14Exercise and Cardiac Output Heavy exercise can increase output by percentTrained athletes may increase cardiac output by 700 percentCardiac reserveThe difference between resting and maximal cardiac outputPLAYAnimation: Cardiac cycle
15Summary: Regulation of Heart Rate and Stroke Volume Sympathetic stimulation increases heart rateParasympathetic stimulation decreases heart rateCirculating hormones, specifically E, NE, and T3, accelerate heart rateIncreased venous return increases heart rateEDV is determined by available filling time and rate of venous returnESV is determined by preload, degree of contractility, and afterload
16Figure 20.24 A Summary of the Factors Affecting Cardiac Output
17SECTION 20-5 The Heart and the Cardiovascular System
18The heart is part of the cardiovascular system The goal of the cardiovascular system is to maintain adequate blood flow to all body tissuesThe heart works in conjunction with cardiovascular centers and peripheral blood vessels to achieve this goal
19You should now be familiar with: The organization of the cardiovascular system.The location and general features of the heart, including the pericardium.The differences between nodal cells and conducting cells as well as the components and functions of the conducting system of the heart.The electrical events associated with a normal electrocardiogram.
20You should now be familiar with: The events of the cardiac cycle including atrial and ventricular systole and diastole, and the heart sounds related to specific events in the cycle.Cardiac output, heart rate and stroke volume and the factors that influence these variables.How adjustments in stroke volume and cardiac output are coordinated at different levels of activity.