A mini course on Instructional Design 1. http://publish.myudutu.com/published/courses/14 0/Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/cour se867.html?redirect=true http://publish.myudutu.com/published/courses/14 0/Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/cour se867.html?redirect=true 2. http://www.csulb.edu/~arezaei/ETEC570/Help/ presentations/allen/EAP.zip http://www.csulb.edu/~arezaei/ETEC570/Help/ presentations/allen/EAP.zip 3. Download & open Lifescape_vB.exe
What I have learned (Gloria Gery) What matters Creating motivation Sound instructional strategies & design Significant & constant interaction Learner feelings of control, progress, and power
E-learning problem They are properly designed in terms of graphic design, typography, and grammar. But they are boring. Boring instruction Lack of Results Minimal funding
E-learning problem Doing something is better than nothing Nobody checks = (bonk 2002) 60% of e-learning programs are not formally evaluated
E-learning myths 1. Everyone knows boring is bad. Why? Bad isn’t acceptable, but boring is. 2. E-learning is boring by nature (it costs a lot of money to create exciting e-learning experience) Ineffective training is costly.
Myths 3. It could be boring but effective. Boring and effective are mutually exclusive in learning.
Myths 4. The absence of complaints is a win Entertainment = students’ satisfaction Entertaining doesn’t mean good instruction They enjoy lots of laughs and take home little-known facts
Why good e-learning costs less Shorter learning time = less time away from productive work. Adapts to learner needs = no waiting for fast learners (back to work) Ensures learning = No sliding by- You have to answer to go to the next question
Why good e-learning costs less Generates positive attitudes = learning will be applied on-the-job Provides consistent quality = does not have bad mood, headaches, or late night out. Allows instant update = not the same old things Is available 24/7/365 = No need to wait for the next workshop/training course
Why good e-learning costs less Is patient, and treats all learners objectively and fairly = Blind to racial, cultural, and sexual differences (flourishing hidden talents) = no need to hire the guy to do the job. Easily provides data = Easy & fast program evaluation
Why good e-learning costs less Low cost delivery = fewer travel, fewer instructors, automated administration, no classroom supplies Allows options = Not all students have to take the same road. (sequential/learner control - Audio/video)
Applications of e-learning Cognitive skills Soft skills Psycho motor skills
Motivation With no fuel, it doesn’t matter how well your car designed, nor how spacious is the trunk. The more motivated to learn, the stronger the focus and the greater the readiness to do what’s necessary to accomplish the task.
Learner Interface Going to start to shutdown your computer. Moving your disk to trash can to eject it.
Learner Interface When the consistency of conventions is broken, even a single one, learners become uncertain about whether other conventions are also inconsistent. Therefore, even a single interface error (e.g, a wrong link) may lead to widespread user anxiety and discomfort. (missing steps in Flash)
The primary roles of interface design 1- Minimize memory burden. Learner interfaces should be meaningful without having to memorize symbols, terminology, and procedure. Example, use a magnifier to represent zoom in/out We are not interested in teaching learners to remember the details of the e-learning interface
The primary roles of interface design 2Minimize errors. Good interfaces provide strong cues that help prevent errors. 3Minimize effort. Ideally, learners can perform each function with a single command (click). 4Promote unused features. Hidden features obviously increase the memory burden but it isn’t always possible to keep all features visible.
Effects of poor interface design Repeatedly distract the user’s attention Make text difficult to read and graphics ineffective Cause branching to the wrong information or exercises Confuse learners about their progress and their location within the application Make useful activities too bothersome to complete
Effects of poor interface design Obscure access to needed information Make comparisons difficult Slow interactions Debilitate feedback
Content-Centric If learners only need dissemination of information Learners are highly motivated The information is readily understood Skills can be learned without guidance Each step can be prompted and guided as it is performed.
Learner-Centric Design Mystery novels vs. textbooks. Which one more easily attracts readers? Learner-centric designs focus on creating events that continuously intrigue learners as the content unfolds (successive approximation)
1-Build on anticipated outcomes Help learners see how their involvement in the e- learning will produce outcomes they care about. Don’t list objectives- Why? Instead put the learner to work (they will realized the objectives)
2- Put the learner at risk If learners have something to lose, they pay attention. Don’t baby your learners- let them make mistakes don’t worry about ratings.
3- Select the right content for each learner If it’s meaningless or learners already know it (not enjoyable)
What’s interesting? Learning how your knowledge can be put to new and valuable uses Understanding something that has always been puzzling Discovering talents and capabilities you didn’t know you had.
Start with test Isn’t unfair to ask learners to do a task for which you haven’t prepare them?
4- Use appealing context Novelty, suspense, fascinating graphics, humor, sound, music, animation- all draw learners in when it is done well.
Don’t start from the bottom of the skills hierarchy Sometimes it starts at the end.
5- Have the learner perform multiple tasks Having people attempt real (authentic) tasks is much more interesting than having them repeat or mimic one step at a time. Instead of teaching +-*/ repeatedly give then an authentic multi-steps task
6- Provide intrinsic feedback Let learners see for themselves whether or not their answer (performance) works as well as it needs to. Seeing the positive consequences of good performance in better feedback than being told, “yes, that was good”
7- Delay judgment If learners have to wait for confirmation, they will typically reevaluate their answers for themselves. Sometime it’s appropriate to give immediate feedback, but often it isn’t. A good mentor allows learners to make mistakes and then helps them understand why the mistakes occurred and also their consequences
Navigation (unlike a textbook) We can’t see all the content of an instructional application on the screen at one time You cannot assess e-learning so quickly You cannot say if they’re small, medium, or large, well illustrated, highly interactive, truly individualized.
Navigation services Overall the ability to Back up and review Back up and try different answers or options Skip ahead, preview, and return Bookmark and return to points of interest or concern Call up services such as glossaries or examples Restart and resume where you left off
Interactivity Actively stimulates the learner’s mind to do things that improve ability and readiness to perform effectively
Interactivity is not the same as Navigation Buttons Scrolling Browsing Info retrieval Paging Morhping Video animation
The purpose of Interactivity To wrestle learners’ intellectual laziness to the ground Reawaken their interest in learning Strengthen their ability to learn To provide an optimal learning environment
Interactivity Two Examples An activity on Interactivity
A mini course on Instructional Design http://publish.myudutu.com/published/courses/140 /Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/course 867.html?redirect=true http://publish.myudutu.com/published/courses/140 /Course867/v2007_5_9_15_41_7/course/course 867.html?redirect=true
Your Comments https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0At xqjx0XRzCvdERaaVhQcENlR1FaM01LUGZybmNnM VE&hl=en_US https://docs.google.com/spreadsheet/ccc?key=0At xqjx0XRzCvdERaaVhQcENlR1FaM01LUGZybmNnM VE&hl=en_US What principles are violated or are followed in each.