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Activity 4.3.1 The Heart of the Matter. What types of muscles help move blood around the body? What types of muscles help move blood around the body?

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Presentation on theme: "Activity 4.3.1 The Heart of the Matter. What types of muscles help move blood around the body? What types of muscles help move blood around the body?"— Presentation transcript:

1 Activity 4.3.1 The Heart of the Matter

2 What types of muscles help move blood around the body? What types of muscles help move blood around the body? Essential Question 1 Cardiac Muscle Smooth Muscle Skeletal Muscle

3 Cardiac Muscle Cardiac muscle fibers are shorter in length and larger in diameter than skeletal muscle fibers. Cardiac muscle fibers are shorter in length and larger in diameter than skeletal muscle fibers. Cardiac muscle fibers have actin and myosin filaments arranged in the same way as skeletal muscle, but usually only one nuclei. Cardiac muscle fibers have actin and myosin filaments arranged in the same way as skeletal muscle, but usually only one nuclei. In contrast to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle does not fatigue, cannot be repaired when damaged and is regulated by the autonomic nervous system. In contrast to skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle does not fatigue, cannot be repaired when damaged and is regulated by the autonomic nervous system. Gap junctions between the fibers allow ions to travel between cells to permit the rapid fire of action potentials. Gap junctions between the fibers allow ions to travel between cells to permit the rapid fire of action potentials. Excitement of a single fiber results in stimulation of all the other fibers in the network (ALL OR NONE). As a result, each network contracts as a functional unit. Excitement of a single fiber results in stimulation of all the other fibers in the network (ALL OR NONE). As a result, each network contracts as a functional unit. Layers of the Heart Wall The wall of the heart consists of three layers: the epicardium (external layer), the myocardium (middle layer) and the endocardium (inner layer). The epicardium is the thin, transparent outer layer of the wall and is composed of delicate connective tissue. The myocardium, comprised of cardiac muscle tissue, makes up the majority of the cardiac wall and is responsible for its pumping action. The thickness of the myocardium mirrors the load to which each specific region of the heart is subjected. The endocardium is a thin layer of endothelium overlying a thin layer of connective tissue. It provides a smooth lining for the chambers of the heart and covers the valves. The endocardium is continuous with the endothelial lining of the large blood vessels attached

4 Cardiac Muscle

5 Smooth Muscle Arteries have smooth muscle that functions to regulate the flow of blood through the artery. Arteries have smooth muscle that functions to regulate the flow of blood through the artery. Contraction of the smooth muscle decreases the internal diameter of the vessel in a process called vasoconstriction. Contraction of the smooth muscle decreases the internal diameter of the vessel in a process called vasoconstriction. Relaxation of the smooth muscle increases the internal diameter in a process called vasodilation. Relaxation of the smooth muscle increases the internal diameter in a process called vasodilation.

6 Smooth Muscle

7 Where else can you find Smooth Muscles.  Kidneys  Bladder  Ureters  Ciliary muscle  Sphincter  Trachea  Bile duct  Walls of stomach  Uterus  Intestines  Iris of the eye  GI Tract  Respiratory Tract

8 Skeletal Muscle.  Veins pass between skeletal muscles. The contraction of skeletal muscle squeezes the vein.  Repeated cycles of contraction and relaxation of skeletal muscle, as occurs in the leg muscles while walking, helps facility blood back to the heart.

9 Skeletal Muscle

10 What do you remember from PBS about the heart?” 1_______________ 1_______________ 2____________ 2____________ 3___________ 3___________ 4___________ 4___________ 5___________ 5___________ 6___________ 6___________ 7___________ 7___________ 8___________ 8___________ 9__________ 9__________

11 Position and Shape of the Heart. The heart is located in the thoracic cavity in between the lungs, 60% of it lying to the left of the median plane. The heart is located in the thoracic cavity in between the lungs, 60% of it lying to the left of the median plane. The heart is cone-shaped, with a broad base at the top from which the large blood vessels enter and exit. The heart is cone-shaped, with a broad base at the top from which the large blood vessels enter and exit. The tip, known as the apex, points downwards and lies close to the sternum. The tip, known as the apex, points downwards and lies close to the sternum.

