Presentation on theme: "Fascist Europe Greater Romania Greater Hungary Greater Croatia Greater Albania Jasenovac, Croatia Kosovo."— Presentation transcript:
Fascist Europe Greater Romania Greater Hungary Greater Croatia Greater Albania Jasenovac, Croatia Kosovo
State response to minority: Autonomy and Ethnic Federalism Serbs, Croats, Slovenes united kingdom after WWI; Named “Yugoslavia” (South Slavs), 1932 Communist Josip Broz Tito revived it after WWII. Croatian who promotes “brotherhood & unity”
Six republics of Yugoslavia, 1945-1991 Croatia, Slovenia (Catholic) Serbia, Montenegro, Macedonia (Orthodox) Bosnia (Muslim) Kosovo (Muslim part of Serbia)
Kosovo province of Serbia Tito puts Albanian majority in charge; Serbs have become minority but maintain historic claim
Tito dies; replaced by weak rotating leadership. Economic crisis leads to (multiethnic) worker strikes. Republic leaders start to use nationalist messages, weaken Yugoslav identity Yugoslavia in 1980s
Models of ethnic harmony, 1984 Winter Olympics in Sarajevo, Bosnia. Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. By 1992, both cities were torn by ethnic uprisings, gang rule, and troops on the streets
Theories of ethnic hatred It’s always there; politics can keep a “lid” on it Croatian and Serbian leaders stoke ethnic hatred after 1989 It’s a tool used for political and economic power Communism collapses in Eastern Europe, 1989
Conflict among similar peoples (Serbs vs. Muslims vs. Croats) Same race, spoken language Different religion, script, “ethnic” group Intermarried, cooperated, 1950s-80s; at war 1990s Muslim and Serb refugees from Sarajevo, Bosnia
Why ethnic conflict? Because difference naturally cause conflict? But difference does not always cause conflict Conflicts also erupt between similar peoples (Bosnia)
Ethnic conflict as a tool to… Mask economic hierarchy. Divert majority citizens from economic crisis. Prevent poor of different ethnic groups from uniting.
Yugoslav ethnic groups before break-up Ethnic Serbs and Croats for irredentism Bosnians, Kosovars for secession Use of maps as weapons
“Greater Serbia” Slobodan Milosevic appeals for Serbian rights at 600th anniversary of Kosovo battle, 1989 Backs ethnic territoriality in Croatia, Bosnia; State territoriality in Kosovo
“Greater Croatia” Tudjman’s Bosnia partition plan Pres. Franjo Tudjman
Former Yugoslavia Break-up Slovenia 1991 Croatia 1991 Bosnia 1992 Macedonia 1992 Serbia & Montenegro 1992 ( Yugoslavia to 2003) Kosovo 1999 (not official)
Secession of Slovenia, 1991 Alpine republic close to Austria; no Serb minority. Belgrade let go after short fight. Soldiers’ mothers stepped in.
Secession of Croatia, 1991 Historic rival to Serbia Close to Germany. Used WWII symbols Large Serb minorities in Krajina and Eastern Slavonia.
Yugoslav Army attacks eastern Croatia cities Much of Vukovar & Osijek destroyed by Serbian shelling; Croatian scorched earth
Secession of Bosnia, 1992 Muslims, Croats did not want to stay in Serb Yugoslavia Serbs, Croats shared historic hatred of Muslims Gangs form militias; looting, confiscations response to economic crisis
Pre-war Bosnia Muslims 44% Serbs 31% Croats 17% Other 8% Three-way fight
Western recognition of independence Led by united Germany; Premature without guarantee for minority (Serb) rights. Krajina and Bosnian Serbs see replay of WWII; fight for Greater Serbia
Mostar (Bridge) Ottoman bridge separated Croat and Muslim neighborhoods; Croatians blew it up in 1993.
Ethnic cleansing Forced removal of an ethnic group Serbs expelled from Krajina (Croatia), 1995 Albanians expelled from Kosovo (Serbia), 1999 To make area ethnically “pure” Croats expelled from Vukovar (Croatia), 1992