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Studentification and Moral Panic: When is a ‘Student Area’ a ‘Student Ghetto’? Darren P. Smith University of Brighton, UK The 3 rd International Population.

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Presentation on theme: "Studentification and Moral Panic: When is a ‘Student Area’ a ‘Student Ghetto’? Darren P. Smith University of Brighton, UK The 3 rd International Population."— Presentation transcript:

1 Studentification and Moral Panic: When is a ‘Student Area’ a ‘Student Ghetto’? Darren P. Smith University of Brighton, UK The 3 rd International Population Geographies Conference University of Liverpool 20 th June th June 2006

2 Structure of presentation Studentification in the UK: background Studentification in the UK: background Studentification in an international context Studentification in an international context Studentification and a changing context Studentification and a changing context Dynamics of studentification Dynamics of studentification Perceptions of studentification are not linked to distinct concentrations Perceptions of studentification are not linked to distinct concentrations

3 Empirical research: Leeds, North of England ( ) Leeds, North of England ( ) Brighton & Eastbourne, SE (coast) England ( ) Brighton & Eastbourne, SE (coast) England ( ) National UK study > Department for Education and Skills / Office of the Deputy Prime Minister ( ) National UK study > Department for Education and Skills / Office of the Deputy Prime Minister ( ) 6 case studies 6 case studies Australia Australia Melbourne, Hobart (March/April 06) Melbourne, Hobart (March/April 06) Ireland Ireland Dublin, Galway, Cork (May/Aug 06) Dublin, Galway, Cork (May/Aug 06) Canada (Ontario / Quebec) Canada (Ontario / Quebec) Kingston, Hamilton, Montreal, Toronto, Quebec City (June) Kingston, Hamilton, Montreal, Toronto, Quebec City (June)

4 Part one: Studentification in the UK: background Studentification in the UK: background

5 What is studentification? Termed coined in 1999 Termed coined in 1999 Urban change with the hallmarks of gentrification (Smith, 2002) Urban change with the hallmarks of gentrification (Smith, 2002) BBC Word of 2002 BBC Word of 2002 Macmillan English Dictionary (2003) Macmillan English Dictionary (2003) ‘ [Studentification is] the social and environmental changes caused by very large numbers of students living in particular areas of a town or city ’ ‘ [Studentification is] the social and environmental changes caused by very large numbers of students living in particular areas of a town or city ’ Wikipedia (2005) Wikipedia (2005)

6 Working definition: Economic Studentification involves: Studentification involves: the revalorisation and inflation of property prices, which is tied to the recommodification of single-family housing or a repackaging of private rented housing to supply HMO for HE students. the revalorisation and inflation of property prices, which is tied to the recommodification of single-family housing or a repackaging of private rented housing to supply HMO for HE students. This restructuring of the housing stock gives rise to a tenure profile which is dominated by private rented, and decreasing levels of owner- occupation. This restructuring of the housing stock gives rise to a tenure profile which is dominated by private rented, and decreasing levels of owner- occupation. * Or purpose-built student accommodation and knock-on effects? * Or purpose-built student accommodation and knock-on effects?

7 Working definition: Social Studentification involves: Studentification involves: the replacement or displacement of a group of established permanent residents with a transient, generally young and single, [middle class] social grouping; the replacement or displacement of a group of established permanent residents with a transient, generally young and single, [middle class] social grouping; entailing new patterns of social concentration and segregation entailing new patterns of social concentration and segregation

8 Working definition: Cultural Studentification involves: Studentification involves: the gathering together of young persons with a shared culture and lifestyle, the gathering together of young persons with a shared culture and lifestyle, and consumption practices linked to certain types of retail and service infrastructure and consumption practices linked to certain types of retail and service infrastructure

9 Working definition: Physical Studentification involves: Studentification involves: an initial upgrading of the external physical environment as properties are converted to HMO. an initial upgrading of the external physical environment as properties are converted to HMO. This can subsequently lead to a downgrading of the physical environment, depending on the local context’ This can subsequently lead to a downgrading of the physical environment, depending on the local context’

