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1 “Education and training 2000-2010: the new challenges of lifelong learning in Europe” J.Manuel Galvin Arribas Santiago de Compostela (Galicia –Spain-)

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1 1 “Education and training 2000-2010: the new challenges of lifelong learning in Europe” J.Manuel Galvin Arribas Santiago de Compostela (Galicia –Spain-) 10 May 2006

2 2 CONTENTS 1.CEDEFOP's mission: to produce, exchange and disseminate knowledge. 2.The Copenhagen-Maastricht-Helsinki process i n the Lisbon agenda. 3.The evolution of the education and training 2000-2010 work programme: status of the main indicators. 4.How to cope with these challenges? The most important training measures and strategies at national and European levels up to 2010. 5.How to master the situation: some conclusions and proposals to tackle education/training challenges in Europe up to 2010.

3 3 1.CEDEFOP's mission: to produce, exchange and disseminate knowledge Main activities of the Centre: (Knowledge production-peer learning activities-dissemination)  Detection and selection of sources of documentation: analysis of data and broad diffusion of information to the European Community on education and training  Promote and coordinate research in the field of education and training.  Trigger new approaches and joint solutions for the problems of education and training in Europe (political leaders, social partners, etc.)  Present an area for the production and exchange of ideas.

4 4 2.The Copenhagen-Maastricht-Helsinki process in the Lisbon agenda: towards a Europe of education and knowledge.

5 5 2.1 Historical review of European vocational education and training strategies (2000-2010) §2000- Lisbon Council: Strategic objectives up to 2010: to become the most competitive and dynamic knowledge- based economy in the world, capable of sustainable growth with more and better jobs and greater social cohesion. §2002- Council of Barcelona: Make Europe's education and training systems a world quality reference (3% of GDP to be spent on R&D in 2010). -Declaration of Copenhagen: Enhanced cooperation in vocational education and training between the Member States.  2003- Brussels Council: Definition of 5 benchmarks for education and training systems up to 2010.  2004- Education Council (Brussels): Guidance, quality, the identification and validation of informal and non- formal training and the decision on EUROPASS. -Maastricht Communication: Revision of the Copenhagen objectives and definition of priorities for education and training at national and European level.  2005-Revision of the Lisbon strategy: Integration of guidelines for a combination of economic growth and employment, investment in human resources and progressive adaptation of education and training to these requirements.  2006- Helsinki: Second revision of the objectives set in the course of the Copenhagen-Maastricht process: A. Build bridges and links between VET and higher education; B. Closer link between VET and the labour market and social integration of the underprivileged. C. More investment and more funding of VET.

6 6 (2002) Copenhagen Declaration: Move towards cooperation in VET  Strengthening the European dimension : stressing the identity of European education and training in the international context.  Increased transparency and strengthening of information and guidance systems: integration of instruments (European CV, certificate and diploma supplements, Europass) to encourage mobility.  Recognition of competences and qualifications : research to promote transparency, comparability, recognition of competences/qualifications between countries and acceptance of VET credits. Development of sectoral competences (social partners) and development of principles for the validation between countries of non-formal and informal learning. EQF  Quality c ontrol: Development and exchange of methods and models for the search for common criteria. The training needs of teachers and trainers. 2.2-Copenhagen-Maastricht-Helsinki in the Lisbon agenda (I). (2000) Lisbon : Explicit recognition of education and training as a pillar of social and economic development: SOCIAL INCLUSION -COHESION-MOBILITY-EMPLOYABILITY-COMPETITIVENESS. EUROPEAN SOCIAL PARTNERS (2002): FRAMEWORK OF ACTION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIFELONG COMPETENCES AND QUALIFICATIONS 1.Identify and anticipate the comp/qualif needs. 2. Recognise and validate competences 3. Provide permanent information and guidance. 4 Mobilise financial resources EUROPEAN SOCIAL PARTNERS (2002): FRAMEWORK OF ACTION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIFELONG COMPETENCES AND QUALIFICATIONS 1.Identify and anticipate the comp/qualif needs. 2. Recognise and validate competences 3. Provide permanent information and guidance. 4 Mobilise financial resources

