Presentation on theme: "Chapter 20.1. 1. 1793 - National Convention suppresses dissent Women’s political clubs Society of Revolutionary Republican Women played significant role."— Presentation transcript:
1. 1793 - National Convention suppresses dissent Women’s political clubs Society of Revolutionary Republican Women played significant role in sans-culottes politics. 2. 1974 – Committee on Public Safety intensifies the Terror 3. The only thing that endured throughout the Revolution was war.
Why do you think France was so successful from 1792-1815 in expanding? 1. Soldiers had something to believe in. 2. War of liberation (Austrian Netherlands) Organized Jacobin clubs that attracted locals. The clubs petitioned for annexation to France Feudal dues were abolished 3. There was backlash at the “occupiers” after a time. Why?
England Tom Paine’s Rights of Man gets him charged with treason and condemned to death in England – he flees the country. London Corresponding Society Parliamentary reform and the expansion of the representation of the working class. Naval mutinies in 1797 Protested living conditions and pay Non-violent, they were more like sit-down strikes and stoppages.
Ireland United Irishmen Wanted a free Ireland based along capitalist lines Forced underground by England, the group became more radical and called for the overthrow of British rule. Organized a coalition between Protestant United Irishmen and Catholic peasantry. They had the numbers but not the training or the supplies. Relied on French intervention that came too late and were crushed by the English.
The Directory on the Move France begins to set up “sister republics” 1. Austrian Netherlands 2. Dutch Republic 3. Italian Peninsula The young general Napoleon develops a name for himself in these campaigns. Land exchange b/t Napoleon and Austria (Venice).
The Directory 1795-1799, formed after Robespierre is killed. Bicameral legislature Council of the 500 (Lower House) Council of Elders (Upper House) Relied on war to replenish national coffers. (Republic expansion) Also to create “sister republics”
Wildly successful in the Italian campaigns (1796-1797). Holds negotiations with conquered generals. Est. client republics based loyal to him. Personalizes his armies by paying them in cash. Brings the Directory Italian art, gold, glory.
The England/Egypt Campaign Directory wants to strike at English trade. Sends Napoleon into Egypt to cut off route to India. French occupation of Egypt Fails, (resistance and plague) but Leads to Enlightenment reforms. Discovers Rosetta Stone
After being pinned down by Lord Horatio Nelson (British general), Napoleon is able to slip back into France (1799). Directory’s war in Europe going badly. Political instability Generals become more autonomous Soldiers loyal more to generals than to Republic. Disillusioned members of government see chance at coup.
1. Napoleon enters the meeting hall and demands changes to the constitution. 2. Lucien, (president of the Council of the 500 and his brother) rallies troops to the general’s cause. 3. Soldiers eject those who oppose Napoleon. 4. Those remaining abolish the Directory and est. a 3 man executive – The Consulate.
1. 1791: abolished the monarchy 2. 1793: Jacobin constitution 3. 1795: Established the Directory 4. 1799: Abolished the Directory and installed Napoleon as First Consul
First Consul Taken from old Roman republic, was the most important of the triumvirate. Presents new const. the one from 1795 established the Directory. Most don’t vote Gov’t faked results anyway Political apathy takes over France. Revolutionary spirit fades.
Napoleon At first, no long range plans to install himself as emperor, or to conquer most of Europe. The dissenters picked him because of his popularity. However, he immediately asserts his leadership over the other two members of the council.
New Constitution Napoleon chooses men loyal to him for the new government. Not representative at all. Eliminated direct elections. Reconciliation with the Pope 1801 concordat with Pius VII Gov’t pays clergy salaries that are loyal to France. Catholicism is officially recognized as state religion. Napoleon gains support of Pope.
Napoleon on Religious Belief “How can their be order in the state without religion?” When a man is dying of hunger beside another who is stuffing himself, he cannot accept this difference if there is not an authority who tells him: ‘God wishes it so.’”
1. Limited political expression 2. Opposition couldn’t meet in clubs, influence elections, or publish newspapers. 1. Decree reduced the number of news papers from 73 to 13. 2. Those that remained became organs of gov’t. 3. Severe censorship of the arts. 4. Minister of Police, Joseph Fouche, imposes house arrest, imprisonment, and surveillance of political dissidents.
1802: Names himself First Consul for life. His name and face adorned coins, engravings, paintings, and public monuments. “What is big is always beautiful”
1. All nobles had to serve the state. 2. Titles could be inherited but had to be supported by wealth. 1. Cannot be a Duke with less than 200,000 Francs 2. Cannot be a Chevalier without 3,000 Francs. 3. Gives favorite generals vast fortunes 1. Usually estates in the territories they’ve conquered. 4. Places family members in seats of authority throughout the empire.
The Civil Code 1. 1804: Ensured equal treatment under the law to all men. 2. Guaranteed religious liberty. 3. Curtailed the rights of women. 4. Reinstitution of paternalistic authority. If a child under age 16 refuses father’s demands, they could be sent to prison for up to a month with no trial.
Required father’s to provide for their children’s welfare. Discouraged abortion, so he set up gov’t hospitals to make it easier for women to put up children for adoption.
“Women need protection because they are weak; men are free because the are stronger.” Husband controlled all property. Wife could not sue in court, sell her property, or incur debt without husband’s consent. Wife could petition for divorce only if husband’s mistress moved in to family home. Wife could be sent to prison for 2 years for adultery. Not until 1965 did French women gain rights equal to that of their husbands.
1. Girls should spend most of their time at home learning religion, manners, sewing, and music. 2. Boys went to state run schools. 1. Military uniforms 2. Drumrolls signaled beginning and end of classes. 3. These were attempts to open careers to those with talent, regardless of social class.
1. Workers carried work card attesting to good behavior. 2. No unions 3. Workers without cards could be sent to workhouses or prison. 4. Severe attack on worker rights, but great support of French business.
Pushed scientific inquiry for practical purposes. What practical purposes could Napoleon use scientific advancements for? Military Medicine Considered most writers useless. Said, “It is to the vanity of knowledge that we owe almost all our misfortunes…The learned ages have always been followed by ages of destruction.” Why do you think so?
Conscription: 1.3 million men, ages 20-24 were drafted from 1800-1812. Military service was seen as patriotic duty. Why do you think so? Do we see this in the United States now? Reorganized the military into the Grand Army Fanatical loyalty
Battle of Trafalgar, 1805 FR and SP attempt invasion of BR. BR beats back the assault, but loses admiral Horatio Nelson. Battle of Austerlitz, 1805 FR routs Austria and Russia, beats back 3 rd Coalition. Battle of Friedland, 1807 FR beats PR and RU to end 4 th Coalition.
Confederation of the Rhine Napoleon consolidates German states. Except Austria and Prussia HRE gives up title, becomes Emperor of Austria. Kingdom of Italy and Naples Consolidates Italy 3 units: French satellites, Italy proper, and Naples.
1. Napoleon’s rulers made real improvements 1. Roads, public works, law codes, education. 2. Forced defeated rulers to rethink their political and cultural assumptions. 1. Prussia abolishes serfdom. 2. Alexander I (Russia) eased the police state (didn’t last long) 3. Continental System 1. FR prohibits all commerce with BR in its satellites and ally states. 2. Difficult to enforce during ongoing wars.