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Biology of Exercise Intensity I
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Homeostasis During exerciseAt rest
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Effects of exercise on circulation The following variables of the circulation system will be affected by exercise Heart rate (b/min) The number of times that the heart beats per minute Stroke volume (mL/beat) The volume of blood that is ejected by the heart each beat Cardiac output (L/min) The volume of blood pumped by the heart per minute Blood pressure (mmHg) The forces that are created on a vessel wall by the blood within it
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Heart rate As exercise intensity increases, heart rate increases Increase in beep-test level and therefore exercise intensity Increase in heart rate (b/min) Maximum heart rate 196 beats per minute Maximum level on beep-test, level 10–6
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Stroke volume As exercise intensity increases, stroke volume increases. In this example, stroke volume has increased from 79 mL/beat to 100 mL/beat. Increase in time (min:sec) Note that as time is increasing, exercise intensity is also increasing. Increase in stroke volume (mL/beat)
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Cardiac output A typical graph showing cardiac output against level on the beep-test As the level on the beep-test increases, the cardiac output increases to provide a greater volume of oxygen to the active muscles.
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Blood pressure Two values are provided for blood pressure – systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), therefore the graph plots two sets of values. Systolic blood pressure This is the pressure that is recorded when the heart contracts to eject blood from the heart and is always the highest blood pressure value. Diastolic blood pressure This is the pressure that is recorded when the heart relaxes as the ventricles are being filled with blood and is always the lowest blood pressure value. The graph shows that as exercise intensity increases, blood pressure also increases.
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Effects of exercise on respiration Minute ventilation (L/min) The volume of blood that is taken into (or out of) the lungs each minute Breathing rate / respiratory rate (b/min) The rate of breathing, recorded as the number of breaths per minute Depth of breathing / tidal volume (mL) The volume of air in each breath The following variables of the respiratory system will be affected by exercise
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Rate and depth of breathing At low to moderate intensity there is an increase in depth of breathing and then this decreases. At low to moderate intensity there is a gradual increase in the rate of breathing and then it increases more rapidly. Depth of breathing or tidal volume Rate of breathing or respiratory rate
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Minute ventilation An exponential graph During the early stages of the beep-test changes are slow, but at higher work rates breathing increases very rapidly.
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Effects of exercise on metabolism Heat generated (kJ/min) A by-product of energy release Metabolic rate (kJ/min) The rate of energy turnover used in a given period of time. It is the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical and heat energy to produce ATP and to perform work. Lactic acid (mMol) A molecule in the body produced as a by-product of anaerobic energy The following variables of the muscular system will be affected by exercise
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Lactic acid The graph of lactic acid against level on the beep-test shows a non-linear graph – a slower rate of change at lower exercise intensity followed by an accelerated increase as exercise intensity increases. A slow rate of increase at low levels of intensity A rapid increase in lactic acid at high levels of intensity
Biology of Exercise Intensity I: Middle Secondary ISBN 978-0-9805758-8-0 © Sport Knowledge Australia Metabolic rate and sweat loss The metabolic rate is the rate of energy used in the muscles. At a low exercise intensity, metabolic rate is low. As the exercise intensity increases the muscles work harder to produce greater force, therefore the metabolic rate increases. A by-product of aerobic respiration is heat. Heat generated increases with exercise intensity. The face goes red and the body sweats to help to reduce an increase in body temperature.
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