Presentation on theme: "Starship Earth Revisited Rapidly Erectable Geodesic Domes, Pneumatic and Tensile Structures in the Aftermath of an Asteroid Impact ASTE 527: Space Exploration."— Presentation transcript:
Starship Earth Revisited Rapidly Erectable Geodesic Domes, Pneumatic and Tensile Structures in the Aftermath of an Asteroid Impact ASTE 527: Space Exploration Architectures Concept Synthesis Studio Angella Johnson December 17, 2013
Asteroid Impact Energy Release Planet Earth is a highly complex system. An asteroid strike will abruptly and severely affect the entire biosphere and all life forms
Asteroid Impact Immediate Effect Not fully known but severe Large scale devastation affecting all flora and fauna Volcano + Tidal Wave + Earthquake +Toxic atmosphere
Severe and immediate Impact on Civilization Especially on densely populated regions Civil unrest and chaos Spread of disease Lack of food and water High level of atmospheric pollution No access to power and communication
Cataclysmic Events Asteroid Impacts are a normal geologic process. Weathering on Earth and Mars quickly erases evidence
How often ? “City killer” are projected to occur every twenty years ! We have been lucky because Earth is a water planet and most impacts occur over oceans, away from land and populated regions.
Impact Aftermath Shock and heat waves destroys up to a 500 mile radius Crater formation Tsunami / Earthquakes / Volcanoes Suborbital debris on global scale Global debris and dust cover Tidal Surges affect coastal cities and regions with waterways-almost all population centers affected immediately Forest Fires No sunlight for 6 months- 1 year/ temperature plummets Nuclear Winter effects Imbalance to natural fauna and flora – agriculture affected
Banda Aceh (2004) Tohoku (2011)
Impact on Population Centers Power grid and physical infrastructure broken Lack of Food and water Loss of Communication Public health compromised - Disease Civil unrest
Supervolcano & Cataclysmic Events A supervolcano is capable of producing a volcanic eruption with an ejecta volume greater than 1,000 km 3 or 240 cu mi. This is thousands of times larger than normal volcanic eruptions. VEI-8: events that throw out at least 1,000 km dense rock equivalent(DRE) of ejecta. VEI-7: events eject at least 100 km or 24 cu mi DRE. Large hot rock and debris strewn over wide area and fires ignited Toxic, solar opaque atmosphere similar to asteroid impact
Large Volcanic Eruptions
Rationale What to do if we are unable to avoid asteroid impact ? Preserve and protect humanity on a global scale(starting with population centers) for an indefinite period after a cataclysmic event. Concept The “Duck & Cover Concept” is explored. Critical, physical infrastructure system of city is repurposed in order to protect dense populations for six months to a year after impact.
Without A Warning
In A Nutshell Combine engineering technology and architectural technology to build critical structures and infrastructures enabling human beings to survive cataclysmic events beyond our control.
Historical Background- Visionaries Paolo Soleri- Arcology (Architecture + Ecology) Visionary architects have designed near self-sufficient architectures Jacque Fresco- Venus Project Buckminster Fuller- “Spaceship Earth” Nader Khalili- “CalEarth” Ron Herron- Mobile City
Prediction Models vs. Response Models No warning – not able to predict and prepare effectively Every disaster has different needs No location data till after event For large scale devastation, evacuation is not possible Broken civil infrastructure Massive immediate aid request Some common needs can be met with preparation. – Disaster assessment, stocking medicine, speedy comm. setup
Rationale-Space Station Regenerative ECLSS Flow Diagram
Energy Support A major challenge is finding and utilizing alternative energy sources that will support the maximum population post-disaster. Nuclear Energy: fusion or fission technology for energy Solar Energy : Preferred but due to impact this might not be feasible
Environmental Support System Water and Air Extracted from the outside polluted air filtration, recycling From plants in the manmade biosphere Atmosphere regeneration - by decomposing water and chemicals, gas mixtures as in spaceship Food Intensive farming - Algae and other plants grow inside the shelter CEAC Antarctica food chamber Hydroponics, Aeroponics, Aquaponics, physico chemical foods
Bacteria-Based Water Filter The filtration system is portable and purifies water in less than 24 hours. The bio-reactor system uses dirt-dwelling bacteria to clean water and munch the resulting toxic sludge. The Outback TM Water Purification System This four stage gravity powered water filtration system. It eliminates harmful bacteria and viruses (E.coli,Cholera, Hepatitis and Polio)
Vertical hydroponic garden system for food source – Controlled Environment Agriculture Center
3D Printing & Dehydrated Foods Due to terror threats around 2011, FEMA ordered 1 billion in dehydrated food. Emergency Food Rations- prepared 2400 and 3600 calorie food bar (Quakekare). Ingredients are analyzed, product is synthesized using 3D printing.
Emergency Medicine National Center for Disaster Medicine & Public Health Immediate assistance to prevent the spread of infectious disease. Post traumatic stress could compromise the immune system of many survivors which will lead to illness. Quarantine those who might pose a threat to the majority Center for Disease Control(CDC)
Triage/Emergency Assistance Triage-sort and assist the wounded and ill in an emergency fashion after asteroid impact.
ICE/ Postdisaster Psychological Stress Architectural solution should address the socio-psychological concerns (ICEs-Isolated and Confined Environments) due to the extreme conditions “Trends of Probable Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder in New York City after the September 11 Terrorist Attacks”-American Journal Epidemiology (Vol. 158, No 6) “The Epidemiology of Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder after Disasters” –Epidemiologic Reviews (Vol.27, 2005)
Communications Satellites for global coverage Portable VSATs Cell infrastructure broken Radio for local coverage
Repurpose Tunnels & Train Stations
Buckminster Fuller- Spaceship Earth Architectural Design Concept: Geodesic domes can be used to offer an initial line of defense against the elements (dust, pollution, etc. ) after an asteroid impact.
Earthbag Dome Dwelling
Cal-Earth Institute, Hesperia
Fabric Draped Structure
Merits/ Limitations Merits – Take advantage of existing space technology and generate profit – Reduce dependence on natural resources for sustainable development – Supplement Planetary Defense Strategies Limitations – Large amount of investment in a short period, for US 400K*0.3Billion/4=30 Trillion, – Global, national consensus Reliable shielding materials and methods that can withstand large impact shock and after effects over long periods – Rapid, large population evacuation strategies – Only applicable to city centers
References 1.“Asteroid Threats: A Call for Global Response." Astronomy Jan Bronstert, A. (2003), Floods and Climate Change: Interactions and Impacts. Risk Analysis, 23: 545–557. doi: / http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/http://www.independent.co.uk/environment/climate-change/ 4.Atmospheric science: Enigma of the recent methane budget, Nature 476, 157–158 (11 August 2011) 5.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcology#Developmenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arcology#Development 6.D.F. Doerr, Interaction between exercising humans and growing plants in a closed ecological life support system, Acta Astronautica, Volume 36, Issues 8-12, October-December 1995, 7.Extreme Climate Control Membrane Structures, 2006, Volume 54, , DOI: / _9 8.Sui Pheng Low, & Xiu Ting Goh. (2010). Exploring outer space technologies for sustainable buildings. Facilities, 28(1/2), Shaping Climate Resistant Development report 10."Climate costs." Nature (2009): 150. Academic OneFile. Web. 13 Dec Frank Ackerma, The Cost of Climate Change, NRDC REPORT 2008
Questions ?? Thank you for your time & attention!