12 Pericardium A membrane that surrounds and protects the heart. It is composed of two layers containing a small volume of fluid which serves as a lubricant, facilitating the movement of the heart by minimizing friction. A membrane that surrounds and protects the heart. It is composed of two layers containing a small volume of fluid which serves as a lubricant, facilitating the movement of the heart by minimizing friction. The inner layer is firmly attached to the heart wall and is known as the visceral layer or epicardium. The inner layer is firmly attached to the heart wall and is known as the visceral layer or epicardium. The outer layer is composed of relatively inelastic connective tissue and is termed the parietal layer. The outer layer is composed of relatively inelastic connective tissue and is termed the parietal layer.

13 Layers of the Heart Wall The wall of the heart consists of three layers: The wall of the heart consists of three layers: epicardium (external layer), is the thin, transparent outer layer of the wall and is composed of delicate connective tissue. epicardium (external layer), is the thin, transparent outer layer of the wall and is composed of delicate connective tissue. myocardium (middle layer), comprised of cardiac muscle tissue, makes up the majority of the cardiac wall and is responsible for its pumping action. The specific regions dictates the thickness of the myocardium. myocardium (middle layer), comprised of cardiac muscle tissue, makes up the majority of the cardiac wall and is responsible for its pumping action. The specific regions dictates the thickness of the myocardium. endocardium (inner layer). is a thin layer of endothelium. It provides a smooth lining for the chambers of the heart and covers the valves. It is continuous with the endothelial lining of the large blood vessels attached to the heart endocardium (inner layer). is a thin layer of endothelium. It provides a smooth lining for the chambers of the heart and covers the valves. It is continuous with the endothelial lining of the large blood vessels attached to the heart

14 Fibrous Skeleton In addition to cardiac muscle tissue, the heart wall also contains dense connective tissues that: In addition to cardiac muscle tissue, the heart wall also contains dense connective tissues that: forms the fibrous skeleton of the heart. forms the fibrous skeleton of the heart. forms rings that surround the four heart orifices. forms rings that surround the four heart orifices. The skeleton performs several functions: The skeleton performs several functions: It serves as a point of attachment for the heart valves. It serves as a point of attachment for the heart valves. It prevents the valves from overstretching as blood passes through them. It prevents the valves from overstretching as blood passes through them. It acts as an electrical insulator thereby preventing the direct spread of action potentials from the atria to the ventricles. It acts as an electrical insulator thereby preventing the direct spread of action potentials from the atria to the ventricles.

15 Chambers of the Heart The heart contains four chambers where the thickness of the myocardium of the chambers varies according to its function. The heart contains four chambers where the thickness of the myocardium of the chambers varies according to its function. The two upper chambers are the atria. The atria are thin-walled because they deliver blood into the adjacent ventricles. On the upper surface of each atrium is a pouch-like appendage which is thought to increase the capacity of the atrium slightly. The two upper chambers are the atria. The atria are thin-walled because they deliver blood into the adjacent ventricles. On the upper surface of each atrium is a pouch-like appendage which is thought to increase the capacity of the atrium slightly. The two lower chambers are the ventricles. The ventricles are equipped with thick muscular walls because they pump blood over greater distances. The two lower chambers are the ventricles. The ventricles are equipped with thick muscular walls because they pump blood over greater distances.

16 Ventricles The right and left ventricles act as two separate pumps that simultaneously eject equal volumes of blood. The right ventricle only pumps blood into the lungs, which are close by and present little resistance to blood flow so work load is less. The right and left ventricles act as two separate pumps that simultaneously eject equal volumes of blood. The right ventricle only pumps blood into the lungs, which are close by and present little resistance to blood flow so work load is less. On the other hand, the left ventricle pumps blood to the rest of the body, where the resistance to blood flow is considerably higher. Therefore, the left ventricle works harder than the right ventricle to maintain the same blood flow rate. Consequently, the left ventricle is significantly thicker than that of the right. On the other hand, the left ventricle pumps blood to the rest of the body, where the resistance to blood flow is considerably higher. Therefore, the left ventricle works harder than the right ventricle to maintain the same blood flow rate. Consequently, the left ventricle is significantly thicker than that of the right.

