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1 STUDENT LAUNCH INITIATIVE 2010 – 2011 AIAA OC SECTION FRR PRESENTATION APRIL 4, 2011 \ Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section.

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Presentation on theme: "1 STUDENT LAUNCH INITIATIVE 2010 – 2011 AIAA OC SECTION FRR PRESENTATION APRIL 4, 2011 \ Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 STUDENT LAUNCH INITIATIVE 2010 – 2011 AIAA OC SECTION FRR PRESENTATION APRIL 4, 2011 \ Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

2 Agenda  Team Introduction  Finalized Vehicle  Motor type and selection  Rocket flight stability  Parachute and descent rates  Test plans and procedures Black Powder testBlack Powder test Dual DeploymentDual Deployment Full scale lunchFull scale lunch  Lessons learned – Vehicle  Payload  Payload integration  Lessons learned – Payload  Educational Outreach  Questions 2 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

3 Modified Since Original Posting Almost Everything 3 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

4 Finalized Vehicle – Black Brant ParameterDetails Length/Diameter87.5 inches Diameter4 inches Material (body and fins)Fiberglass Shock Cord1” tubular Nylon 15 feet Motor Diameter / Retention54mm Aero Pack Quick-Change 4 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

5 Forward Section – Black Brant ParameterDetails Nose Cone20” Long holding triangular piece of 1/8” plywood with GPS mounted Forward Bulkhead3 ply x 3/32” = 9/32” fiberglass 4” back from front end of body tube with “U” bolt for shock cord attachment via 1200 lb test quick link Forward Cavity17” x 4” (16” unobstructed) containing 72” main parachute, 1” tubular nylon shock cord, Kevlar Protectors for parachute and shock cord, and black powder charges Ejection Charge2.17 grams of black powder gives 20 psi and 250 lbs of force to shear 3 2” nylon shear pins and eject the main parachute 5 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

6 Avionics Bay – Black Brant ParameterDetails BayTwo 8” couplers (16” total) with 8” body tube centered and epoxied in place Bulkheads3 ply x 3/32” = 9/32” fiberglass (one is smaller diameter to align with inside of coupler with two terminal blocks for e-matches on each end and one 5250 lb test closed stainless marine eyebolt Threaded RodTwo ¼” threaded rods run the entire length of each side of the bay and are secured on the outside of the bulkheads with nuts / wing nuts ElectronicsAll electronics are mounted on two 1/8” plywood sleds approx 4” x 16: 6 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

7 Rear Section – Black Brant ParameterDetails Centering RingsTwo 2 ply x 3/32” = 6/32” fiberglass 4” diameter centering rings hold the 54mm fiberglass engine tube in the 4” fiberglass body tube – the forward ring has a “U” bolt for shock cord attachment via quick link. One additional centering ring is in the tail cone Rear Cavity17” x 4” (8” usable with the engine in place) containing 24” drogue parachute, 1” tubular nylon shock cord, Kevlar Protectors for parachute and shock cord, and black powder charges Ejection Charge1.74 grams of black powder gives 15 psi and 200 lbs of force to shear 3 2” nylon shear pins and eject the drogue parachute 7 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

8 Finalized Vehicle – Black Brant ParameterDetails Center of Pressure / Center of Gravity inches / inches (from tip of nose cone) Stability Margin2.36 Launch Rail type / Length1 inch / 6 feet Rail Exit Velocity55 ft/sec Weight liftoff/descent17.75 lbs / lbs Preferred motor (K635) Average Thrust 635 Newtons ( lbs) Thrust to weight ratio8.04:1 Maximum Ascent Velocity ft/sec (.60 mach) Maximum Acceleration ft/s/s Peak Altitude5266 ft 8 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

9 Velocity Vs Time Graph 9 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

10 Static Margin Diagram 10 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

11 Construction Details 11 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section ProcessDetails All fiberglass surfaces are fully scuffed and scratched before they are epoxied. After scuffing the surfaces are fully cleaned with Isopropyl alcohol to remove dust and any oils or other contamination. All parts are epoxied together using West Systems Epoxy. Since the bulkheads were only 3/32” thick, three bulkheads were glued together for added strength Fillets are applied to all joints for added strength

12 Construction Details cont’d 12 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section ProcessDetails The Avionics bay uses closed eye bolts since the stresses at ejection can open eyes that are not continuous or welded shut “U” Bolts are used on the centering rings and top bulkhead also for strength To assure things fit properly we dry-fit parts together and inserted an engine casing – centering ring “U” bolt, quick link, shock cord. To assure fins aligned properly we used a fin jig Fiberglass tape was applied to the body tube – fin joint to help reinforce that area Whenever possible, ferrules were crimped on to the end of wires to keep the strands together and make certain there is good connection

