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Ten Years of Research and Practice on Engaging Bystanders in the Prevention of Sexual Assault Sharyn J. Potter PhD, MPH Associate Professor Department.

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Presentation on theme: "Ten Years of Research and Practice on Engaging Bystanders in the Prevention of Sexual Assault Sharyn J. Potter PhD, MPH Associate Professor Department."— Presentation transcript:

1 Ten Years of Research and Practice on Engaging Bystanders in the Prevention of Sexual Assault Sharyn J. Potter PhD, MPH Associate Professor Department of Sociology Co-Director, Prevention Innovations University of New Hampshire

2 A Bystander Approach © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.2

3 Two Bystander Prevention Strategies: The Bringing in the Bystander® In-Person Prevention Program © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.3 The Know Your Power ® Bystander Social Marketing Campaign

4 Rape on US University Campuses* Public Health Issue Economic Issue Community Issue * Over 25 years of incidence and prevalence studies beginning with research by Koss, Gidycz and Wisiewski published in © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.

5 Recent U.S. Legislation to Address Sexual Violence on University and College Campuses 2011 Amendments to Title IX, Dear Colleague Letter Campus saVE Act White House Task Force to Prevent Students from Sexual Assault, Not Alone © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.

6 Campus Responses © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.6

7 Programs from a “Box” © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.7

8 Not So Fast… © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.8

9 More Harm than Good? Are the programs evidenced based? Do the programs reiterate the current rape culture? Do the programs draw from the research on learning? No magic bullets. © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.9

10 10 Years of Research on Bystander Intervention What we know…… Engage target audience members Social Self-Identification: audience need to see themselves, familiar contexts and speech Need to engage all community members Programs need to be evaluated © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.10

11 Specific Lessons - Engage the Target Audience © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.

12 Specific Lessons Social Self-Identification © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.12

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14 Focus Group Exercise Example of an Individual Response © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.

15 Specific Lessons - Language © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved. WE DO NOT TALK LIKE THE PEOPLE IN THE IMAGE! Replace the “nailed” with “smashed.” Replace rape with “Do you know how many years you’ll get?” or “he could go to the big house.” Replace Alex, Emma, Kyle and Angela to names like Kiesha, Jamal, Tyrone and Brittany.

16 Specific Lessons – Familiar Context © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.16 Three men gang raped a woman in 1987 in Stoke Hall, a residence hall at UNH. Multiple bystanders witnessed this crime and did not intervene.

17 Specific Lessons Engage All Community Members Example from a pilot study at two Army Posts in Europe (USAREUR). We had the opportunity to adapt both our in- person program and our social marketing campaign. © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.17

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19 Know Your Power Bystander Social Marketing Campaign USAREUR Pilot Results 146 Soldiers on the post completed the survey following the removal of the images. 77% reported seeing image, 23% did not see images. Saw Images (N = 112) Did Not See Images (N=34) 88% male71% male* 66% lived on post62% lived on post © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.

20 USAREUR Pilot Study of the Know Your Power Bystander Social Marketing Campaign Results Soldiers who saw campaign images are significantly less likely to report that reducing sexual assault and stalking is the responsibility of someone else (e.g. sexual assault response coordinator, SARC, police), (p <.05). (Potter & Stapleton, 2012) © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.

21 Soldier’s Outcomes Five Months after Participating in the Bringing in the Bystander Training. These results are significant (p <.001). © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.

22 Program Evaluation 1.Formative evaluation during program development (e.g., focus groups, surveys). 2.Pretest and posttest methodologies, 5 week, 6 month and 12 month follow- up surveys. 3.Engage our target audience members to determine incentives that will increase and retain study participation. © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved.

23 Copyright23 Example of Campaign Administration and Evaluation

24 Does exposure to the Know Your Power Bystander Social Marketing Campaign change students’ attitudes regarding sexual assault, relationship violence and stalking? Stage of Change Scale Precontemplation Contemplation Action Backlash? Are we making things worse? Potter SJ. “Using a Multi-media Social Marketing Campaign to Increase Active Bystanders on the College Campus.” Journal of American College Health 60, 2012, Campus Wide Evaluation: Research Questions

25 A Few Results…. Decrease in the belief that preventing sexual violence is the responsibility of others between pretest and posttest times (Main effect for time, F 1, 333, p <.05, Between subject effect for gender, F 1, 331, p <.001) Increase in participants’ willingness to prevent sexual and relationship violence and stalking & social self- identification between pretest and posttest times (Main effect for time, F 1, 333, p <.05, Between subject effect for gender, F 1, 331, p <.001) Participants reported taking increase in actions to reduce sexual and relationship violence and stalking and campaign exposure between prestest and posttest times. (Main effect for time: F 1, 332, p <.001) © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved25

26 Know Your Power Bystander Social Marketing Campaign Evaluation Results from 5 Campus Studies Social marketing changes attitudes. Changes in attitudes and behavior between pretest and posttest times. Importance of social self-identification. Dose matters (intentional & time limited). Effects maintained 5 weeks following end of exposure. No backlash effect.

27 Still More Questions??? 1.Does the intervention reduce perpetration rates? 2.Does the intervention reduce rates of victimization? © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved27

28 Need Different Strategies One prevention dosage will not end perpetration and victimization. © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved28

29 Education Needs to Begin Before Students Enter College and University © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved29

30 In Conclusion… © 2014 University of New Hampshire. All Rights Reserved30

31 Thank You. Please contact me with any questions… Sharyn J. Potter PhD, MPH Associate Professor Department of Sociology Co-Director, Prevention Innovations University of New Hampshire


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