17 Right Atrium (RA) The right atrium forms the section of the base of the heart and receives blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. The right atrium forms the section of the base of the heart and receives blood from the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and coronary sinus. Blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve (also know as the right atrioventricular valve). Blood flows from the right atrium to the right ventricle through the tricuspid valve (also know as the right atrioventricular valve). The right atrium also houses the sinoatrial node. The right atrium also houses the sinoatrial node.

18 Right Ventricle (RV) The right ventricle forms most of the anterior surface of the heart and is crescent-shaped in cross-section. The right ventricle forms most of the anterior surface of the heart and is crescent-shaped in cross-section. The tricuspid valve provides the means for blood to leave the RA and move into the RV The tricuspid valve provides the means for blood to leave the RA and move into the RV The right ventricle is separated from the left by a partition called the interventricular septum. The right ventricle is separated from the left by a partition called the interventricular septum. Deoxygenated blood passes from the right ventricle through the pulmonary semi-lunar valve to the pulmonary trunk, which conveys the blood to the lungs. Deoxygenated blood passes from the right ventricle through the pulmonary semi-lunar valve to the pulmonary trunk, which conveys the blood to the lungs.

19 Left Atrium (LA) The left atrium forms the section of the base of the heart and is similar to the right atrium in structure and shape. The left atrium forms the section of the base of the heart and is similar to the right atrium in structure and shape. It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins. It receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins. Blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle through the bicuspid or mitral valve. Blood passes from the left atrium to the left ventricle through the bicuspid or mitral valve. The left atrium lies under the tracheal bifurcation and enlargement of this area of the heart can cause breathing difficulties. The left atrium lies under the tracheal bifurcation and enlargement of this area of the heart can cause breathing difficulties.

20 Left Ventricle (LV) The left ventricle forms the apex of the heart and is conical in shape. The left ventricle forms the apex of the heart and is conical in shape. Blood passes from the left ventricle to the ascending aorta through the aortic valve. Blood passes from the left ventricle to the ascending aorta through the aortic valve. From here some of the blood flows into the coronary arteries, which branch from the ascending aorta and carry blood to the heart wall. From here some of the blood flows into the coronary arteries, which branch from the ascending aorta and carry blood to the heart wall. The remainder of the blood travels throughout the body. The remainder of the blood travels throughout the body.

21 Coronary vasculature

22 Conduction system Animation: Conducting System of the Heart Animation: Conducting System of the Heart

23 Think about blood supply to....

24 EKG

25 Electrical Conduction

26 Essential Question 2 & 3 What is the relationship between the heart and the lungs? What is the relationship between the heart and the lungs? What is the pathway of blood in and out of the heart in pulmonary and systemic circulation? What is the pathway of blood in and out of the heart in pulmonary and systemic circulation?

27 Activity 4.3.2 Varicose Veins Varicose Veins

28 Varicose Veins Normally, one-way valves in the veins keep blood flowing from your legs up toward your heart. Normally, one-way valves in the veins keep blood flowing from your legs up toward your heart. Varicose veins are caused by weakened valves in the veins in your legs. Varicose veins are caused by weakened valves in the veins in your legs. When these valves do not work as they should, blood collects in your legs, and pressure builds up. When these valves do not work as they should, blood collects in your legs, and pressure builds up.

29 Varicose Veins As pressure builds in the veins, the walls of the veins become weak, dilated, and twisted. As pressure builds in the veins, the walls of the veins become weak, dilated, and twisted. Venous return is slowed, causing blood to become sluggish. Venous return is slowed, causing blood to become sluggish. www.sirweb.org/news /videoClips.shtml

30 Causes of Varicose Veins Varicose veins often run in families. Varicose veins often run in families. Aging increases your risk. Aging increases your risk. Increased pressure on leg veins from Increased pressure on leg veins from Being overweight Being overweight Pregnancy Pregnancy Or having a job where you must stand for long periods of time. Or having a job where you must stand for long periods of time.