13 Motor Selection 13 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section Motor PropertiesPreferred SelectionAlternate Selection ManufacturerCesaroni 5 grain Motor TypeK635 Red LightningK490 Green Max, Average Thrust (Newtons) 656 Newtons490 Newtons Total Impulse Newton-seconds1978 Newton-seconds Mass of Motor Before / After Burn 4.38/1.45 lbs4.08/1.44 lbs Max Altitude5266 ft5208 ft Max Velocity640 ft/sec686 ft/sec Max Acceleration434 ft/s/s Time to Apogee

14 Cesaroni K635 Red Lightning (Preferred) 14 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section BrandnamePro K635-17AManufacturer Cesaroni Technology Man. Designation1994K635-17A CAR Designation 1994-K635-17A Test Date7/6/2003 Single-Use/Reload/HybridReloadable Motor Dimensions mm x mm (2.13 x in) Loaded Weight g (69.65 oz)Total Impulse Ns ( lb.s) Propellant Weight g (44.84 oz) Maximum Thrust N ( lb) Burnout Weight g (23.04 oz)Avg Thrust N ( lb) Delays Tested secsISP s Samples per second1000Burntime2.66 s NotesRed Lightning™

15 Cesaroni K490 Green (alternate) 15 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

16 Parachute Size & Descent Rates  Rocket mass = oz  Drogue chute diameter = 24 in.  Main chute diameter = 72 in.  Calculated projected velocity for each chute with online calculator and by hand  v 2 = 2F D / (ρ)(C D )(A) C D = 1.00C D = 1.00 F D = mg = (6.285 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )F D = mg = (6.285 kg)(9.8 m/s 2 )  Hand: v drogue = ft/s Online: v drogue = ft/s  Hand: v main = ft/s Online: v main = ft/s  Required: Drogue ft/s Main: ft/s 16 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

17 GPS TRACKING 17 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section Transmitter in Vehicle Big Red Bee Beeline GPS RF: 17mW on MHz Battery and life: 750mAh 10 Hrs Size: 1.25” x 3” 2 ounces Ground Station Receiver: Yaesu VX-6R TNC: Byonics Tiny Track 4 GPS: Garmin eTrex Vista  Beeline receives GPS position Encodes as AX.25 packet dataEncodes as AX.25 packet data Sends as 1200 baud audio on MHzSends as 1200 baud audio on MHz  VX-6R receives at MHz and extracts audio  TinyTrack 4 converts audio to digital NMEA location data  Garmin displays the digital location data on human screen

18 Payload  G-Wiz Partners HCX flight computer - measures acceleration of the rocket  Toshiba hard drive – test subject; we will run a Linux script on the hard drive over and over again; the time the hard drive takes to run the script each time is measured  Simple net computer/Linux computer – the mini computer that will execute the Linux script on the hard drive; it will be initialized automatically; the flight data will be recorded on a flash drive inserted into this computer  Power converter – Keeps a steady flow of power to the payload components 18 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

19 Payload Details Program Source Code #!/bin/shPATH=/bin while true do date >>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt date >>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt time dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda2 bs=65536 count=32 skip=64>>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt 2>&1 time dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda2 bs=65536 count=32 skip=64>>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt 2>&1 time sync >>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt 2>&1 time sync >>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt 2>&1 time dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda2 bs=65536 count=32 skip=128>>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt 2>&1 time dd if=/dev/zero of=/dev/sda2 bs=65536 count=32 skip=128>>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt 2>&1 time sync >>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt 2>&1 time sync >>/var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt 2>&1 tail -n 10 /var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txt tail -n 10 /var/ftp/LEXAR/log.txtdone 19 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section Program Output (Log File) Fri Feb 11 22:36:49 UTC records in 8+0 records out real0m 0.10s user0m 0.00s sys0m 0.06s Fri Feb 11 22:36:49 UTC records in 8+0 records out real0m 0.20s user0m 0.00s sys0m 0.06s Fri Feb 11 22:36:49 UTC records in 8+0 records out real0m 0.16s user0m 0.01s sys0m 0.05s On power up, the Linux computer starts executing a shell script that repeatedly writes and reads 32 K Bytes of zeros to the hard drive, logging the time this takes to a flash thumb drive

20 Payload Integration 20 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section The payload will be screwed onto the assembly Batteries are held by a combination of battery holders and zip ties Wires are crimped, except for those going to the battery holders, which are tinned Power to the components are controlled by key switches

