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AS Biology UNIT F212 Biodiversity and Conservation.

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Presentation on theme: "AS Biology UNIT F212 Biodiversity and Conservation."— Presentation transcript:

1 AS Biology UNIT F212 Biodiversity and Conservation

2 Objectives Describe in situ and ex situ conservation ◦ Advantages and Disadvantages Discuss the role of botanic gardens in ex situ conservation, with reference to seed banks Discuss the importance of international co-operation in conservation Discuss the significance of environmental impact assessments

3 Maintaining Biodiversity Don’t forget to check exam objectives against your revision notes (yellow booklet)

4 Interesting short video links Axolotl on brink of extinction The Sixth Extinction event Plight of the Tasmanian Devil Endangered species Costa Rican Cloud Toad

5

6 Endangered – what does that mean?

7 Endangered = at risk of extinction because of low population

8 IUCN (the World Conservation Union) publish “Red Lists” detailing the conservation status of many species: EXExtinct: last individual has died EWExtinct in the wild: only survives in captivity CRCritical: facing an extremely high probability of extinction in the near future ENEndangered: population decline at 50% in 10 years Conservation

9 Chester Zoo Mission To be a Major Force in Conserving Biodiversity Worldwide RecreationEducationScienceConservation

10 In-situ conservation Chester Zoo is involved with conservation projects worldwide. Conservation 180 projects in 50 countries and across 6 continents

11 Native Species Conservation

12 Native species – Barn Owl Project

13 Conservation Native species – Harvest Mouse Project

14 Conserving biodiversity – page 5 Endangered species are threatened by extinction; numbers are reduced to a critical level; frequently due to human activity Question – what is the difference between in- situ and ex-situ conservation? In situ – keep species in their natural habitat Ex situ – remove part of the population from a threatened habitat and place in a new location

15 In situ conservation keeps the species in their natural habitat. E.g. National Parks/Nature Reserves (Page 5)

16 Apart from reserves, methods include control of hunting/fishing/farming.

17 Controlling alien species which threaten biodiversity

18 Restoring damaged areas

19 In situ conservation – page 5 keep species in their natural habitat Advantages species and its habitat conserved often larger population conserved greater chance of population increasing Disadvantages difficult to control poaching, predators, effects of climate change, disease

20 Ex situ conservation removes individuals from their threatened habitat and relocates them to safe place.

21 Ex situ – remove part of the population from a threatened habitat and place in a new location Advantages health of organisms monitored and disease treated mate provided for animal or artificial insemination – genetic diversity can be organised eggs can be artificially incubated + young reared by hand plants can be pollinated by hand + seeds grown in ideal conditions more young organisms survive than normal and they can be reintroduced to the natural habitat Disadvantages small number of individuals conserved expensive to create and maintain environment breeding often less successful than in situ even when using organisms from different areas to reduce inbreeding and increase genetic variation

22 Exam Objectives Discuss the role of botanic gardens in the ex situ conservation of rare plant species or plant species extinct in the wild, with reference to seed banks;

23 Botanic Gardens and Seed Banks

24 Know how seeds are stored so they are kept viable! Stored in very dry or freezing conditions More info on page 227 of New OCR book

25 Applying your knowledge p 6 The hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata ) is an endangered species which is threatened by fishing, hunting and loss of nest sites. Suggest how in situ and ex situ methods could be used to conserve this species. Explain why international co-operation would be essential for success. Then complete page 7.

26 Hawksbill sea turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata )

27 Hawksbill sea turtles found on tropical reefs of the Indian, Pacific, and Atlantic oceans Carnivores eating jellyfish, sponges, crabs, squid and fish. Aquatic except for a brief period when females come ashore on the same beach where they were born to lay their eggs. Batches of eggs laid every 2 years into a hole excavated with the hind flippers. Endangered by humans hunting for eggs, meat and shell. Human development of costal areas destroys nesting sites. They also drown in drift nets used to catch tuna and mackerel.

28 Applying your knowledge p 6 In-situ examples Protect adults and young from hunters / poachers and predators Protect habitat e.g. fish food, water, shelter, nesting sites Set up nature reserve to restrict human access Ex-situ examples Remove fertilised eggs so they hatch in controlled environment to increase survival chances of young Set up breeding programme e.g. provide female with mate or use artificial insemination Reintroduce young to the natural habitat International co-operation is essential e.g. make hunting and sale of products illegal everywhere

29 Exam Objectives Discuss the importance of international co-operation in species conservation with reference to The Convention in International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) and the Rio Convention on Biodiversity (HSW6b, 7b, 7c);

30 International co-operation p7 CITES – The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species 145 countries signed in 1973 The Rio Convention on Biodiversity and Environmental Impact Assessments (EIAs) 157 countries signed in 1992 (190 countries involved by 2007) What are the main features of these agreements?

31 The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species CITES made the capture and trade of hawksbill sea turtles and products from them illegal Red circles represent known major nesting sites. Yellow circles are minor nesting sites.

32 Maintaining Sphagnum Blanket Bog in the Peak District! What does it do for Stoke-on-Trent? The bogs purify the water run off into Tittesworth Reservoir which supplies Stoke-on Trent with all its water. Less purification is required which costs less money. Cheaper water!!! Pollution (affects the sphagnum), over grazing and agricultural causes the bogs to disintegrate: More brown peat runs off into the water and more purification is needed. The peat in the bog is also a massive sink of carbon dioxide. As the bog disintegrates this is released, adding to the problem of greenhouse gases The bogs also act as an enormous sponge in the hills. Due to the loss of blanket bog, when it rains, less water is held in the higher land and more flooding is experienced in lower land

33 Biodiversity and conservation – true or false? 1) A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed 2) Not disrupting food webs is an ethical reason for conservation 3) Global warming is reducing biodiversity 4) In situ conservation keeps the endangered species in its natural habitat 5) An advantage of in situ conservation is that there is a greater chance of increasing the population through reproduction 6) Breeding animals in zoos, keeping plants in botanic gardens and making seed banks are examples of in situ conservation 7) The CITES agreement allows trade in products from endangered species 8) The Rio convention produced EIAs so developers must assess the environmental impact of projects

34 Biodiversity and conservation – true or false? 1) A species is a group of organisms that can interbreed false – must produce fertile offspring 2) Not disrupting food webs is an ethical reason for conservation false – it is an ecological reason 3) Global warming is reducing biodiversity ? – distribution changes + some species extinct but are other species evolving? 4) In situ conservation keeps the endangered species in its natural habitat true

35 Biodiversity and conservation – true or false? 5) An advantage of in situ conservation is that there is a greater chance of increasing the population through reproduction true 6) Breeding animals in zoos, keeping plants in botanic gardens and making seed banks are examples of in-situ conservation false – these are ex-situ conservation 7) The CITES agreement allows trade in products from endangered species false – it is illegal 8) The Rio convention produced EIAs so developers must assess the environmental impact of projects true

36 Essay to be completed Title – What actions can be taken locally, nationally and internationally to maintain biodiversity? To include – threats to biodiversity particularly from humans, impact of climate change, examples of endangered species, red list of threatened species, roles of zoos and botanic gardens etc, CITES, EIAs, SSSIs


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