Presentation on theme: "Fascist Europe Greater Romania Greater Hungary Greater Croatia Greater Albania Jasenovac, Croatia Kosovo."— Presentation transcript:
Fascist Europe Greater Romania Greater Hungary Greater Croatia Greater Albania Jasenovac, Croatia Kosovo
State response to minority: Autonomy and Ethnic Federalism Serbs, Croats, Slovenes united kingdom after WWI; Named “Yugoslavia” (South Slavs), 1932 Communist Josip Broz Tito revived it after WWII. Croatian who promotes “brotherhood & unity”
Six republics of Yugoslavia, Croatia, Slovenia (Catholic) Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia (Orthodox) Bosnia (Muslim) Kosovo (Muslim part of Serbia)
Kosovo province of Serbia Tito puts Albanian majority in charge; Serbs have become minority but maintain historic claim
Tito dies; replaced by weak rotating leadership. Economic crisis leads to (multiethnic) worker strikes. Republic leaders start to use nationalist messages, weaken Yugoslav identity Yugoslavia in 1980s
Models of ethnic harmony, 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. By 1992, both cities were torn by ethnic uprisings, gang rule, and troops on the streets
Theories of ethnic hatred It’s always there; politics can keep a “lid” on it Croatian and Serbian leaders stoke ethnic hatred after 1989 It’s a tool used for political and economic power Communism collapses in Eastern Europe, 1989
Conflict among similar peoples (Serbs vs. Muslims vs. Croats) Same race, spoken language Different religion, script, “ethnic” group Intermarried, cooperated, 1950s-80s; at war 1990s Muslim and Serb refugees from Sarajevo, Bosnia
Why ethnic conflict? Because difference naturally cause conflict? But difference does not always cause conflict Conflicts also erupt between similar peoples (Bosnia)
Ethnic conflict as a tool to… Mask economic hierarchy. Divert majority citizens from economic crisis. Prevent poor of different ethnic groups from uniting.
Yugoslav ethnic groups before break-up Ethnic Serbs and Croats for irredentism Bosnians, Kosovars for secession Use of maps as weapons
“Greater Serbia” Slobodan Milosevic appeals for Serbian rights at 600th anniversary of Kosovo battle, 1989 Backs ethnic territoriality in Croatia, Bosnia; State territoriality in Kosovo
“Greater Croatia” Tudjman’s Bosnia partition plan Pres. Franjo Tudjman
“Greater Albania” Kosova Liberation Army (KLA)
Former Yugoslavia Break-up Slovenia 1991 Croatia 1991 Bosnia 1992 Macedonia 1992 Serbia & Montenegro 1992 ( Yugoslavia to 2003) Kosovo 1999 (not official)
Secession of Slovenia, 1991 Alpine republic close to Austria; no Serb minority. Belgrade let go after short fight. Soldiers’ mothers stepped in.
Secession of Croatia, 1991 Historic rival to Serbia Close to Germany. Used WWII symbols Large Serb minorities in Krajina and Eastern Slavonia.
Yugoslav Army attacks eastern Croatia cities Much of Vukovar & Osijek destroyed by Serbian shelling; Croatian scorched earth
Secession of Bosnia, 1992 Muslims, Croats did not want to stay in Serb Yugoslavia Serbs, Croats shared historic hatred of Muslims Gangs form militias; looting, confiscations response to economic crisis
Pre-war Bosnia Muslims 44% Serbs 31% Croats 17% Other 8% Three-way fight
Western recognition of independence Led by united Germany; Premature without guarantee for minority (Serb) rights. Krajina and Bosnian Serbs see replay of WWII; fight for Greater Serbia
Bosnian Serb snipers besiege Sarajevo,
Olympic Stadium in Sarajevo
Mostar (Bridge) Ottoman bridge separated Croat and Muslim neighborhoods; Croatians blew it up in 1993.
Ethnic cleansing Forced removal of an ethnic group Serbs expelled from Krajina (Croatia), 1995 Albanians expelled from Kosovo (Serbia), 1999 To make area ethnically “pure” Croats expelled from Vukovar (Croatia), 1992
Ethnic Cleansing of Bosnian Muslims
Srebrenica massacre, 1995 Serbs kill up to 7,000 Muslims Dutch UN troops powerless
Croatian ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Krajina, 1995 U.S. aided Croatian offensive into Krajina (borderland) and western Bosnia to defeat Serbs, but civilians expelled
Croatian ethnic cleansing of Serbs from Krajina, 1995
Post-war Bosnia Separate armies, currencies, etc. Two governments with contiguous territories Central gov’t? Refugee returns? Nationalist parties?
Comparing 1991 and 1995 Dayton Accord Line
Dayton Accord (de facto Partition), 1995 Federation of Bosnia- Hercegovina (Croat/Muslim) Republika Srpska (Serb Republic) U.S. rubberstamps ethnic cleansing?
Western troops In Bosnia
Kosovo fighting, Between Serbia and Kosova Liberation Army (KLA); 2,000 killed
NATO bombing of Yugoslavia, 1999
Resentment even from anti-Milosevic Serbs after civilian targets, opposition cities bombed
Ethnic Cleansing of Kosovar Albanians, 1999
Destroyed Kosovo village
Ethnic Cleansing of Kosovar Albanians, 1999
Kosovo refugee crisis
NATO troops in Kosovo Camp Bondsteel CampBondsteel Serb pocket from Mitrovica to north; both sides want ethnic partition
KLA ethnic cleansing of non-Albanians after NATO arrives Serbs, Roma, Turks, Jews etc. accused Of siding with Milosevic, left in fear
Roma (Gypsies) Non-territorial ethnic group traced to India; 5/7 million in Eastern Europe (poorest). Victims of Holocaust and skinheads; Cultures threatened by settlement, internal divisions
Macedonia Crisis Ex-KLA fighters for Greater Albania in NW Macedonia, and in Presevo Valley (Serbia), Full-scale war headed off.
Serbians vote out, overthrow Milosevic, 2000 Milosevic on trial in The Hague for war crimes. Croatians also vote out nationalists.
End of Yugoslavia, 2003 New leader critical of U.S. too. Montenegro came near independence; Kosovo de facto independent. West wants no more wars. New co-equal name: Serbia and Montenegro