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Sputnik Early Missions Soyuz Lunar MissionsSpace Stations Future Missions Reference Information Select Image or Text.

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Presentation on theme: "Sputnik Early Missions Soyuz Lunar MissionsSpace Stations Future Missions Reference Information Select Image or Text."— Presentation transcript:

1 Sputnik Early Missions Soyuz Lunar MissionsSpace Stations Future Missions Reference Information Select Image or Text

2 Soviet Union Begins Space Exploration Laika, meaning “barker,” was the first living creature to orbit Earth. The female, mongrel dog, part-samoyed terrier, weighing approximately 13 lbs and about 3 years old was launched into orbit on November 3, Sputnik-2, weighing 1,118 lbs, was a conical spacecraft containing instruments and a pressurized cabin. Sputnik was the first artificial satellite to orbit Earth on October 4, Sputnik, a combination of words meaning "fellow- traveler of Earth,” was a silvery sphere with a diameter of 23 inches and weighed 184 lbs.

3 Sputnik-2 Spacecraft with R-7 Launch Vehicle The Sputnik-2 spacecraft carrying Laika atop the R-7 launch vehicle is shown to the left. The R-7 was the biggest leap in rocketry since the German V-2. It launched Sputnik and then Yuri Gagarin into Earth orbit. Developed as the first Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile, the R-7 became obsolete as a weapon prior to ever being used. However, it continued serving the Russian space program for almost half a century after it was originally conceived. At the turn of the 21st century, the R-7 derived space boosters remained the only vehicles capable of delivering Russian manned spacecrafts into orbit. The construction of the International Space Station also depends on the R-7 based boosters. It launches the supply ships and lifeboats as well as transports the station's crews.

4 The original 1960 group of cosmonauts in May 1961 at the seaside port of Sochi. The names of many of these men were considered state secrets for more than twenty-five years. Sitting in front from left to right: Pavel Popovich, Viktor Gorbatko, Yevgeny Khrunov, Yuri Gagarin, Chief Designer Sergei Korolev, his wife Nina Korolev with Popovich's daughter Natasha, Cosmonaut Training Center Director Evgeny Karpov, parachute trainer Nikolay Nikitin, and physician Evgeny Fyodorov. Standing in the second row from left to right: Alexei Leonov, Andriyan Nikolayev, Mars Rafikov, Dmitry Zaykin, Boris Volynov, Gherman Titov, Grigory Nelyubov, Valery Bykovsky, and Gyorgy Shonin. In the back from left to right: Valentin Filatyev, Ivan Anikeyev, and Pavel Belyayev. Soviet and Russian Human Spaceflight Yuri Gagarin Sergei Korolev Alexei Leonov Gherman Titov Pavel Popovich

5 Riding on the Vostok-1 spacecraft, Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit Earth on April 12, In case spaceflight caused Gagarin’s behavior to become abnormal, the craft's controls were locked. There was a key onboard in a sealed envelope in the event of an emergency. Vostok-1 shook wildly during reentry, but Gagarin did not use the key. Once he reached a low enough altitude, he ejected and used a parachute. Yuri Gagarin and backup Gherman Titov, in their spacesuits, are shown in the bus taking them to the launching pad at Baikonour Cosmodrome for the historic flight. Vostok Spacecraft - First Human in Space

6 Vostok Spacecraft The Vostok (East) spacecraft was originally designed for use as a camera platform for the Soviet’s first spy satellite program, Zenit, and as a manned spacecraft. The dual-use design was crucial to gaining support for the program. The basic Vostok design has remained in use gradually being adapted for a range of unmanned satellites. The craft consisted of a spherical descent module that included the cosmonaut, instruments and escape system, and a conical instrument module that contained propellant and the engine system. On reentry, the cosmonaut would eject from the craft at about 23,000 ft and descend by parachute while the capsule landed separately.