10 Student Numbers All students (UK) LeedsNottingham ,720,09440,11144, ,423,59060,425(+31,960)59,610

11 2001 GB Census wards % student households Dunkirk and Lenton (Nottingham) 24.0 Headingley (Leeds) 20.8 Crossgate and Framwelgate (Durham) 17.4 Blean Forest (Canterbury) 16.6 Loughborough Storer (Charnwood) 16.5 Selly Oak (Birmingham) 15.5 Elvet (Durham) 15.2 Hanley West and Shelton (Stoke- on-Trent) 15.2 Netherthorpe (Sheffield) 14.5 St Clement`s (Oxford) 14.4

12 2001 GB Census wards % total students Holywell (Oxford) 90.3 Keele (Newcastle-u-L) 82.2 Heslington (York) 79.7 Elvet (Durham) 76.3 St Nicholas (Durham) 70.3 Carfax (Oxford) 68.2 Market (Cambridge) 65.7 Newnham (Cambridge) 64.0

13 Exaggeration?

14 Student concentrations: Ireland (source: 1996 and 2002 Irish census, using NIRSA interface) DED % students 2002 (% change ) % shared housing 2002 (% change ) Dun Laoghaire - Dublin 61.6 (+5.4) 36.9 (-12.7) Gillabbey C - Cork 49.5 (+0.3) 43.1 (+3.7) Ballysimon - Limerick 45.2 (-1.9) 24.8 (-1.9) Danagan - Galway 43.1 (-1.4) 18.9 (-12.3) Taylors Hill - Galway 40.7 (+13.8) 22.7 (+10.5) Gillabbey A - Cork 37.6 (-0.7) 35.6 (+4.4) Glahseen - Cork 36.0 (+8.7) 22.2 (+5.2) Bishopstown - Cork 35.0 (-3.0) 26.6 (+3.4) Gillabbey A - Cork 34.3 (0.0) 22.7 (+3.0)

15 Effects of studentification (What about emotions / experential dimensions?) EnvironmentalEconomicSocial Increased on- street parking. Conversion of family housing into student residences (HMOs) Purpose-built accommodation, that is out of keeping with the urban character Poorer quality housing stock Increased population density. Increase of squalor House price inflation. Changes in retail and entertainment services. Seasonal employment (in shops, pubs). Demand for private rented housing. Increase of anti-social behaviour Increase of anti-social behaviour Increased levels of crime. Increased pressures on services. Decreased demand for health and educational services. Displacement / replacement of established residents. Increased competition for private rented houses

16 A Negative process! ‘Pubs have been converted to theme bars, which often shut during the summer months when students have returned to their homes. Fast-food takeaways and off-licences selling cheap alcohol dominate the shopping streets. Schools have seen their class sizes plummet as families move out of the area. Inner-city factories have been converted into flats, as locals lose their jobs. House prices have also rocketed as landlords have created a property boom and now people wishing to move house but stay in the area have found themselves priced out of the market’ (The Observer, 21/07/2002). ‘Pubs have been converted to theme bars, which often shut during the summer months when students have returned to their homes. Fast-food takeaways and off-licences selling cheap alcohol dominate the shopping streets. Schools have seen their class sizes plummet as families move out of the area. Inner-city factories have been converted into flats, as locals lose their jobs. House prices have also rocketed as landlords have created a property boom and now people wishing to move house but stay in the area have found themselves priced out of the market’ (The Observer, 21/07/2002).

17 A Negative process! ‘In the past three years, more than 8,500 families have left. Last year 1,600 houses were converted to house students. Home prices have risen by 50%, knocking first- time buyers out of the market. Schools fear closure because of a shortage of children in the area. Because students move on, there is an electoral roll-over of 52% a year in Headingley, compared with an average 8% in other Leeds wards’ (The Guardian (11/10/2000). ‘In the past three years, more than 8,500 families have left. Last year 1,600 houses were converted to house students. Home prices have risen by 50%, knocking first- time buyers out of the market. Schools fear closure because of a shortage of children in the area. Because students move on, there is an electoral roll-over of 52% a year in Headingley, compared with an average 8% in other Leeds wards’ (The Guardian (11/10/2000).

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19 Perceptions of studentification Moral panic (National HMO Lobby - 35 university towns) Moral panic (National HMO Lobby - 35 university towns) ‘Us and them’ language ‘Us and them’ language ‘Host’ community & ‘Guest’ community ‘Host’ community & ‘Guest’ community Class-based claims of ownership to space / place / services / resources - gentrifiers Class-based claims of ownership to space / place / services / resources - gentrifiers ‘Territorial wars’ & performances of power relations ‘Territorial wars’ & performances of power relations Intergenerational conflict Intergenerational conflict New forms of [mature] gentrification? New forms of [mature] gentrification? Begs questions about: Begs questions about: Sustainable communties? Sustainable communties? Balanced communities Balanced communities Social mixing / diversity? Social mixing / diversity? The role of studentification / student accommodation for urban regeneration? The role of studentification / student accommodation for urban regeneration?