31 The structure of blood vessels is in direct relationship to the function it performs CapillaryVeinArtery

32 Cross section of an artery Why don’t we get varicose arteries. Why don’t we get varicose arteries.

33 Essential Question 4. How do the structure of arteries, veins and capillaries relate to their function in the body? 5. What unique features of veins help move blood back to the heart? 6. What are varicose veins? 7. Why don’t we ever hear about varicose arteries?

34 View Vessel Slides Draw in your journal what you saw in the slides Draw in your journal what you saw in the slides With team of 4 devise a way to explain how varicose veins form and why we done get varicose arteries. With team of 4 devise a way to explain how varicose veins form and why we done get varicose arteries. Final product could be drawing, diagram, information brochure, clay model, or a letter to your grandmother to answer her questions about varicose veins. Final product could be drawing, diagram, information brochure, clay model, or a letter to your grandmother to answer her questions about varicose veins. Present your findings to the class Present your findings to the class

35 Activity 4.3.3 Go With the Flow Go With the Flow

36 The Flow Blood vessels move blood from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen and deliver this oxygen to all of the tissues of the body. Blood vessels move blood from the heart to the lungs to pick up oxygen and deliver this oxygen to all of the tissues of the body. Arteries flow away from the heart and branch into smaller vessels called arterioles. Arteries flow away from the heart and branch into smaller vessels called arterioles. Arterioles lead into the capillary beds, thin nets of vessels where gas exchange occurs. Arterioles lead into the capillary beds, thin nets of vessels where gas exchange occurs. Blood then converges back into small veins called venules and eventually back into the major veins to be returned to the heart. Blood then converges back into small veins called venules and eventually back into the major veins to be returned to the heart. Vessel size varies dramatically along this path. Vessel size varies dramatically along this path.

37 Make paper Flag for these vessels Ascending Aorta Renal artery/vein Descending Aorta Iliac artery/vein Brachiocephalic artery Femoral artery/vein Subclavian artery/vein Popliteal artery/vein Carotid artery vein Posterior Tibial artery/vein Radial artery/vein Superior Vena Cave Ulnar artery/vein Inferior Vena Cava Common Iliac Vein Internal Jugular vein Superficial palmar arch

38 Build this on Maniken

39 One Brachiocephalic Artery

40 The aorta is the largest artery in the body about the diameter of a garden hose. The aorta is the largest artery in the body about the diameter of a garden hose. The capillaries, on the other hand, are so tiny that about ten of them would be as thick as one of the hairs on our head. The capillaries, on the other hand, are so tiny that about ten of them would be as thick as one of the hairs on our head. The structure of blood vessels relates directly to their particular function and to the amount of pressure exerted on the vessel walls. The structure of blood vessels relates directly to their particular function and to the amount of pressure exerted on the vessel walls.

41 .

42 Essential Question 8. What are the major arteries and veins in the body and which regions do they serve?

43 Arteries in the arm

44 Veins in the Arm

45 Veins more superficial

46 Activity 4.3.4 Cardiac Output

47 Cardiac Output is a measure of how much blood the heart can pump in one minute by the ventricles. Cardiac Output is a measure of how much blood the heart can pump in one minute by the ventricles. Cardiac Output (ml/min) = Stroke Volume (75ml/beat) X Heart Rate (BPM) Cardiac Output (ml/min) = Stroke Volume (75ml/beat) X Heart Rate (BPM)

48 What are some diseases that affect CO if dependent on SV & HR hypertension hypertension heart failure heart failure infection and sepsis infection and sepsis cardiomyopathy cardiomyopathy rhythm disturbances rhythm disturbances coronary artery disease coronary artery disease

49 Essential Question 9. What is cardiac output? 10. How does cardiac output help assess overall heart health? 11. How does an increased or decreased cardiac output impact the body?