7 Vostok Spacecraft – First Dual Spaceflight Vostok-4 Cosmonaut Pavel Popovich shown in orbit during his mission from August 12 to 15, Vostok-4 launched 1 day after Vostok-3 piloted by Andriyan Nikolayev. The goal of Vostok-3/4 was to have the two spacecrafts pass close to each other while in orbit to prepare for a rendezvous in space mission. The cosmonauts in the two spacecrafts never saw each other.

8 Vostok Spacecraft - First Woman in Space Valentina Tereshkova went into space on June 16, 1963 as the pilot of the Vostok-6 spacecraft. Her spacecraft came within three miles of Valeri Bykovsky in Vostok-5. This is the first time two spacecraft pass this close together while in orbit. The images are from motion picture footage. The duration of her flight was approximately 3 days. Courtesy of Emmet, Toni, and Tessa Stephenson

9 Voskhod Spacecraft - First Spacewalk Alexei Leonov completed the first spacewalk, lasting twelve minutes, on March 18, Ten minutes into the spacewalk, Leonov noticed trouble. "Despite a tight fit, my feet got out of [the suit's] boots and [my] hands out of [the] gloves. The work became impossible, I tried to grab the handles [on the airlock] and my fingers wouldn't work…the gloves' fingers would just bend on me.” Leonov corrected the problem using a special valve to drop the pressure inside the suit. The Voskhod was designed as a three crewman spacecraft. Voskhod-2 flew only two cosmonauts due to the extra volume required to perform the spacewalk. The spacecraft commander, Pavel Belyayev, photographed the historic spacewalk (left). The Voskhod spacecraft consisted of the Equipment Module and Descent Module that returned the cosmonauts to Earth. The Voskhod-2 spacecraft is shown with the attached Extra- Vehicular Activity (EVA) Airlock deployed. The cylindrical, fabric covered airlock was made rigid by 36 inflatable booms, clustered as three, independent groups. Two groups sufficed for deployment. The booms needed seven minutes to fully inflate. EVA Airlock Descent Module Equipment Module

10 Soyuz to present The longest serving manned spacecraft in history, the Soyuz (Union), was originally conceived in Sergei Korolev's design bureau for the Soviet effort to explore the Moon at the beginning of the 1960s. Two Soyuz spacecrafts rendezvoused and docked in 1969 forming the first experimental space station. Long after the Moon race was over, the Soyuz ferried crews to the Almaz, Salyut and MIR space stations. Soyuz continues to ferry crews to the International Space Station. It has also performed many solo flights including the historic docking with the American Apollo spacecraft in

11 Soyuz Launch Vehicle – 1966 to present The Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable launch system designed by the Korolev design bureau and used as the launcher for the manned Soyuz spacecraft. It is a general purpose launch vehicle with other uses including launches of the Progress re-supply spacecraft and commercial launches. Soyuz vehicles are launched from the Baikonur Cosmodrome in Kazakhstan and the Plesetsk Cosmodrome in northwest Russia. They are manufactured in Samara, Russia. The launcher was introduced in 1966, derived from the Vostok launcher, and was based on the R-7 intercontinental ballistic missile. It was initially a three-stage rocket with an upper stage. It has become the world's most used space launcher, flying over 850 times, far more than any other rocket. It is a very old basic design, but is notable for low cost and very high reliability, both of which appeal to commercial clients.

12 Apollo Soyuz Test Program (ASTP) ASTP was the first human spaceflight mission conducted jointly by two nations. Soyuz was launched prior to the American Apollo launch on the same day. The two spacecrafts docked on July 17, 1975 and joint operations were conducted for two full days. The docking module served as an airlock and transfer corridor between the two spacecrafts. Apollo Command and Service Module Docking Module Soyuz

13 N1 Lunar Landing Launch Vehicle – 1963 to Two N1 Moon rockets appear on the pads at Tyura-Tam in early July The N1 was designed for the Soviet human lunar missions. The Soviets never attempted a human lunar mission. In the foreground is booster number 5L with a functional payload for a lunar- orbiting mission. In the background is the IMI ground test mock-up of the N1 for rehearsing parallel launch operations. After take-off the rocket collapsed back onto the pad, destroying the entire pad area in a massive explosion.