20 Perceptions of studentification When is the ‘demographic imbalance’? When is the ‘demographic imbalance’? What is the tipping point / threshold? What is the tipping point / threshold? When are concentrations of students perceived as a problem by an established residential community? When are concentrations of students perceived as a problem by an established residential community?

21 Perceptions of studentification Postal ( ) questionnaire survey of all HEIs in UK Postal ( ) questionnaire survey of all HEIs in UK Response rate 62% (85% completed by Acc. Officer) Response rate 62% (85% completed by Acc. Officer) Postal ( ) questionnaire survey of local community groups within National HMO Lobby Postal ( ) questionnaire survey of local community groups within National HMO Lobby 17 university towns and cities 17 university towns and cities 6 case studies – follow-up qualitative research 6 case studies – follow-up qualitative research Brighton, Canterbury, Leeds, Loughborough, Manchester/Salford, Nottingham Brighton, Canterbury, Leeds, Loughborough, Manchester/Salford, Nottingham

22 Studentification in an international context Studentification in an international context The ‘Student Ghetto’ in Kingston The ‘Student Ghetto’ in Kingston

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33 Perceptions of studentification in an international context Carlton in Melbourne Carlton in Melbourne Harmony between students and established residential community Harmony between students and established residential community

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42 Studentification and a changing context Studentification and a changing context Changing student populations & geographies Changing student populations & geographies The ‘Growing Esteem’ vision (University of Melbourne, 2006) The ‘Growing Esteem’ vision (University of Melbourne, 2006) 4 new student geographies: 4 new student geographies: College Squares College Squares Private sector purpose-built Private sector purpose-built Docklands & Southbank Docklands & Southbank Residential halls Residential halls Community resistance to the manufacture of ‘student ghettos’ Community resistance to the manufacture of ‘student ghettos’ Perception of changes which are akin to studentification within UK context Perception of changes which are akin to studentification within UK context

43 STUDENTIFICATION – CHANGING CONTEXTS (2) THE PROLIFERATION OF PURPOSE BUILT STUDENT ACCOMMODATION THE PROLIFERATION OF PURPOSE BUILT STUDENT ACCOMMODATION RELEASING HOUSING FOR AFFLUENT FAMILIES WITHIN THE CITY AND COUNTERING THE ‘DRIFT’ TO THE COUNTRYSIDE (C-URB.) RELEASING HOUSING FOR AFFLUENT FAMILIES WITHIN THE CITY AND COUNTERING THE ‘DRIFT’ TO THE COUNTRYSIDE (C-URB.)

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54 ‘Marvellous Melbourne’? Any lessons and / or good practice Any lessons and / or good practice Funding of developments? Funding of developments? Planning / legal obligations Planning / legal obligations Aesthetics / building codes Aesthetics / building codes Design of internal space & services / external space Design of internal space & services / external space Mixing of students / different student intakes Mixing of students / different student intakes Marrying up with student experiences / lifecourses Marrying up with student experiences / lifecourses Consultation with local communities Consultation with local communities Knock-on effects upon wider housing / retail markets Knock-on effects upon wider housing / retail markets Satisfaction levels of students Satisfaction levels of students Management of students – e.g. anti-social behaviour / pastoral care Management of students – e.g. anti-social behaviour / pastoral care Cost to students & the wider ‘student package’ (top-up fees / appeals of university / location?) Cost to students & the wider ‘student package’ (top-up fees / appeals of university / location?) Student retention & recruitment Student retention & recruitment

55 STUDENTIFICATION – CHANGING CONTEXTS THE GENTRIFICATION OF STUDENT AREAS THE GENTRIFICATION OF STUDENT AREAS THE DISPLACEMENT OF STUDENTS THE DISPLACEMENT OF STUDENTS

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59 STUDENTIFICATION – CHANGING CONTEXTS DESTUDENTIFICATION DESTUDENTIFICATION Leeds Leeds Coventry Coventry Nottingham Nottingham

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