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E-LEARNING GUIDELINES. A mini course on Instructional Design 1. 0/Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/cour.

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Presentation on theme: "E-LEARNING GUIDELINES. A mini course on Instructional Design 1. 0/Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/cour."— Presentation transcript:


2 A mini course on Instructional Design 1. 0/Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/cour se867.html?redirect=true 0/Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/cour se867.html?redirect=true 2. presentations/allen/ presentations/allen/ 3. Download & open Lifescape_vB.exe

3 What I have learned (Gloria Gery) What matters  Creating motivation  Sound instructional strategies & design  Significant & constant interaction  Learner feelings of control, progress, and power

4 E-learning problem  They are properly designed in terms of graphic design, typography, and grammar. But they are boring. Boring instruction Lack of Results Minimal funding

5 E-learning problem  Doing something is better than nothing  Nobody checks = (bonk 2002) 60% of e-learning programs are not formally evaluated

6 E-learning myths 1. Everyone knows boring is bad. Why? Bad isn’t acceptable, but boring is. 2. E-learning is boring by nature (it costs a lot of money to create exciting e-learning experience) Ineffective training is costly.

7 Myths 3. It could be boring but effective. Boring and effective are mutually exclusive in learning.

8 Myths 4. The absence of complaints is a win Entertainment = students’ satisfaction Entertaining doesn’t mean good instruction They enjoy lots of laughs and take home little-known facts

9 Why good e-learning costs less  Shorter learning time = less time away from productive work.  Adapts to learner needs = no waiting for fast learners (back to work)  Ensures learning = No sliding by- You have to answer to go to the next question

10 Why good e-learning costs less  Generates positive attitudes = learning will be applied on-the-job  Provides consistent quality = does not have bad mood, headaches, or late night out.  Allows instant update = not the same old things  Is available 24/7/365 = No need to wait for the next workshop/training course

11 Why good e-learning costs less  Is patient, and treats all learners objectively and fairly = Blind to racial, cultural, and sexual differences (flourishing hidden talents) = no need to hire the guy to do the job.  Easily provides data = Easy & fast program evaluation

12 Why good e-learning costs less  Low cost delivery = fewer travel, fewer instructors, automated administration, no classroom supplies  Allows options = Not all students have to take the same road. (sequential/learner control - Audio/video)

13 Applications of e-learning  Cognitive skills  Soft skills  Psycho motor skills

14 Primary components of e-learning 1. Learner motivation 2. Learner interface 3. Content structure 4. Navigation 5. Interactivity

15 Motivation  With no fuel, it doesn’t matter how well your car designed, nor how spacious is the trunk.  The more motivated to learn, the stronger the focus and the greater the readiness to do what’s necessary to accomplish the task.

16 Learner Interface  Going to start to shutdown your computer.  Moving your disk to trash can to eject it.

17   navigation.html navigation.html  bad-interface-design/ bad-interface-design/   design-trends-you-need-to-know-about/ design-trends-you-need-to-know-about/ 

18 Learner Interface  When the consistency of conventions is broken, even a single one, learners become uncertain about whether other conventions are also inconsistent.  Therefore, even a single interface error (e.g, a wrong link) may lead to widespread user anxiety and discomfort. (missing steps in Flash)

19 The primary roles of interface design 1- Minimize memory burden. Learner interfaces should be meaningful without having to memorize symbols, terminology, and procedure. Example, use a magnifier to represent zoom in/out We are not interested in teaching learners to remember the details of the e-learning interface

20 The primary roles of interface design 2Minimize errors. Good interfaces provide strong cues that help prevent errors. 3Minimize effort. Ideally, learners can perform each function with a single command (click). 4Promote unused features. Hidden features obviously increase the memory burden but it isn’t always possible to keep all features visible.