14 Artists’ Impression Courtesy of © Mark Wade Encyclopedia Astronautica Encyclopedia Astronautica The LOK spacecraft was roughly equivalent to the Apollo Command /Service Module (CSM). Similar to Soyuz, it would serve as a transport vehicle and living quarters for the two man lunar crew to and from the moon. The middle section would be used during launch and reentry and for most of the vehicle control functions. The rear instrument section would have been elongated from the basic Soyuz design to allow for extra propellants. No solar panels were used; electrical power was supplied by fuel cells. LOK Spacecraft – 1965 to 1974

15 Soviet Lunar Lander – 1965 to The lunar orbital spacecraft (LOK) and lunar lander (LK) would have been carried aloft by the N1 launch vehicle. The LK was designed to deliver a single cosmonaut onto the lunar surface. After separation from the LOK in lunar orbit, the cosmonaut would have performed a spacewalk from the LOK to the docked LK. After the LK would have landed on the Moon and the cosmonaut performed a moonwalk, the LK would have returned to the LOK for the trip back to Earth.

16 The TKS spacecraft consisted of the "Vozvraschaemyi Apparat" (or Return Vehicle commonly referred to as the VA) attached to the "Transportniy Korabl Snabzheniya“ (Functional/ Cargo Block module or FGB). To the right, the broad black line outlines the vehicle’s pressurized compartments. A tunnel connects the FGB Module and VA Return Vehicle. During the 1960s and 1970s, the Soviet design bureau, led by Vladimir Chelomei, developed a series of human transport vehicles designated as TKS. The TKS spacecraft was intended to supply the military Almaz space station. The spacecraft was designed for manned or autonomous cargo resupply. The design was used on four test missions but was never flown manned due to the abandonment of the Almaz program. In the 1980s, the design of the craft became a base for the add-on modules of the Salyut and Mir space stations. In 1998, a derived spacecraft named the FGB module or “Zarya” (Sunrise) was the first International Space Station module in orbit. TKS Spacecraft – 1974 to present Page 171 VA Return Vehicle FGB Module VA Return Vehicle

17 Salyut 6 Space Station to 1977 Salyut 6 (Salute/Greetings) was launched into orbit September 26, It was aloft for four years and ten months, completing 27,785 Earth orbits. Salyut 6 was similar to Salyut 1, the first space station launched into orbit on April 19, 1971 and de-orbited on October 16, Soyuz Control Center Work Table Rendezvous Antenna Instrument Container Exercise Cycle Courtesy of RKK Energia

18 Core Module Kvant-1 Module Spektr Module Kvant-2 Module Kristall Module Docking Compartment Mir Space Station to 2001 Mir (Peace) was the first human permanent base in space and the longest lasting, most elaborate space station to date. It returned to Earth in March 2001 after remaining in space for 15 years, more than three times its planned lifetime.

19 Mir Space Station Core Module The core module included six docking ports used as permanent attachment points for the other station modules and for temporary docking of manned and unmanned re-supply vehicles. The core module was the first Mir component launched on January 20, It was the backbone of the space station. Derived from the Salyut 6 and 7 space stations, it was the principal control element containing the main computers, communications equipment, kitchen and hygiene facilities, and primary living quarters.

20 The Soviet Union developed the SPK maneuvering unit and flew it from Mir. The SPK weighed 481 lbs. In case of a malfunction, it remained connected by a tether attached to a winch on an EVA mast installed near the Kvant-2 module exit hatch. The SPK was used on only two EVAs in February 1990 flying up to 148 ft from the station. Unlike the NASA space shuttle Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), it was only flown tethered to Mir. The picture shows a Mir cosmonaut testing the SPK in the Orlan spacesuit. Mir is shown reflected in the helmet visor. The Orlan space suit has been in service since the early Salyut space station and is still in use today on the International Space Station. It consists of flexible limbs attached to a one-piece rigid body/helmet unit. The suit is entered through a hatch in the rear of the torso. SPK Maneuvering Unit

