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© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Our Moon and other moons of the Solar System
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Starter 1/25/13 What do you already know about our Moon?
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What is a moon? A moon is a natural satellite of a planet or dwarf planet There are over 170 moons around the planets and dwarf planets in our solar system
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Planets and numbers of moons PlanetNumber of known moons Mercury0 Venus0 Earth1 Mars2 Jupiter63 Saturn63 Uranus 27 Neptune13 Dwarf planet Pluto3 (maybe 4) Eris1
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. How do we explain the existence of our Moon?
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Giant Impact Theory Between 4.4 and 5 billion years ago an object about the size of Mars struck a very young Earth and blasted material into orbit around Earth –The “youngest” Moon rocks are 4.4 billion years old The material from the collision came together by gravity (called accretion) and became our Moon. The Moon was much closer to the Earth when it first formed –It was between12,000-18,000 miles away –Now it is 240,000 miles away and moving away from us by 1.5 inches/year
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Giant Impact
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Why does the Moon look the way it does?
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Impact Cratering Most cratering happened soon after the solar system formed – “the Late Heavy Bombardment” Craters are about 10 times wider than object that made them. Small craters greatly outnumber large ones.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Impact Craters Meteor Crater (Arizona) Tycho Crater (Moon)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Impact Craters on Mars “Standard” crater Impact into icy ground Eroded crater
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Thought question Shouldn’t the Earth be covered in craters too? Why isn’t it?
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Volcanism Volcanism happens when molten rock (magma) finds a path through the Earth’s crust (lithosphere) to the surface. Molten rock is called lava after it reaches the surface.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Lava and Volcanoes Runny lava makes flat lava plains. Slightly thicker lava makes broad shield volcanoes. Thickest lava makes steep stratovolcanoes.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Lunar Maria were formed by volcanism Smooth, dark lunar maria are less heavily cratered than lunar highlands. Maria were made by floods of runny lava.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Formation of Lunar Maria Large impact crater weakens crust. Heat build- up allows lava to well up to surface. Early surface is covered with craters. Cooled lava is smoother and darker than surroundings.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Moon is geologically dead Moon is considered geologically “dead” because geological processes have virtually stopped.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Do the Moon and Mercury have any atmosphere?
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Exospheres of the Moon and Mercury Sensitive measurements show that the Moon and Mercury have virtually no atmosphere. The little gas there comes from impacts and the solar wind that eject surface atoms. Earth’s Moon Mercury
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. The Moon’s surface conditions No atmosphere No liquid water – frozen water at the poles Because of the lack of an atmosphere the moon experiences extreme temperatures –Daytime = 130 C (265°F) –Nighttime = -190 C (-310 F) The moon has 1/6 th of Earth’s gravity
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Starter 2/7 Identify one similarity and one difference between our Moon and the other moons of the solar system?
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. What kinds of moons orbit the other planets of the solar system?
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Sizes of Moons Small moons (< 300 km) “irregular” –No geological activity Medium-sized moons (300–1500 km) “regular” –Geological activity in the past (mostly) Large moons (> 1500 km) “regular” –Ongoing geological activity (mostly)
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Small (or irregular) Moons These are far more numerous than the medium and large moons. They do not have enough gravity to be spherical: Most are “potato-shaped.”
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. They are captured asteroids or comets, so their orbits do not follow usual patterns – *retrograde and tilted orbits Small (or irregular) Moons
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Captured Moons Mars has two moons (Phobos and Deimos) that are thought to be captured asteroids from the asteroid belt
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Medium and Large (regular) Moons Enough self-gravity to be spherical Often have substantial amounts of ice Except for our Moon they formed in orbit around jovian planets (gas giants) *by accretion Circular orbits in same direction as planet rotation *around equator
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Jupiter’s Galilean moons
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Io Io is the most volcanically active body in the solar system
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Io’s Volcanoes Volcanic eruptions continue to change Io’s surface.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Europa
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Europa’s interior also warmed by tidal heating producing a possible ocean under the ice.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Ganymede Largest moon in the solar system Clear evidence of geological activity
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Callisto “Classic” cratered iceball No evidence of geologic activity
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Other interesting moons in the solar system
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Titan Saturn’s largest moon Titan is the only moon in the solar system to have a thick atmosphere. It consists mostly of nitrogen with some argon, methane, and ethane.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Titan’s Surface Huygens probe provided first look at Titan’s surface in early 2005. It found liquid methane and “rocks” made of ice.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Enceladus Enceladus is a medium sized moon of Saturn Ice fountains of Enceladus suggest it may have a subsurface ocean.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Charon The largest moon of Pluto is also the largest moon relative to the size of its planet Charon is ½ the size of Pluto, and is thought to be ice-covered like Pluto as well
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Top 12 largest moons in the solar system 1.Ganymede 2.Titan 3.Calisto 4.Io 5.The Moon 6.Europa 7. Titania 8. Rhea 9.Oberon 10.Iapetus 11.Charon 12.Umbriel
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Top 10ish moons in the solar system (with other terrestrial bodies for comparison)
ASTR100 (Spring 2008) Introduction to Astronomy Jovian Moons and Rings Prof. D.C. Richardson Sections
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Jovian Planet Systems.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems.
The Solar System. The Sun Size: 1.4 million km in diameter Rotation: days Age: 4.5 billion years old (out of its 10 billion year lifetime) Temperature:
The Moons of Other Planets Chapter 16-4 Part 2 Part 2 The moons of other planets range in size from very small to as large as terrestrial planets. Venus.