50 Changes in cardiac output often signal diseases of the heart and these changes can impact the function of other body systems. often signal diseases of the heart and these changes can impact the function of other body systems. Increased blood pressure in vessels can indicate possible blockages, and these blockages can interrupt blood flow to an organ or limb Increased blood pressure in vessels can indicate possible blockages, and these blockages can interrupt blood flow to an organ or limb Increased BP decreases Cardiac Output in a diseased heart Increased BP decreases Cardiac Output in a diseased heart

51 Activity 4.3.5 Smoking Can Cost You an Arm and a Leg!

52 Essential Question 12. What is blood pressure? 13. How can the measurement of blood pressure in the legs be used to assess circulation?

53 Blood Pressure When your heart beats, the contraction forces blood through the arteries to the rest of your body. This pressure created on the arteries is called systolic blood pressure, and measured in (mm Hg) When your heart beats, the contraction forces blood through the arteries to the rest of your body. This pressure created on the arteries is called systolic blood pressure, and measured in (mm Hg) A normal systolic blood pressure is below 120. A normal systolic blood pressure is below 120. The diastolic blood pressure number or the bottom number indicates the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats. The diastolic blood pressure number or the bottom number indicates the pressure in the arteries when the heart rests between beats. A normal diastolic blood pressure number is less than 80. A normal diastolic blood pressure number is less than 80.

54 http://www.sirweb.org/video/Peripheral _Arterial_Disease_Smoking.mpg http://www.sirweb.org/video/Peripheral _Arterial_Disease_Smoking.mpg

55 http://www.sirweb.org/video/Peripheral_Arte rial_Disease_Smoking.mpg http://www.sirweb.org/news/videoClips.shtml http://www.sirweb.org/video/Peripheral_Arte rial_Disease_Smoking.mpg http://www.sirweb.org/news/videoClips.shtml Complete Part I and share your findings with class before receiving part II Part II-Draw a feedback loop to show the body responds to an increase in BP Complete Part I and share your findings with class before receiving part II Part II-Draw a feedback loop to show the body responds to an increase in BP Part III- Take ABI measurements Part III- Take ABI measurements

56 Example of BP feedback loop In the example to the right blood pressure has increased. Receptors in the carotid arteries detect the change in blood pressure and send a message to the brain. The brain will cause the heart to beat slower and thus decrease the blood pressure. Decreasing heart rate has a negative effect on blood pressure. In the example to the right blood pressure has increased. Receptors in the carotid arteries detect the change in blood pressure and send a message to the brain. The brain will cause the heart to beat slower and thus decrease the blood pressure. Decreasing heart rate has a negative effect on blood pressure.

57 Decreased blood volume or blood pressure stimulates the release of Renin that starts the process Decreased blood volume or blood pressure stimulates the release of Renin that starts the process The glomulerus, a bundle of capillary blood vessels found in the kidney, senses a drop in blood flow or a drop in sodium and secretes an enzyme called renin into the bloodstream. The glomulerus, a bundle of capillary blood vessels found in the kidney, senses a drop in blood flow or a drop in sodium and secretes an enzyme called renin into the bloodstream. Renin moves to the liver where it converts the inactive peptide angiotensiongen to angiotensin I. Renin moves to the liver where it converts the inactive peptide angiotensiongen to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I travels to the lungs where another enzyme converts it to angiotensin II. Angiotensin I travels to the lungs where another enzyme converts it to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II makes its way to the adrenal glands at the top of the kidneys where it stimulates the production of aldosterone. Angiotensin II makes its way to the adrenal glands at the top of the kidneys where it stimulates the production of aldosterone. Aldosterone helps the kidneys conserve sodium and water, leading to increased fluid volume and sodium levels. Aldosterone helps the kidneys conserve sodium and water, leading to increased fluid volume and sodium levels. NOTE: If blood flow to the kidneys or the amount of sodium increases, less renin is produced in an attempt to normalize blood pressure. NOTE: If blood flow to the kidneys or the amount of sodium increases, less renin is produced in an attempt to normalize blood pressure. Animation: http://www.people.vcu.edu/~elmiles/hormones/KidneyHormones 3.html Animation: http://www.people.vcu.edu/~elmiles/hormones/KidneyHormones 3.html

58 Ankle Brachial Index (ABI) A test done by measuring blood pressure at the ankle and in the arm while a person is at rest. A test done by measuring blood pressure at the ankle and in the arm while a person is at rest. Measurements are usually repeated at both sites after 5 minutes of walking on a treadmill. Measurements are usually repeated at both sites after 5 minutes of walking on a treadmill. A slight drop in the ABI with exercise, even if you have a normal ABI at rest, means that you probably have PAD. A slight drop in the ABI with exercise, even if you have a normal ABI at rest, means that you probably have PAD.

