pressure, 2008)

18 Learning by teaching “I teach my teddy what I’m learning in class. He is now the smartest teddy in the street.” And she is now the smartest girl in the class

19 Learning is a social activity Conceptual growth comes from the negotiation of meaning, the sharing of multiple perspectives and the changing of our internal representations through collaborative learning (David Merrill, 1991)

20 tasks/ problems contexts/situationsfamiliar unfamiliar familiar problems in familiar contexts novel problems in familiar contexts unfamiliar problems in unfamiliar contexts familiar problems in novel contexts

21 Making thinking visible  Is thinking visible here?  Are pupils explaining things to one another?  Are they offering creative ideas?  Are they using the language of thinking?  Am I?  Are students debating interpretations?  How is assessment enhancing thinking/feeling?  Is this an environment conducive to learning?

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23 7 key points about assessment 1. Assessment serving and supporting learning 2. Fitness for purpose 3. Assessing prior and current learning 4. Approaches to Assessment for Learning 5. Roles and Relationships 6. Validity 7. Principles and pointers for authentic AfL

24 Pupil Teacher Parents Other pupils School leaders Organisations Who? When? 1. Assessment serving and supporting learning

25 Pupil Teacher Parents Other pupils School leaders Organisations Now Soon Later Never Who? When? 1. Assessment serving and supporting learning

26 Pupil Teacher Parents Other pupils School leaders Organisations Now Soon Later Never Who? When? 1. Assessment serving and supporting learning Here be dragons

27 Assessment for Learning Assessment of Learning Assessment as Learning Different purposes Different methods Some harmonious Some incompatible 2. Fitness for purpose Assessment for / as / of Learning Learning as process or product? Learning what and learning how

28 3. Assessing prior and current learning Starting from where you are Capitalising on previous learning Keeping on track Valuing the unexpected “Within your extended grasp” (Ruth Sutton) “Is this New York?” (Dylan Wiliam) Ascertain what the learner already knows and teach accordingly (Ausubel, 1968) No, it’s Boston “Hurrah!” (John MacBeath) The waste of not knowing what your students know (Sue Swaffield!)

29 4. Approaches to Assessment for Learning Assessment for Learning Questioning Explicit learning intentions and notions of quality Explicit learning intentions and notions of quality Feedback, and opportunities to act on feedback Feedback, and opportunities to act on feedback Self-regulation Self-regulation Dialogue, including peer-assessment Dialogue, including peer-assessment

30 5.Roles and Relationships Agency – Responsibility - Culture Assessment – Assidere – To sit beside Who can do the learning? Pupils seeing teachers as learners

31 6. Validity Applying a crucial yet contested idea to a complex and nebulous process Does a test measure what it purports to measure? Validity Content Criterion (predictive & concurrent) Construct A property of inferences, not of a test Consequential validity Are conclusions warranted? What should we understand by the notion of validity? How does validity relate to Assessment for Learning? Assessment for Learning

32 7. Principles and pointers for authentic AfL Authentic Assessment for Learning 3 imperatives Making learning explicit Making learning explicit Promoting learning autonomy Promoting learning autonomy Focusing on learning Focusing on learning (LHTL + Swaffield) Effects on learner identity, self-image, approach to learning, learning? (Swaffield) 10 principles 1.Part of planning 2.Focus on how students learn 3.Central to classroom practice 4.Key professional skill 5.Sensitive and constructive 6.Importance of learner motivation 7.Sharing goals and criteria 8.Guidance on how to improve 9.Develops capacity for self- assessment 10.Recognises all achievement (ARG, 2002) Assessment for Learning is the process of seeking and interpreting evidence for use by learners and their teachers to decide where the learners are in their learning, where they need to go and how best to get there (ARG, 2002)

33 7 key points about assessment 1. Assessment serving and supporting learning 2. Fitness for purpose 3. Assessing prior and current learning 4. Approaches to Assessment for Learning 5. Roles and Relationships 6. Validity 7. Principles and pointers for authentic AfL

34 Use ‘Connect Extend Challenge’ to relate the points about learning and assessment to your own contexts, especially situations outside the classroom

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36 NO, YOU WEREN’T DOWNLOADED YOU WERE BORN

37 Making the connections 1585

38 I learned something in school today. I signed up for folk guitar, computer programming, stained glass art, shoemaking and a natural foods workshop. I got spelling, history, arithmetic and two study periods. What did you learn? I learned that what you sign up for and what you get are two different things. Charles Schulz: Peanuts, quoted in School is Dead, Everett Reimer

39 School and not school Individual cognition in school versus shared cognition outside-- The successfulness of most learning and performance in school is judged on an individual basis rather than a group basis. The latter being more often the case in the real world. Pure mentation in school versus tool manipulation outside-- When it comes to the use of tools, "In school, the greatest premium is placed upon 'pure thought' - what individuals can do without the external support of books and notes, calculators, or other complex instruments - in contrast to accomplishment of activities outside of school where we have and use many tools or artifacts to accomplish a particular task. Symbol manipulation in school versus contextualized reasoning outside The use and manipulation of symbols as representations of real objects contrast with using objects themselves, as ways of solving problems in a meaningful way Generalized learning in school versus situation-specific competencies outside--"To be truly skillful outside of school, people must develop situation-specific forms of competence. In school, learning is more generalized, creating a situation whereby "very little can be transported directly from school to out-of-school use

40 Captivity The Wild Home learning School Homework clubs Study Support Children’s University Extra-curricular activities Peer group activity Web surfing Learning in……..

41 Perm 20 from 42: Stoke-on-Trent Drop-in Art Activities, across the city Robotics Course for Families, across the city Scrapbooking for Families, across the city Scrapbooking for Families, across the city Grow Your Own Grub, across the city Fun with Books, across the city Flair for Fashion, across the city Bust the Bin (Reduce, Re-use, Recycle!) Bust the Bin (Reduce, Re-use, Recycle!) Fun with Numbers, across the city Wild about nature workshops, across the city Wild about nature workshops, across the city Play and Rhyme Time for Families, across the city Flair for Fashion, across the city Comedy Drama Workshops, Regent Theatre & Victoria Hall Look Good, Feel Fine, across the city Policing for Success, Longton Police Station, Longton Arts and Crafts Workshop for the Whole Family, across the city Shadow Puppet Workshops, Regent Theatre & Victoria Hall Finance for Families Workshops, across the city Closing the Gap Sports Activities, across the city ICT for Families Course, across the city Digital Activities Classes and Workshops, across the city Healthy Lifestyles for Families Workshops, across the city

42 Nobody ever failed a museum In a school, the student must be carefully modelled, in terms of prerequisite knowledge and abilities, and carefully evaluated, in order to ensure the coherent and standardised acquisition of knowledge. In a museum, the visitor is defined by the act of visiting – there are no pre- visit qualifications and no post-visit tests. Our visitors are unknown, and, perhaps more importantly, unknowable. In the formal system, the student is responsible for learning. In the informal system, the institution is responsible for creating learning opportunities. A student can fail a school – but only the museum can fail its visitors. (James Bradburn, Director General of the Fondazione Palazzo Strozzi in Florence)

43 What’s in a game?  Giving dynamic ongoing feedback  Offering motivating learning experiences  Using meaningful profiles and reports  Trusting in the ability of the player/learner  Nurturing growth mindsets  Maximising potential for collaboration  Encouraging peer assessment  Presenting purposeful and relevant learning intentions  Ensuring that assessment is not done to learners  Giving players/learners the best chance of success


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