21 Atmospheric Buran testbed, MACS, Zhukovski, 1999 Energia - Buran Reusable Spacecraft – 1974 to 1993 Buran Liftoff The Soviet reusable spacecraft program Buran (snowstorm or blizzard) began in 1976 as a response to the NASA Space Shuttle. The objectives were similar to those of the U.S. program except Buran would resupply the Mir space station. Buran did not fly a manned mission. Since Buran followed the NASA Space Shuttle and the spacecrafts were visually similar, many speculated espionage played a role in the development of the Soviet shuttle. However, even if it was an aerodynamic copy, internally it was completely engineered and developed by the Soviets. The Energia rocket was designed as a heavy-lift expendable launch system as well as a booster for the Buran Space Shuttle. It had the capacity to place up to 110 tons in low Earth orbit. It could be configured for heavier payloads comparable to or even greater than the NASA Saturn V. It was first test-launched in In 1988, an Energia launched an unmanned Buran reusable shuttle. After two orbits, Buran landed at an airfield.

22 International Space Station (ISS) – 1998 to present Key Soviet/Russian ISS components are shown February The ISS is viewed by a crewmember onboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour following separation during the STS-130 Mission. Progress Supply Vehicle Zvezda Service Module Zarya Control Module Soyuz-TM docked to Poisk Mini Research Module 2

23 PPTS - Future Prospective Piloted Transport System (PPTS) is a project being undertaken by the Russian Federal Space Agency to develop a new- generation manned spacecraft to replace the aging Soyuz. The PPTS project was started following the failed plans to co-develop the Crew Space Transportation System (CSTS) with the European Space Agency. The CSTS is shown on the left. The Russian Federal Space Agency then ordered the Russian space industry to finalize proposals for the new manned spacecraft. The PPTS will have multiple mission capability that includes Earth-orbiting crew and cargo transport, and lunar-orbiting. It will be able to conduct fully automated and manual docking; and have propulsion capabilities during transport missions to dock and re-dock with orbital stations, low-orbital platforms, unmanned spacecraft, and modules; and provide for the safe return of the re-entry vehicle to Earth. The Russian Space Agency has reserved the option for a reusable crew module believing that a cone-shaped capsule could fly up to 10 missions during its 15-year lifespan. The vehicle may only use rocket thrusters to slow its speed during landing unlike the Soyuz vehicle that uses a parachute. CSTS PPTS

24 Reference Information Text: Living in Space: from Science Fiction to the International Space Station, Giovanni Caprara, Firefly Books, provides a history of the development of space stations. Russians in Space, Evgeny Riabchikov, Doubleday and Company, Inc, a brief history of Soviet rocketry, satellites and human spaceflight through the 1970s. Two Sides of the Moon, David Scott & Alexei Leonov, St. Martins Press, includes Cosmonaut Alexei Leonov’s insight into the Soviet human spaceflight program. Text and Images: Text only: End

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27 Original 1960 Group of Cosmonauts For centuries humans dreamed of conquering space and for centuries it was just a dream. The 20th century arrived and with it the phenomenal ascent of science and technology allowing humanity to progress faster and farther than all previous recorded history. The Soviet Union began the quest for human spaceflight. Sergei Pavlovich Korolev was the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer. Known only as "the chief designer" during his lifetime, he is regarded as the Soviet's counterpart to Wernher von Braun. Under his leadership, the Soviets developed: the first intercontinental ballistic missile, the first artificial satellite (Sputnik) to orbit Earth, the first spacecraft (Vostok) to allow a human to orbit Earth and the first space station (Salyut). Yuri Gagarin was the first human to orbit Earth. Gherman Titov was the first human to orbit Earth for a full day. Pavel Popovich was one of the four cosmonauts to have a “group” flight of two vehicles coming within five miles of each other. Alexei Leonov was the first human to “walk” in space. Four cosmonauts were missing from the photograph, Anatoliy Kartashov and Valentin Varlamov. Both had been dropped from training because of injuries. Valentin Bondarenko died in a training accident a few months before the photograph was taken. Vladimir Komarov was indisposed.

