Case 1 A 34-year-old woman, immigrant from Eastern Europe, Complaints of vague chest discomfort 5 days after an upper respiratory tract infection. Not a smoker BCG vaccination as child. Physical examination is normal. PPD is 10-mm induration Induced sputum for acid-fast bacilli is negative.
Hematoma typeEpiduralSubdural Location Between the skull and the dura Between the dura and the arachnoid Involved vessel Temperoparietal locus (most likely) - Middle meningeal artery Frontal locus - anterior ethmoidal artery Occipital locus - transverse or sigmoid sinuses Vertex locus - superior sagittal sinus Bridging veins Symptoms Lucid interval followed by unconsciousness Gradually increasing headache and confusion CT appearanceBiconvex lensCrescent-shaped
Case 7 You are a busy on call F1 Doctor. A nurse bleeps you, she has inserted an NG tube and wants to check the position.
Acute Pulmonary oedema Chest X-ray will show fluid in the alveolar walls, Kerley B lines, increased vascular shadowing in a classical batwing peri- hilum pattern, upper lobe diversion (increased blood flow to the superior parts of the lung), pleural effusions. In contrast, patchy alveolar infiltrates are more typically associated with noncardiogenic edema
Kerley B Lines These are short parallel lines at the lung periphery. These lines represent interlobular septa, which are usually less than 1 cm in length and parallel to one another at right angles to the pleura. They are located peripherally in contact with the pleura, but are generally absent along fissural surfaces. They may be seen in any zone but are most frequently observed at the lung bases at the costophrenic angles on the PA radiograph, and in the substernal region on lateral radiographs. Kerley B lines are seen in Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) and Interstitial Lung Diseases (ILD).pleuracostophrenic angles
Case 9 4 year old lady Ms Amin presents to A+E with SoB. Pt unable to speak English Chest Exam: Inspiratory Crackles throughout
Case 15 46 year old Nigerian lady arrives in UK from Nigeria and visits A+E with Sob. 6 months ago she spent time with a ill relative who turned out to have active TB. Never had BCG While you see her she coughs up blood stained phlegm.