7 7 2.2-Copenhagen-Maastricht-Helsinki in the Lisbon agenda (II). (2003)- Brussels Council: Benchmarks for the follow-up of education/training objectives 2000- 2010 I.Early school drop-out: in 2010 90% of EU citizens in the 18-24 age-group should have competed at least the first cycle of secondary education and should not abandon studies or training (benchmark: 10%). II.Graduates in mathematics, science and technology: increase by 15% in 2010 (CINE/ISCED levels 5A, 5B and 6, Sources: Eurostat, UNESCO/OECD). III.Completion of the upper secondary cycle: reach 85% of persons below 22 years of age (CINE/ISCED level 3. Source: Eurostat LFS). IV.Key competences: reduce deficiencies in reading literacy in youth below 15 years of age so that this will be reduced by 20% i n 2010 as against 2000: from 17.2% to 13.7% ( PISA Level 1 or lower. Source: PISA-OCDE). V.Lifelong learning: see to it that in 2010 12.5% of the adult population (24-65 years) participate in training activities (Source: EUROSTAT. Note: one month before the survey was conducted). VI. Investment in human resources; will lead to sustainable growth, international competences and social cohesion (public expenditure in education as a percentage of the GDP).

8 8 (2004) Maastricht Communication : Revision of the Copenhagen objectives and new priorities for enhanced cooperation in VET at national and Community level INTERIM REPORT EDUCATION/TRAINING 2010 (KOK REPORTS 2003/2004): IDENTIFICATION OF PRIORITIES TO REFORM THE SYSTEMS SEEKING EXCELLENCE  The image and the attractiveness of VET systems: social status and increased participation.  Raise the quality and innovation of VET systems.  Observation of the labour market in the knowledge-based economy: high levels of qualifications and demographic change (adult population).  Strengthen social cohesion: persons with low levels of qualification and other groups at risk Principles of cooperation between VET and:  Higher learning (Bologna).  Economic, employment, sustainable development and social integration policies (guidance and national action plans).  Instruments and funds for pre-accession.  Innovation through the exchange of good practices. 2.2-Copenhagen-Maastricht-Helsinki in the Lisbon agenda (III).

9 9 3. Evolution of the Education and Training Work Programme 2000-2010: status of the main indicators.

10 10 3.1 Europe: Potential of services sector, loss of industrial employment Employment trends in EU 25 are dependent on the momentum of service-based economic activities. The growth of employment in the services sector has a greater impact on the female working population. This trend is linked to a continuous loss of industrial employment (restructuring, relocation, etc.). Services are the foundation of the knowledge-based society. Increasing competitiveness can only be achieved by improving the production factors (qualifications, ICT, investment). EU 25 has to compete with economies which pay low salaries and incur low costs: innovation (R)+ training (D); quality and fewer legal barriers to trade on the domestic market are measures which will help to support the maintenance and reinforcement of employment and growth in the sector.

11 11 While some countries have made some progress, the indicator shows that there has been no progress in reducing this gap. The goal of achieving 15.5% in 2010 still seems to be very far off. Since 2000, EU 25 has raised the number of technology graduates by 16%, thus achieving the target. Spain has grown by 30% and the Baltic States have had a positive improvement of gender balance. 3.2 Follow-up of benchmarks for 2010 (I)

12 12 Since 2000 EU 25 has slightly increased the rate to reach the target (85%) even though it will still be far from it in 2010. One remarkable fact is that some new members reach rates of 90% (Czech Republic, Poland, Slovakia). There has been considerable progress in the reduction of pupils who dropped out of studies at the indicated level. The Nordic countries and many in Eastern Europe have attained this goal. They should continue moving towards this goal of 10% in 2010, paying special attention to the gender groups (boys). 3.2 Follow-up of benchmarks for 2010 (II)

13 13 2010 (12.5%) Participation in lifelong learning activities (working population in the 4 weeks prior to survey), amounted to 10.8% in 2005 which means great progress since 2000. The figure for Spain rose by 7% in the last year (probably attributable to changes in methodology). 3.2 Follow-up of benchmarks for 2010 (III)

14 14 Between 1995 and 2000 public expenditure on education declined in the EU. However, since 2000 a rising trend may be observed even though great differences exist between the different countries. Denmark and Sweden reached 7.5%. The figure for Spain in 2002 was 4.4%. Although the position with respect to Japan and USA is good, private expenditure, according to the OECD, is higher in these two countries and especially in USA. 3.3 Other key indicators: public expenditure on education (I)

15 15 3.3 Other key indicators: level of education compared with the main competitive countries. (II)

16 16 3.3 Other key indicators: the non-qualified and the challenge of demographic change in the "old" Europe up to 2010 (III). The number of persons with a low qualification in Europe is declining although the overall figure continues to be high. Even though within two years the total figure decreased by 4.6 million (6%), a total of 76.3 million people with low qualifications was still registered in 2004. This is equivalent to almost 30% of the working population in Europe by levels of qualification. As was to be observed, in 2010 the youngest cohort of the working population will be much smaller than the oldest one. According to demographic projections, in 2050 there will be more than 65 million people between 55 and 64 years of age and 48 million between 15 and 24 years. This means that the labour market will have to depend on older workers. Improving one's employability is essential to prepare for this effect.