28 Mir Space Station Components Kvant-1 module carried the first set of complex mechanical wheels, gyrodines, allowing Mir to maintain its altitude in space for the first time without firing its thrusters and consuming propellant. Kvant-1 also brought a deployable solar panel that was installed on the station's exterior. Kvant-2 module was subdivided into three sections isolated from each other by hatches. One section was a large airlock featuring a hatch. A special backpack unit, an equivalent of the NASA manned maneuvering unit was located inside the Kvant-2 airlock. Kvant-2 was the first of four Mir modules based on the TKS transport spacecraft. The TKS was developed in the 1970s for the Almaz military orbital station. Kristall module was conceived as a multipurpose technology, material processing, astrophysics and geophysics laboratory. The module was also equipped with a transfer compartment with an adrogynous docking port for the NASA space shuttle. Spektr module was originally designed for military experiments. The module's military payload was replaced with a conical-shaped section housing a second pair of solar panels to improve Mir's electrical power capabilities. Docking Compartment provided clearance between the NASA space shuttle and the Mir solar panels during docking. Without the module, Kristall would have been relocated to the core module front docking port whenever the shuttle docked.

29 ISS Key Soviet/Russian ISS Components – as of February 2010 Zarya (Sunrise) control module, also known by the technical term Functional Cargo Block and the Russian acronym FGB, was the first component launched for the ISS to provide the station's initial propulsion and power. The pressurized module was launched into orbit by the Proton rocket from the Baikonur Cosmodrome on November 20, Zvezda (Star) service module served as the cornerstone for early human habitation of the station. The module is similar in layout to the core module of the Mir space station. It provides the early station living quarters; life support system; electrical power distribution; data processing system; flight control system; and propulsion system. It also provides a communications system that includes remote command capabilities from ground flight controllers. Poisk (Search) mini research module 2 (MRM-2) serves as an additional docking port for the Soyuz and Progress spacecrafts as well as an airlock for spacewalks that facilitates EVA using the Russian Orlan spacesuits. Poisk also provides extra space for scientific experiments, and provides power-supply outlets and data-transmission interfaces for two external scientific payloads being developed by the Russian Academy of Sciences. Soyuz-TM spacecraft transports as many as three cosmonauts and astronauts to the station and back to Earth. A Soyuz is also used as the "lifeboat" for the ISS. The Columbia space shuttle accident in February 2003 and resulting grounding of the Shuttle fleet left the Soyuz as the only vehicle capable of rotating crews onboard the ISS. Progress supply vehicle is an unmanned, autonomous spacecraft that provides the station with dry cargo including food, clothes, equipment; and propellant.

30 Spacecraft Mission Capabilities PPTS Launch Vehicle Since the future spacecraft replacing Soyuz would need to carry six instead of three crew members, it required a larger launch vehicle than the existing Soyuz rocket. The Russian Federal Space Agency realized that a new launch vehicle was required. A formal industry-wide tender for the development of the manned launch vehicle to launch PPTS was apparently initiated at the beginning of It is believed that the new rocket will feature a three-booster first-stage; each booster equipped with the powerful RD-180 engines using liquid oxygen and kerosene. The engine was originally developed by Moscow-based NPO Energomash for the American produced Atlas 5 rocket. The second stage of the new manned rocket would be propelled by a pair of RD-0124 engines, currently in use on the Soyuz-2 rocket. Prospective Piloted Transport System Mission Capabilities Earth Orbit Station Cargo MissionLunar Orbit Crew Size604 Cargo Delivery and Return 1,102 lbs4,409 lbs Up & 1,102 lbs Down 220 lbs Autonomous Flight Duration 5 daysNA14 days Flight Duration (When Docked to Station) 365 daysNA200 days Spacecraft Weight26,455 lbsNA36,376 lbs


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