59 Part IV Activity 4.3.5 Doppler ultrasound device Doppler ultrasound device Activity 4.3.5 Student Resource Sheet – ABI Worksheet. Activity 4.3.5 Student Resource Sheet – ABI Worksheet.

60 Project 4.4.1 The Body’s Response to Exercise The Body’s Response to Exercise

61 Essential Question 1. What is the connection between power and movement in the body? 1. What is the connection between power and movement in the body? ATP ATP

62 Recall how the body generates ATP. Food (primarily glucose) and oxygen are both vital to the assembly of ATP Food (primarily glucose) and oxygen are both vital to the assembly of ATP ATP is always stored in the body but the amount in the body can only last 2 or 3 seconds. When it is used it is broken down from one adenozine and three phosphate molecules into adenzine diphosphate (2 phosphate molecules) and a separate phosphate molecule. This reaction is exothermic and produces energy. ATP is always stored in the body but the amount in the body can only last 2 or 3 seconds. When it is used it is broken down from one adenozine and three phosphate molecules into adenzine diphosphate (2 phosphate molecules) and a separate phosphate molecule. This reaction is exothermic and produces energy. There are three main ways it can be resynthesised and these are by using the phospho-creatine system, the lactic system and the aerobic system. There are three main ways it can be resynthesised and these are by using the phospho-creatine system, the lactic system and the aerobic system. Aerobic resipration is much more complicated as oxygen is present. It starts the same way as lactic respiration but as oxygen is present, there is no lactic acid formed, instead pyruvic acid is converted into acetyle CoA by the enzyme coenzyme A. The acetyle CoA is then converted into citric acid by oxaloacetic acid. The citric acid then goes through something called the Krebs cycle where everything produced in respiration except the energy is removed. This leaves 2 ATP molecules. The hydrogen removed from the reaction then is converted using something called an electron transfer chain into 34 ATP molecules and water. Aerobic resipration is much more complicated as oxygen is present. It starts the same way as lactic respiration but as oxygen is present, there is no lactic acid formed, instead pyruvic acid is converted into acetyle CoA by the enzyme coenzyme A. The acetyle CoA is then converted into citric acid by oxaloacetic acid. The citric acid then goes through something called the Krebs cycle where everything produced in respiration except the energy is removed. This leaves 2 ATP molecules. The hydrogen removed from the reaction then is converted using something called an electron transfer chain into 34 ATP molecules and water.

63 Essential Question 2. How does the body maintain a supply a ATP during exercise? 2. How does the body maintain a supply a ATP during exercise? Exercise requires the coordinated effort of many human body systems including Exercise requires the coordinated effort of many human body systems including nervous system, nervous system, muscular system, muscular system, skeletal system, skeletal system, cardiovascular system, cardiovascular system, respiratory system. respiratory system.

64 Cellular respiration is the process by which ATP is Produced Cellular respiration is the process by which ATP is Produced ATP is the main energy source used by the cells ATP is the main energy source used by the cells Organic molecules such as glucose, lipids, and proteins are broken down to produce ATP Organic molecules such as glucose, lipids, and proteins are broken down to produce ATP 3 stages of cellular respiration, Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain (ETC) 3 stages of cellular respiration, Glycolysis, Krebs cycle, Electron Transport Chain (ETC) http://www.sophia.org/tutorials/biology-amanda-3- atp-production-video-overview-det http://www.sophia.org/tutorials/biology-amanda-3- atp-production-video-overview-det

