Presentation on theme: "The Size of the Problem Losses are lower than previously estimated but still substantial. Average grain losses are estimated to range between 10-20% (depending."— Presentation transcript:
The Size of the Problem Losses are lower than previously estimated but still substantial. Average grain losses are estimated to range between 10-20% (depending on the grain and the season ) Based on estimates by APHLIS, the value of losses in East and Southern Africa, are estimated to equate to approximately US$1.6 billion/per year (2005-2007 prices). Losses are typically higher in humid climates; Highest losses are for maize and sorghum, lowest for rice, millet and teff. Extrapolating to all of Africa, losses could reach $ 4 billion/year.
Putting $s into perspective: How much is $4 billion worth? It: a)exceeded the annual average value of cereal imports for Africa in 2005-2007 b)equates to the value of total food aid received in SSA over the past decade c)is equivalent to the annual caloric requirement of at least 48 million people (at 2,500 kcal/person/day) ALL OF THE ABOVE
What do we know? Adoption has been slow but there have been the successes 1.HAMMERMILLs (with the advent of rural electrification) has been one of the single most widespread PHL adopted technologies 2. Rice technologies introduced from Asia: Pedal threshers and rice mills 3. New bagging techniques, such as triple bagging for cowpea Meanwhile, some traditional technologies, such as modified mud silos (e.g. in Northern Ghana) have been adopted in other regions.
The failures have been illustrative Effective drying and storage are points along the chain with the highest losses but the introduction of metal silos has been problematic. Adopted in Central America but not widely in Africa Why? Too expensive Lack of cultural acceptability (many villagers want to store grain in their houses) Adoption takes time, not within narrow project time-frames.
Climate type Crop Scale of farming Hot/humid Maize Small Warm temperate Maize Large Arid/desert Sorghum Small Arid/desert Millet Small Hot/humid Rice Small Harvesting/field drying 6.4188.8.131.52 Drying 43.5--- Shelling/threshing1.22.342.52.6 Winnowing----2.5 Transport to store184.108.40.206.51.3 Storage220.127.116.11.11.2 Transport to market11111 Market storage 44444 Cumulative % weight loss * 17.911.312.69.311.4 Cumulative % weight loss ** 16.511.212.09.311.9 Generalized Losses Along the Chain for Major Grains in Eastern and Southern Africa Note: The estimates are weighted average according to reported figures. * Cumulative weight loss assuming all grain retained on farm, none marketed. ** Cumulative weight loss assuming that in the first three months, 50 percent of grain stock marketed does not incur farm storage losses. Source: APHLIS. KEY GAP: Good baseline data on PHL
HOW TO MOVE AHEAD TO FILL THE ACTION GAP? The need for a regional partnership A Community of Practice on PHLs 1.Establish best practices for reducing PHLs; 2.Review failures 3.Develop standardized methodologies and tools for measuring PHL; 4.Strengthen national capacities to facilitate PHL reduction 5.Use regional platform of partners to leverage funds/coordinate activities
So how do we go about this? Regional champions: stakeholders from five West Africa countries (Liberia, Ghana, Sierra Leone, Nigeria, the Gambia ) commit themselves to a CoP on PHL: : “as per CAADP commitments to ”: 1)Develop uniform methodologies and tools to provide appropriate estimates on PHL 2) Increase capacity of technicians in research methodologies and applied tools to assess PHL; 3)Establish appropriate framework PHL reduction; 4)Build coordination networks Move ahead on identifying institutional synergies: we hope that you join us.