17 17 4.How to cope with these challenges? The most important training measures and strategies at national and European level up to 2010.

18 18   ACTION REQUIRED COPENHAGEN-MASSTRICHT-HELSINKI.  Transparency, recognition and validation of non formal/informal learning.  The quality of instruction in vocational training.  Social inclusion (risk groups): low qualifications-immigrants/2nd and 3rd generation /- women - the disabled - long- term unemployed youth)  Mobility and guidance throughout life.  Trainers and teachers: new roles and training needs  Improvement of data and methodological tools for follow-up of policy outcomes. ICT  Application of more/better coordination with policy makers and, in particular, more support and participation of the social partners. 4.Action priorities for vocational education and training in Copenhagen-Maastricht-Helsinki European Qualification Framework (EQF) EUROPEAN SOCIAL PARTNERS FRAMEWORK OF ACTION FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF LIFELONG COMPETENCES AND QUALIFICATIONS Measures and programmes for MOBILITY

19 19 (EQF) 4.1 The European Qualification Framework (EQF)  Set up during the Bologna process (higher education) and Copenhagen (education and vocational training) = higher learning/lifelong learning  EQF is a meta-framework which facilitates the assessment and the comparison of qualifications: it enhances transparency, transfer and recognition of learning outcomes.  It introduces 8 European reference levels covering compulsory education at the highest academic level (doctorates) and qualifications derived from the teaching of vocational education and training.  Every reference level is based on the use of the concept of competence and derived from learning outcomes: knowledge, competences and autonomy/responsibility.  In order to get an operational EQF it is necessary to have a comprehensive follow-up of the national qualification levels: national/sectoral qualification frameworks.  Up to now the proposal has received broad support. Its application is voluntary and its success depends on the degree to which the different interest groups accept it. Consultation process: final decision in 2007.

20 20 4.2 Specific training programmes and measures to promote the mobility of European citizens (I). Dossier of documents: help citizens to have a systematic listing in a clear and simple form of their aptitudes, their diplomas and certificates acquired throughout their lives, both between countries and between sectors. Objective of the Europass: facilitate the mobility of students and workers throughout the Member States of the EU, the countries belonging to the Free Trade Area /the European Economic Area and the candidate countries, provided they wish to look for work and/or seek admission to an educational or training programme. The Europass consists of 5 documents: a European CV together with other documents depending on the history of each individual: Language passport; Diploma/Certificate Supplement; Higher Diploma Supplement; Europass Mobility (the organisation / administration responsible for the programme) EUROPASS System Mobility: in employment vs. geographical Objective: arouse more awareness of the importance of mobility as a tool which will enhance the functioning of labour markets in Europe: increase information on the rights of free movement, the paths and possibilities and the barriers which have restrained the mobility of the people. Specific measures and activities: *DG Employment- Work Plan for 2006: Development of indicators (research on vacancies; integrated system of the benefits and costs of mobility; ad hoc LFS module)- Review and analysis of secondary sources, seminars and exchange of practices) *Cedefop/Eurofound: Joint seminar on the role of competences as a support element for the mobility of the workforce in the enterprises. *Cedefop: study visit programme. 2006 European Year of Workers' Mobility EURES PORTAL NET MOBILITY

21 21 4.3 The European Social Partners: the framework of action for the development of lifelong competences and qualifications.  The European social partners have, up to now, made a joint contribution to strengthen the role of lifelong learning in the Lisbon strategy: strengthening lifelong learning in the political agendas (PNAE).  After many initiatives and experiences gained at national, regional, sectoral and enterprise levels, there is a classification of key areas of action to promote lifelong learning: coherence in identifying measures to support training systems. 1.Identify and anticipate the needs for comp/qualif. 2. Recognise and validate competences 3. Provide ongoing information and guidance. 4 Mobilise financial resources.  An essential pillar in the "Work programmes of the European social partners" (2003-2005 and new period 2006-2008).  Social dialogue on lifelong learning in the centre of the European social model. More dynamism, strengthening the role of peer learning, as a tool for the transfer of experience between countries in order to support the sectoral and enterprise levels.  Make more visible the debate on validation, recognition of qualifications and competences between the social partners: negotiation of the qualifications.  At present, it is the most consolidated joint measure between the social partners of EU 25 where there is agreement and consensus without dissension: opens lines of reference to establish a true European social dialogue in other social and labour fields. MAIN CONTRIBUTIONS