65 ATP A nucleotide used by cells as a form of energy. Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration -Process that occurs in cells to produces ATP for cells in order to carry out all cell functions. -Process that occurs in cells to produces ATP for cells in order to carry out all cell functions. -ATP is produced by the breaking down of organic molecules such as glucose, lipids and proteins -ATP is produced by the breaking down of organic molecules such as glucose, lipids and proteins 3 Stages of Cellular Respiration 3 Stages of Cellular Respiration -Glycolysis is the first stage -Glycolysis is the first stage -Krebs Cycle is the second stage -Krebs Cycle is the second stage -Electron Transport Chain is the third stage -Electron Transport Chain is the third stage ATP ATP -ATP is a nucleotide with a ribose sugar, adenine base and 3 phosphate groups -ATP is a nucleotide with a ribose sugar, adenine base and 3 phosphate groups -Energy stored between 2 nd and 3 rd phosphate group -Energy stored between 2 nd and 3 rd phosphate group Glycolysis Glycolysis -1 st step of cellular respiration -1 st step of cellular respiration -Occurs in cytoplasm of the cell -Occurs in cytoplasm of the cell -Glucose is broken down into a smaller molecule -Glucose is broken down into a smaller molecule -Products of gylcolysis move into the next step -Products of gylcolysis move into the next step The Krebs Cycle The Krebs Cycle -2 nd step of cellular respiration -2 nd step of cellular respiration -Occurs in the mitochondria -Occurs in the mitochondria -The mitochondria is the “powerhouse” of the cell -The mitochondria is the “powerhouse” of the cell ETC ETC -3 rd step of cellular respiration -3 rd step of cellular respiration -Occurs in the mitochondria -Occurs in the mitochondria -1 molecule of glucose yields 36 molecules of ATP -1 molecule of glucose yields 36 molecules of ATP -Most of the ATP is being produced by the ETC -Most of the ATP is being produced by the ETC -A minor amount of ATP is produced in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle -A minor amount of ATP is produced in glycolysis and the Krebs cycle Source: Amanda Soderlind, Author Source: Amanda Soderlind, Author

66 Activity 4.4.2 Mind Over Muscle

67 Problem 4.4.4 Training a Champion

68 Essential Questions What is peripheral artery disease? What is peripheral artery disease? Why can smoking lead to peripheral artery disease? Why can smoking lead to peripheral artery disease?

69 Key Terms Aorta -The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body. Aorta -The large arterial trunk that carries blood from the heart to be distributed by branch arteries through the body. Arteriole- Any of the small terminal twigs of an artery that ends in capillaries Arteriole- Any of the small terminal twigs of an artery that ends in capillaries Artery- Any of the tubular branching muscular- and elastic-walled vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body. Artery- Any of the tubular branching muscular- and elastic-walled vessels that carry blood from the heart through the body. Arteriosclerosis-A chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls with resulting loss of elasticity Arteriosclerosis-A chronic disease characterized by abnormal thickening and hardening of the arterial walls with resulting loss of elasticity Atherosclerosis- A cardiovascular disease in which growths called plaques develop on the inner walls of the arteries, narrowing their inner diameters. Atherosclerosis- A cardiovascular disease in which growths called plaques develop on the inner walls of the arteries, narrowing their inner diameters. Atrium- A chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle or ventricles. Atrium- A chamber of the heart that receives blood from the veins and forces it into a ventricle or ventricles.

70 Key Terms Blood pressure-The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel. Blood pressure-The hydrostatic force that blood exerts against the wall of a vessel. Capillary-Any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules and forming networks throughout the body. Capillary-Any of the smallest blood vessels connecting arterioles with venules and forming networks throughout the body. Cardiac muscle-Striated muscle fibers (cells) that form the wall of the heart; stimulated by the intrinsic conduction system and autonomic motor neurons Cardiac muscle-Striated muscle fibers (cells) that form the wall of the heart; stimulated by the intrinsic conduction system and autonomic motor neurons Cardiac output -The volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute. Cardiac output -The volume of blood ejected from the left side of the heart in one minute. Circulation-The movement of blood through the vessels of the body that is induced by the pumping action of the heart and serves to distribute nutrients and oxygen to and remove waste products from all parts of the body. Circulation-The movement of blood through the vessels of the body that is induced by the pumping action of the heart and serves to distribute nutrients and oxygen to and remove waste products from all parts of the body. Coronary Artery-Either of two arteries that arise one from the left and one from the right side of the aorta immediately above the semilunar valves and supply the tissues of the heart itself Coronary Artery-Either of two arteries that arise one from the left and one from the right side of the aorta immediately above the semilunar valves and supply the tissues of the heart itself