Organization Our Solar System consists of: Comets orbiting the Sun Asteroids orbiting the Sun Planets orbiting the Sun ○ Moons orbiting the planets.
Chapter 20: Our Solar System. Inner Planets Inner Planets often called Terrestrial Planets Rock Planets – Mercury – Venus – Earth – Mars Asteroid Belt.
Ch 27 Review Planets & the Solar System. Name the inner planets.
Moons and Solar System Debris After completing this section, students will differentiate between meteors, meteorites, comets and asteroids (Standard PI-079)
Chapter 8 Jovian Planet Systems. 8.1 A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning: What are jovian planets made of? What are jovian planets like.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter 9 Planetary Geology (abridged): Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds.
Lecture Outline Chapter 8: Jovian Planet Systems © 2015 Pearson Education, Inc.
Chapter 5 Terrestrial Worlds. What are terrestrial planets like on the inside?
Chapter 9 Planetary Geology Earth and the Other Terrestrial Worlds.
© 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Solar System Overview Earth, as viewed by the Voyager spacecraft.
Our Solar System.. Astronomical unit is the distance between the Earth and the Sun X 10.
Chapter 27 – The Planets and the Solar System Page 586 Do you think it is possible to count the rings of Saturn? The rings look solid in the image, do.
Astronomy 1010 Planetary Astronomy Fall_2015 Day-37.
Objectives Essential Question What would life be like on another planet? Objectives Describe conditions on other planets in our solar system Explain why.
The Outer Planets - Jupiter Jupiter, the largest of the planets, is 2.5 times more massive than all the other planets combined It is covered by clouds.
Satellites – natural or artificial bodies that revolve around larger bodies such as planets.
Jupiter and Saturn’s Satellites of Fire and Ice Chapter Fifteen.
Name that Planet!. This planet has 2 moons, whose names are Phobos and Deimos.
The Outer Planets Chap 16, Sec 4. Chap 16 Sec 4 Essential Questions 1. What characteristics do the gas giants have in common? 2. What characteristics.
28.3 Satellites of Other Planets Std 1F: Know the evidence for the dramatic effects that asteroid impacts have had in shaping the surface of planets. Objective.
Jupiter and Saturn’s Satellites of Fire and Ice. Guiding Questions 1.What is special about the orbits of Jupiter’s Galilean satellites? 2.Are all the.
Chapter 11 Jovian Planet Systems A Different Kind of Planet Our goals for learning: Are jovian planets all alike? What are jovian planets like on.
Class 3 : Craters in the solar system. Recap last class… Patterns in the solar system. Theory for solar system formation. How do we test this theory? Variety.
Tour of the Solar System. General Properties of the Solar System There are two classes of planets: The Terrestrial planets are small, solid bodies (rocks.
AST 111 Lecture 21 Jovian Worlds II. The Jovian Moons Numerous! Galilean Moons.
Standard 1b. Students know the evidence from Earth and moon rocks indicates that the solar system was formed from a large nebular cloud of dust and gas.
Our Solar System’s Star Current Age- 5 Billions years old Life Time Expectancy- 10 Billions years 99.8 % of our solar systems total mass. 108 Earth fit.
Our solar system consists of the Sun and eight planets This shows the relative sizes of the sun and the planets.
The Outer Planets Jupiter It is the 5 th planet from the sun, and the largest planet in the solar system Contains more mass than all the other.
The Sun Solar Wind Our Solar System’s Star Current Age- 5 Billions years old Life Time Expectancy- 10 Billions years 99.8 % of our solar systems total.
Moons of Gas Giants. Jupiter Io Innermost moon Innermost moon Composed of Sulfur Composed of Sulfur Volcanically Active Volcanically Active Heat is.
Order of the Planets What is an AU? Inner vs. Outer Planets Other stuff in our Solar System.
The Moons of Our Solar System. How many moons are in our solar system? 1? 9? 61? 159? 159 and counting!
The Inner Planets Mercury Closest planet to the sun Surface has many craters and looks like the moon Cliffs that may have formed from the iron rich.
Earth Earth: the third planet from the sun Atmosphere: 78% Nitrogen 21% Oxygen 1% other gases Ozone layer to protects it from harmful UV radiation.
An overview of the Planets. *******Add to your notes: Ecliptic Plane - plane of the Earth's orbit around the Sun. Most objects in the solar system.
The Outer Planets The Gas Giants. JUPITER DISTANCE FROM SUN = 5.2 AU MASS = 318 X EARTH DIAMETER = 11 X EARTH ATMOSPHERE = HYDROGEN AND HELIUM SURFACE.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. Important Stuff (section 003) The First Midterm is Thursday, October 10 The First Midterm will be given in Physics.
Outer Planets Complete Section 3 Study Guide. Outer Planets Jupiter Jupiter Saturn Saturn Uranus Uranus Neptune Neptune ?Pluto? ?Pluto? “Gas Giants” “Gas.
THE OUTER PLANETS. The first four outer planets- Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune- are much larger and more massive than Earth, and they do not have.
Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. The Formation of the Solar System.
The Sun & The Solar System. Structure of the Sun The Sun has layers which can be compared to the Earth’s core, mantle, crust, and atmosphere All of these.
MOTION OF THE PLANETS For many centuries, most people believed that the Earth was the center of the universe. In this geocentric model, the Sun, the planets.
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