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GC-MS Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

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Presentation on theme: "GC-MS Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry"— Presentation transcript:

1 GC-MS Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

2 Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
An Hybrid technique which couples the powerful separation potential of gas chromatography with the specific characterization ability of mass spectroscopy. Development of GC (1941) by Martin and Synge

3 What is Gas Chromatography?
The father of modern gas chromatography is Nobel Prize winner John Porter Martin, who also developed the first liquid-gas chromatograph. (1950)

4 Chromatography

5 The compounds to be separated are considered solutes
Separation of molecules by distribution between a stationary phase and a mobile phase. A stationary phase (absorbent) phase the material on which the separation takes place. can be solid, gel, or liquid. Also called matrix, resin, or beads. The mobile phase is the solvent transports the sample and it is usually a liquid, but may also be a gas. Also called eluting buffer The compounds to be separated are considered solutes


7 GC Step by Step Carrier Gas Injector Column Detectors Capillary
Stationary Phase Detectors Mass Spectrometer


9 Depending on its nature
1.Packed column: columns are available in a packed manner 2.Open tubular or Capillary column or Golay column Long capillary tubing M in length Uniform & narrow d.m of cm Made up of stainless steel & form of a coil Disadvantage: more sample cannot loaded

10 3.SCOT columns (Support coated open tubular column
Improved version of Golay / Capillary columns, have small sample capacity Made by depositing a micron size porous layer of supporting material on the inner wall of the capillary column Then coated with a thin film of liquid phase

11 Column Types Capillary Columns Length: 10m to 100m
Diameter: 180um, 250um, 320um & 530um I.d Packed Columns Length: <2m Diameter: 1/8” & ¼” OD



14 Columns Packed Capillary Cross section

15 Phases






21 Broadening can be minimized with:
1- decreasing particle size 2- decreasing column diameter


23 What Does GC/MS Data Look Like? Reviewing of Mass Spectra
6.77 min. * * Abundance (Signal) Retention Time > m/z 78 mass/charge > 1,1-dichloropropene/carbon tetrachloride

24 Example Chromatogram (Capillary)
Detector Response Inject Point Time 


26 DETECTORS Heart of the apparatus
The requirements of an ideal detector are- Applicability to wide range of samples Rapidity High sensitivity Linearity Response should be unaffected by temperature, flow rate… Non destructive Simple & inexpensive


28 Flame Ionization Detector


30 Thermal Conductivity Detector



33 Electron Capture Detector





38 Application of GC


40 Analysis of Halogenated Pesticides
4 10 7 11 6 8 12 13 9 14 1 5 15 17 18 3 16 2 2ppb in Water




44 Schematic of a Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) Instrument

45 - CI (chemical ionization) - FAB (fast atom bombardment)
Ionization techniques - EI (electron impact) - CI (chemical ionization) - FAB (fast atom bombardment) - ESI (electrospray ionization) - MALDI (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization) - APCI (atmospheric pressure chemical ionization)

46 Electron Impact Ioniser
In an electron-impact mass spectrometer (EI-MS), a molecule is vaporized and ionized by bombardment with a beam of high-energy electrons. The energy of the electrons is ~ 1600 kcal (or 70eV). The electron beam ionizes the molecule by causing it to eject an electron.



49 Quadrupole Mass Ion Filter
Quadrupoles are four precisely parallel rods with a direct current (DC) voltage and a superimposed radio-frequency (RF) potential. The field on the quadrupoles determines which ions are allowed to reach the detector. Quadrupoles thus function as a mass filter.



52 Definition of Terms Molecular ion
The ion obtained by the loss of an electron from the molecule Base peak The most intense peak in the MS, assigned 100% intensity Radical cation +ve charged species with an odd number of electrons Fragment ions Lighter cations formed by the decomposition of the molecular ion.  Isotope abundance Peak These often correspond to stable carbocations. “A” Element—an element that is monoisotopic “A + 1” an element with an isotope that is 1 amu above that of the most abundant isotope

53 Mass Spectrum of Methane (CH4)

54 a, molecular ion and base peak(C10H+8, 100%); b, 13C isotope peak;
Mass to charge ratio m/z 50 100 150 Relative abundance (%) 20 40 60 80 128 102 77 64 51 a b c Mass spectrum of CO2. Note that the molecular ion appears at m/z = 44 (C = 12, O = 16). Frag-ment ions appear at m/z values of 28, 16, and 12. These correspond to CO+, O+, and C+, resp-ectively. The mass spectrum of naphthalene with electron impact ionization by 70 eV electrons. a, molecular ion and base peak(C10H+8, 100%); b, 13C isotope peak; c, fragment ion peaks.

55 Ionization process in mass spectrometry.
Theory In mass spectrometry, a small sample of a chemical compound is vaporized, bombarded with high energy electrons to ionize the sample, and the ions produced are detected based on the charge to mass ratio of the ions. Ionization process in mass spectrometry.

56 Fragments Produced by Benzamide

57 Interpretation of Mass Spectra(1)

58 Interpretation of Mass Spectra

59 Isotope Patterns 2,Chloropropane

60 1,Bromopropane




64 Electron ionization (70 eV) mass spectra of molecular ion region of benzene (C6H6) and biphenyl (C12H10). Intensity of M+1 relative to molecular ion for CnHm : Intensity = n × 1.08% m × 0.012% Contribution from 13C Contribution from 2H

65 Applications of GC-MS GC-MS is increasingly used for detection of illegal narcotics marijuana, cocaine, opioids Clinicians oxycodone and oxymorphone Piperazines are not detectable by typical immunoassay testing, but they may be detectable via GC-MS Sports anti-doping analysis

66 Applications of GC-MS possible to test a newborn for over 100 genetic metabolic disorders by a urine test at birth based on GC-MS Foods and beverages contain numerous aromatic compounds (identification) Environmental monitoring and cleanup GC-MS is becoming the tool of choice for tracking organic pollutants in the environment

67 Limitation Only compounds with vapor pressures exceeding about 10–10 torr can be analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Determining positional substitution on aromatic rings is often difficult. Certain isomeric compounds cannot be distinguished by mass spectrometry (for example, naphthalene versus azulene), but they can often be separated chromatographically.


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