71 Key Terms Heart rate- A measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as number of beats per minute Heart rate- A measure of cardiac activity usually expressed as number of beats per minute Peripheral artery disease- A form of peripheral vascular disease in which there is partial or total blockage of an artery, usually one leading to a leg or arm. Peripheral artery disease- A form of peripheral vascular disease in which there is partial or total blockage of an artery, usually one leading to a leg or arm.peripheral vascular diseaseperipheral vascular disease Peripheral vascular disease- Vascular disease affecting blood vessels outside of the heart and especially those vessels supplying the extremities. Peripheral vascular disease- Vascular disease affecting blood vessels outside of the heart and especially those vessels supplying the extremities. Pulmonary Circulation- The passage of venous blood from the right atrium of the heart through the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it is oxygenated and its return via the pulmonary veins to enter the left atrium and participate in the systemic circulation Pulmonary Circulation- The passage of venous blood from the right atrium of the heart through the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries to the lungs where it is oxygenated and its return via the pulmonary veins to enter the left atrium and participate in the systemic circulation Pulse - A regularly recurrent wave of distension in arteries that results from the progress through an artery of blood injected into the arterial system at each contraction of the ventricles of the heart. Pulse - A regularly recurrent wave of distension in arteries that results from the progress through an artery of blood injected into the arterial system at each contraction of the ventricles of the heart.

72 Key terms Smooth muscle Smooth muscle A tissue specialized for contraction, composed of smooth muscle fibers (cells), located in the walls of hollow internal organs, and innervated by the autonomic motor neurons A tissue specialized for contraction, composed of smooth muscle fibers (cells), located in the walls of hollow internal organs, and innervated by the autonomic motor neurons Stroke volume Stroke volume The volume of blood pumped from a ventricle of the heart in one beat The volume of blood pumped from a ventricle of the heart in one beat Systemic Circulation Systemic Circulation The passage of arterial blood from the left atrium of the heart through the left ventricle, the systemic arteries, and the capillaries to the organs and tissues that receive much of its oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide and the return of the carbon-dioxide carrying blood via the systemic veins to enter the right atrium of the heart and to participate in the pulmonary circulation The passage of arterial blood from the left atrium of the heart through the left ventricle, the systemic arteries, and the capillaries to the organs and tissues that receive much of its oxygen in exchange for carbon dioxide and the return of the carbon-dioxide carrying blood via the systemic veins to enter the right atrium of the heart and to participate in the pulmonary circulation

73 Key Terms Valve Valve A bodily structure (as the mitral valve) that closes temporarily a passage or orifice or permits movement of fluid in one direction only. A bodily structure (as the mitral valve) that closes temporarily a passage or orifice or permits movement of fluid in one direction only. Varicose vein Varicose vein An abnormal swelling of a superficial vein of the legs. An abnormal swelling of a superficial vein of the legs. Vein Vein Any of the tubular branching vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart and have thinner walls than the arteries and often valves at intervals to prevent reflux of the blood which flows in a steady stream and is in most cases dark-colored due to the presence of reduced hemoglobin. Any of the tubular branching vessels that carry blood from the capillaries toward the heart and have thinner walls than the arteries and often valves at intervals to prevent reflux of the blood which flows in a steady stream and is in most cases dark-colored due to the presence of reduced hemoglobin. Ventricle Ventricle A chamber of the heart which receives blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries. A chamber of the heart which receives blood from a corresponding atrium and from which blood is forced into the arteries. Venule Venule Any of the minute veins connecting the capillaries with the larger systemic veins Any of the minute veins connecting the capillaries with the larger systemic veins


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