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Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint.

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Presentation on theme: "Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint."— Presentation transcript:

1 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Fundamentals of Anatomy & Physiology SIXTH EDITION Frederic H. Martini PowerPoint ® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Chapter 20, part 4 The Heart

2 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Autonomic innervation Cardiac reflexes Tone SA node Hormones Epinephrine (E), norepinephrine(NE), and thyroid hormone (T 3 ) Venous return Factors Affecting Heart Rate

3 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Factors Affecting Cardiac Output Figure 20.20

4 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Medulla Oblongata centers affect autonomic innervation Cardioacceleratory center activates sympathetic neurons Cardioinhibitory center controls parasympathetic neurons Receives input from higher centers, monitoring blood pressure and dissolved gas concentrations

5 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Autonomic Innervation of the Heart Figure 20.21

6 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Autonomic Innervation of the Heart Figure 20.21

7 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SA node establishes baseline Modified by ANS Atrial reflex Basic heart rate established by pacemaker cells

8 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Pacemaker Function Figure 20.22

9 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Pacemaker Function Figure 20.22

10 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings EDV Frank-Starling principle ESV Preload Contractility Afterload Factors Affecting stoke volume

11 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Factors Affecting Stroke Volume Figure 20.23

12 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure Factors Affecting Stroke Volume Figure 20.23

13 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Sympathetic stimulation Positive inotropic effect Releases NE Parasympathetic stimulation Negative inotropic effect Releases ACh Autonomic Activity

14 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Heavy exercise can increase output by percent Trained athletes may increase cardiac output by 700 percent Cardiac reserve The difference between resting and maximal cardiac output Exercise and Cardiac Output Animation: Cardiac cycle PLAY

15 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Summary: Regulation of Heart Rate and Stroke Volume Sympathetic stimulation increases heart rate Parasympathetic stimulation decreases heart rate Circulating hormones, specifically E, NE, and T 3, accelerate heart rate Increased venous return increases heart rate EDV is determined by available filling time and rate of venous return ESV is determined by preload, degree of contractility, and afterload

16 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings Figure A Summary of the Factors Affecting Cardiac Output Figure 20.24

17 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings SECTION 20-5 The Heart and the Cardiovascular System

18 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The goal of the cardiovascular system is to maintain adequate blood flow to all body tissues The heart works in conjunction with cardiovascular centers and peripheral blood vessels to achieve this goal The heart is part of the cardiovascular system

19 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The organization of the cardiovascular system. The location and general features of the heart, including the pericardium. The differences between nodal cells and conducting cells as well as the components and functions of the conducting system of the heart. The electrical events associated with a normal electrocardiogram. You should now be familiar with:

20 Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings The events of the cardiac cycle including atrial and ventricular systole and diastole, and the heart sounds related to specific events in the cycle. Cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume and the factors that influence these variables. How adjustments in stroke volume and cardiac output are coordinated at different levels of activity. You should now be familiar with:


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