21 Effects of poor interface design  Repeatedly distract the user’s attention  Make text difficult to read and graphics ineffective  Cause branching to the wrong information or exercises  Confuse learners about their progress and their location within the application  Make useful activities too bothersome to complete

22 Effects of poor interface design  Obscure access to needed information  Make comparisons difficult  Slow interactions  Debilitate feedback

23 Content Structure Which one?  Content-centric design  Learner-centric design

24 Content-Centric If learners only need dissemination of information  Learners are highly motivated  The information is readily understood  Skills can be learned without guidance  Each step can be prompted and guided as it is performed.

25 Learner-Centric Design  Mystery novels vs. textbooks. Which one more easily attracts readers?  Learner-centric designs focus on creating events that continuously intrigue learners as the content unfolds (successive approximation)

26 Magic keys

27 1-Build on anticipated outcomes  Help learners see how their involvement in the e- learning will produce outcomes they care about.  Don’t list objectives- Why?  Instead put the learner to work (they will realized the objectives)

28 2- Put the learner at risk  If learners have something to lose, they pay attention.  Don’t baby your learners- let them make mistakes don’t worry about ratings.

29 3- Select the right content for each learner  If it’s meaningless or learners already know it (not enjoyable)

30 What’s interesting?  Learning how your knowledge can be put to new and valuable uses  Understanding something that has always been puzzling  Discovering talents and capabilities you didn’t know you had.

31 Start with test Isn’t unfair to ask learners to do a task for which you haven’t prepare them?

32 4- Use appealing context  Novelty, suspense, fascinating graphics, humor, sound, music, animation- all draw learners in when it is done well.

33 Don’t start from the bottom of the skills hierarchy Sometimes it starts at the end.

34 5- Have the learner perform multiple tasks  Having people attempt real (authentic) tasks is much more interesting than having them repeat or mimic one step at a time.  Instead of teaching +-*/ repeatedly give then an authentic multi-steps task

35 6- Provide intrinsic feedback  Let learners see for themselves whether or not their answer (performance) works as well as it needs to.  Seeing the positive consequences of good performance in better feedback than being told, “yes, that was good”

36 7- Delay judgment  If learners have to wait for confirmation, they will typically reevaluate their answers for themselves.  Sometime it’s appropriate to give immediate feedback, but often it isn’t.  A good mentor allows learners to make mistakes and then helps them understand why the mistakes occurred and also their consequences

37 Sample e-learning lessons

38 EAP dilemma  We’ve spent a lot of money on theses employee handbooks, and nobody’s reading them.

39 Content-Centric approach  Let’s put the book online  We’ll start with a menu. The learner has full control! It’s totally interactive.


41 Content-Centric approach  We will put some nice graphics to attract attention.  We will also add a posttest to make sure learner has actually learned


43 The obligatory meaningless posttest

44 Navigation (unlike a textbook)  We can’t see all the content of an instructional application on the screen at one time  You cannot assess e-learning so quickly  You cannot say if they’re small, medium, or large, well illustrated, highly interactive, truly individualized.

45 Navigation services Overall the ability to  Back up and review  Back up and try different answers or options  Skip ahead, preview, and return  Bookmark and return to points of interest or concern  Call up services such as glossaries or examples  Restart and resume where you left off

46 Interactivity  Actively stimulates the learner’s mind to do things that improve ability and readiness to perform effectively

47 Interactivity is not the same as  Navigation  Buttons  Scrolling  Browsing  Info retrieval  Paging  Morhping  Video  animation

48 The purpose of Interactivity  To wrestle learners’ intellectual laziness to the ground  Reawaken their interest in learning  Strengthen their ability to learn  To provide an optimal learning environment

49 Interactivity  Two Examples  An activity on Interactivity

50 PlayPlay the sample



53 A mini course on Instructional Design  /Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/course 867.html?redirect=true /Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/course 867.html?redirect=true

54 Your Comments  xqjx0XRzCvdERaaVhQcENlR1FaM01LUGZybmNnM VE&hl=en_US xqjx0XRzCvdERaaVhQcENlR1FaM01LUGZybmNnM VE&hl=en_US  What principles are violated or are followed in each.

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