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Natural Grassland Muddy Pool Artificial Grassland.

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Presentation on theme: "Natural Grassland Muddy Pool Artificial Grassland."— Presentation transcript:


2 Natural Grassland

3 Muddy Pool

4 Artificial Grassland







11 Composition of soil

12 Number of species found in the grassland


14 Cyperus micelianus


16 Imperata cylindrical


18 Taro

19 Species found in the trip: Thereupoda clunifera Opisthoplatia orientalis Crickets Argiope aemula Frog Toad Polyrochis divers Moths Butterflies Scieroptera Sanguinea Euphaea Decorata

20 Tree Cricket Butterflies Moths Scieroptera Sanguinea Detritus Polyrachis Dives Opisthoplatia Orientalis Argiope Aemula Theroupoda Dunifera Euphoea Decorata The Food Web

21 60% 20% 10% 3% 2% 1.5% 1% 0.5%

22 Relative abundance >90% 71-90% 51-70% 31-50% 11-30% 1-10% <1% Significance value (point) 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

23 Producer: Trees, Detritus Primary consumer: Cricket (2), Butterflies(2), Moths(2), Scieroptera Sanguinea(3), Polyrachis Dives (6), Opisthoplatia Orientalis (1) Secondary consumer: Argiope Aemula(2), Theroupoda Dunifera (2) Tertiary consumer: Euphoea Decorata(2)

24 Pyramid of number Tertiary: 2 Secondary: 4 Primary: 16 Producer

25 1. Argiope aemula A common form locally, it has similar characters with normal spiders. They kill prey by secreting fluid from their stink glands. With regard to the number of legs they posses, each apparent body segment is actually composed of two adjacent segments fused together, so there is in fact only one pair if legs per body segment.

26 2. Thereupoda clunifera This is a smaillich centipede with long antennae and many long delicate legs. In some parts of tropical countries, the type is called a house Centipede because it does have a tendency to inhabit the ground floor of old house. It feeds on small invertebrates. The poison fargs are quite large but it doesn’t usually bite man if handled.

27 3. Opisthoplatia orientalis Unlike the other local cockroaches, this is a wingless species and lies on the forest floor in leaf litter under stones, rotten logs. It is also common at streamsides. To escape predation, it will readily enter water and run under boulders in the stream.

28 Data analysis The most abundance animals: ants The less abundance animals: moths and dragonfly Environment: hot and exposed

29 There are several adaptive features posses by ants that enable them to become the most abundance animals: 1. Small size which is easy to hide. 2. Sensitive to detect the change in environment. 3. They feed on dead organic matters which have a large supply. 4. They can eject formic acid to paralyze other insects.

30 Other adoptive features posses by other animals to adapt the environment: 1. Crickets: camouflage which is needed for protecting themselves. 2. Centipede: Have poison fargs to kill prey.

31 Methods of capturing animals: Sources of error: 1. Only same species have been caught or seen, the actual number of species in the grassland cannot be shown. 2. The underground animals may be neglected. 3. Some species may not present in that time (afternoon).

32 Suggestions or improvements: 1. More species can be investigated if the animals capturing can be done at different time. The result can be more accurate. 2. Lesser disturbance would be done on animals if there are fewer people on the grassland.This causes less errors to the results.

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