22 22 5.HOW TO MASTER THE SITUATION? SOME CONCLUSIONS AND PROPOSALS TO TACKLE EDUCATION/ TRAINING CHALLENGES IN EUROPE UP TO 2010.

23 23 5.How to master the situation?: Some conclusions and proposals (I). A.The development of a modern knowledge-based economy: from land, labour and capital to information and knowledge as the main components of the foundations of exchange and economic growth. B.The most effective, modern and competitive economies are those which produce more and better information and knowledge, making them more broadly accessible to a larger number of individuals and enterprises. C.A CHANGE IN THE RULES OF THE GAME. Europe does not compete with low-salary and low-qualification economies: China or India are developing fast on the basis of high qualifications and low costs. D.Evidence shows that all those countries and/or continents which invest a great deal in education and qualifications get a high economic and social return because of this choice. E.Furthermore, expectations on the return on investment in terms of salary are always much higher if one compares those of a person with tertiary education and another person with secondary education (PISA 2003- OECD). F.If it wants to be competitive Europe must combine a rise in investment with a more flexible improvement of training outcomes. ON THE NECESSITY AND THE USEFULNESS OF EDUCATION AND TRAINING FOR EUROPE (I)

24 24 5.How to master the situation? Some conclusions and proposals (II). THE SITUATION OF THE EDUCATION-TRAINING PROGRAMME 2000-2010 G.Education and training must play a central role in the national reform programmes in order to achieve the Lisbon objectives, making use of the Structural Funds in order to strengthen the dimension of training (and its recognition) as an element of social protection and inclusion (Helsinki 2006). H.For this it is essential to continue developing, at national level, instruments which will make it possible to improve coordination and follow-up (indicators and assessments), always taking into account the resolutions and/or conclusions related to the work programme, in order to draw up programmes and to keep the criteria of different interest groups in mind (especially the social partners). I.The difficulties of public-private investment at national levels when it is clear that: returns from education and training are expected for the development of countries in the global context. Efficiency and equity are not excluded per se if one has to concentrate on the training of risk groups without expecting an immediate return on this investment. J.From the European perspective, it is clear that progress has been made and that the framework has been set up: one may say that concrete and urgent efforts are missing in some key areas (level of education of adults, public and private expenditure, early school drop-out, etc,). K.Also in the European context, there is an urgent need for the improvement of various key mechanisms: improvement of the exchange of experience (conclusions), monitoring of lifelong learning strategies in the context of the European social model, etc.

25 25 5.How to master the situation? Some conclusions and proposals (III). TECHNICAL MEASURES FOR EDUCATION-FORMATION IN EUROPE 2000-2010 L.The application of tools for the promotion of education and training and improvement of the mobility has been prepared: but there is lack of implementation (Europass, EQF, etc.). M.The need to design some decentralised measures, involving the social partners and other responsible technical and political persons. N.Make people aware of the need to create strategies which support investment in innovation Europe needs an innovation strategy. O.For this it will be necessary to increase partnerships at local and regional levels: detection of innovation strategies supported by public and private researchers, the social partners and other possible actors at this level. P.Work with pilot groups for experimentation of measures and extrapolation of the results (e.g. mobility measures). The experience gained from peer learning and specific case studies is producing very positive results. Q.Improve indicators and statistics, in particular, better assessment of the concept and significance of lifelong learning. R.Work more in the sectoral dimension of training because of the multiplicity of stakeholders (social partners, training providers, employment, education, industrial sectors, etc) and objectives (identification of competences, financing, development of qualifications, clear reference framework for collective bargaining, etc.) S. More inclusion of training in collective bargaining.

26 26 Thank you for your attention! www.cedefop.eu.int www.trainingvillage.eu http://www.trainingvillage.gr/etv/Projects_Networks/SocialP/ jmga@cedefop.eu.int


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