21 Test Flight #1 Payload Results 21 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section  Observed Results The script started properly and began to measure and record times The script continued to run properly, but shortly after launch the file system on the hard drive became corrupted so accesses stopped and no meaningful data was recorded The hard drive was not damaged and could still be used (with reformatting)  Changes before next flight The file system will no longer be used – we access the raw sectors on the disk – yielding the following advantages.  There is no file system code  There is no risk of erroring out due to a corrupted file system  We have more control over the seeking of the hard drive  Code runs much faster since without the file system

22 Recovery Electronics 22 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section Flight Computer #2  G-Wiz Partners HCX 56G  1.10” x 5.50” 45 grams  Accelerometer based altitude  Pyro output at Apogee  Pyro output at 900 ft altitude  9VDC at 65ma for 3 hour battery life  Separate CPU and Pyro batteries  Two Safety interlock switch on body tube (1-CPU and 1-Pyro) Flight Computer #1  PerfectFlite MAWD .90” x 3.00” 20 grams  Barometric pressure based altitude  Pyro output at Apogee  Pyro output at 900 ft altitude  9VDC at 8ma for 28 hour battery life  One battery for both CPU and Pyro  Safety interlock switch on avionics bay

23 Recovery - Dual Deployment  Electronics: MAWD Perfect Flight, HCX G-Wiz Partners  The electronics will “back” one another up in case one pyro (either drogue or main) does not fire.  Drogue Parachute will be deployed at apogee  Main Parachute will be deployed at 900ft  The electronics have been tested several tests have been done: Christmas tree light testChristmas tree light test Vacuum Chamber testVacuum Chamber test Second flight in the scale rocket (MAWD Only)Second flight in the scale rocket (MAWD Only) Third Flight in scale model (MAWD Only)Third Flight in scale model (MAWD Only) First Flight in full scale model (MAWD and HCX)First Flight in full scale model (MAWD and HCX) 23 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

24 Previous Recovery Electronics Tests 24 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section ElectronicsTestStatus Christmas Tree Lights substituted for e-match – control from software PerfectFlite MAWDNo software controlN/A G-Wiz Partners HCXManual control from softwareOK G-Wiz Partners HCXTest flight from stored altimeter dataOK Christmas Tree Lights substituted for e-match – control from vacuum in chamber PerfectFlite MAWD2.6” avionics in homemade chamber (pickle jar)OK PerfectFlite MAWD4” avionics in homemade chamber (large Tupperware)OK G-Wiz Partners HCX2.6” avionics in homemade chamber (pickle jar)OK G-Wiz Partners HCX4” avionics in homemade chamber (large Tupperware)OK FlightTestStatus Scale #1 (1938 ft)Motor ejection – MAWD as altimeter onlyOK Scale #2 (1740 ft)Dual Deployment – MAWD onlyPARTIAL – both chutes deployed together Scale #3 (1581 ft)Dual deployment – MAWD onlyOK

25 Black Powder Charge Calculating the black powder charges is a two step process  Pressure needed to shear pins (#2 screws - 3x35lbs each) and eject the parachute. We will use 200lbs (drogue) and 250 lbs (main) to shear pins, overcome friction and eject. Surface Area = π * r 2 = 3.14 * 2 2 = in 2 For 200 lbs / in 2 = 15.9 PSI 250 lbs / in 2 = 19.9 PSI 250 lbs / in 2 = 19.9 PSI  Amount of black powder to reach that pressure  Grams of Black Powder = C * D 2 * L Where: D = Diameter of the airframe in inches L = Length of the airframe in inches C = for 15psi and for 20 psi. For a 4” diameter airframe of 17” long, we require 200 lbs (16 psi) =.0064 * 4 2 in * 17in = 1.74 grams 250 lbs (20 psi) =.008 * 4 2 in * 17in = 2.17 grams 25 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

26 Black Powder Charge Test   The table below shows the testing our team has done with black powder charges 26 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section Full ScaleAmountSuccessful? Sustainer without parachute1.74Yes Sustainer with parachute1.74Yes Main without Parachute1.43Yes Main with parachute1.43No Main with parachute1.74No Main with parachute (packed tighter, ejection charge relocated) 2.00Yes

27 Other Previous Testing 27 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section TestResultsRequiredStatus Battery Life MAWD36+ hrs2.5 hrsOK HCX (CPU/PYRO)2.5/6.7+ hrs2.5 hrsOK GPS hrsOK Scientific Payload hrsOK GPS Range3 miles1 mileOK Scale Rocket (3 rd flight) Good Flight OK Dual Deployment on Scale Rocket OK

28 1 st Full Scale Flight Analysis 28 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section First Flight Cesaroni K400 (Total thrust: 1597 – Burn 3.2s) Wind was very heavy (15 MPH) Vehicle was stable although it did weathercock All ejection charges fired at the proper times Drogue deployed just after apogee as programmed Main ejection charge did not fully deploy the parachute Reached 3339 ft at apogee Partiall successful flight (see curve from MAWD)

29 Corrective Actions  After the first flight we did several additional ground tests to deploy the main until it fully and easily deployed: Increase the black powder charge to 2.5 gramsIncrease the black powder charge to 2.5 grams Move the black powder charge so it pushes the parachute out from behindMove the black powder charge so it pushes the parachute out from behind The parachute needs to be rolled much tighterThe parachute needs to be rolled much tighter The shroud lines need to be wrapped around the outside of the parachute to hold its tight packingThe shroud lines need to be wrapped around the outside of the parachute to hold its tight packing The attachment point of the parachute is now right at the avionics bay instead of 1 foot away along the shock cordThe attachment point of the parachute is now right at the avionics bay instead of 1 foot away along the shock cord The Nomex shield protecting the shock cord has been replaced by a sleeve to minimize obstructionsThe Nomex shield protecting the shock cord has been replaced by a sleeve to minimize obstructions The Nomex shield protecting the parachute needs to be packed around it like a burrito.The Nomex shield protecting the parachute needs to be packed around it like a burrito. 29 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

30 2nd Full Scale Flight Analysis 30 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section Second Flight Cesaroni K500 (Total thrust 1596N – Burn: 4s) Wind was very light/moderate (5-8 MPH) Vehicle was stable and flew straight All ejection charges fired at the proper times Drogue deployed just after apogee as programmed Main deployed at 900 feet as programmed Reached 4059 feet Successful flight (see curve from MAWD)

31 Second Flight Full Scale Launch 31 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

32 Lessons Learned from Scale Model Test Flight 32 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section LessonOriginal FaultWas it successful Simplify wiring, color code everything, allow extra space, use ferrules to keep the wires together The scale model avionics was too crowded, hard to trace. Some wires did not make good contact in terminal blocks Yes it was successful but we learned we have to be careful so we don’t stress the key switches Gel coat must be ground down to fiberglass underneath before applying epoxy The scale rocket was wobbly near apogee – inspection showed the lower 1/3 of the fins were not attached Yes it was successful because a subsequent flight after fix was stable again Always use shear pins to avoid drag or impulse separation We did not use shear pins and we deployed the main when the drogue deployed Yes because a subsequent flight deployed drogue and main separately as designed Stick with your plan and do not let on-site “mentors” sway you We listened to an on-site mentor when he said we did not need shear pins – rocket was too small Yes – with all of our research, engineering, and design we did know better than he did

33 Recovery Lessons Learned from Full Sized Vehicle Test Flight 33 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section LessonOriginal FaultWas it successful Always test in conditions closest to the final conditions We tested our black powder charge without the parachute in place to verify the airframe would separate. We should have had he packed parachute in place to assure deployment Yes – in subsequent ground tests successful on flight #2 The parachute must be very tightly packed, with shroud lines wrapped around the outside The main parachute did not deploy fully on our first test flight Yes – in subsequent ground tests successful on flight #2 Charges should be place so that the parachute is pushed out by the charge The main parachute did not deploy fully on our first test flight Yes – in subsequent ground tests successful on flight #2

34 Payload Lessons Learned from Full Sized Vehicle Test Flight 34 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section LessonOriginal FaultWas it successful The file system can become corrupt – when testing the hard drive access sectors directory The file system became corrupt during launch, but the hard drive was OK – we are testing the hard drive Successful on 2 nd launch The battery holders need extra support and retention for the battery. Tie wraps need to be extra tight Two plastic battery holders broke during launch – one battery was disconnected. Tie wraps were not tight enough Successful on 2 nd launch Results are more meaningful when accuracy is greater by flushing caches allowing quicker execution Results were hard to determine Yes during ground tests

35 Website  AIAAOCRocketry.org  SLI DocumentsDocuments CalendarCalendar Photos/VideosPhotos/Videos ManualsManuals MSDSMSDS 35 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

36 Educational Outreach  Cloverdale 4-H club  Girl Scouts workshop  Presentations to Sunny Hills High School Science classes to get involved  Articles published/ will be published in the Orange County Register, The Foothill Sentry, and the Sunny Hills High School Accolade  We will have a booth at Youth Expo, April 9 th to April 11 th, we will reach a few hundred kids. 36 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section

37 Thank you for letting us be part of SLI Questions? 37 Student Launch Initiative AIAA OC Section


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