5 5. Three cell modelPolar cell: direct cellFerrel cell:indirect cell
6 Global Atmospheric Circulation Model To view this animation, click “View” and then “Slide Show” on the top navigation bar.
7 6. MonsoonsDoes not mean “rainy season”, it refers to a wind system that exhibitsa pronounced seasonal reversal in direction.Asian MonsoonThe raining season begins around the beginning of June and fade away by the end of September
8 The North American Monsoon The North American Monsoon occurs from late May or early June intoSeptember, originating over Mexico and spreading into the southwestUnited States by mid July.
9 1. Open-Ocean Wind driven Surface Current Ocean Currents1. Open-Ocean Wind driven Surface Current
19 9. Deep ocean circulation heatingcoolingNew ideaUpper surface water increases its density either directly by cooling or indirectly when ice freezes out to eject salt, and thus, increasing the density of the remaining water.1. North Atlantic cooling effect in the winter.2. Antarctic freezing effect
20 10. Deep water formation a. North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) Source: Norwegian sea, Greenland SeaLabrador Seab. Mediterranean Deep Water (MIW)Source: Mediterranean Seac. Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW)Sources: Margins of Antarctic continent,Wedell Sea, and Ross Sead. Pacific Intermediate Water (PIW)Sources: Bering SeaGreenland SeaLabrador SeaMediterranean SeaWedell SeaRoss Sea
21 11. Deep ocean conveyer belt circulation NADWAADW
22 Ocean CirculationTo view this animation, click “View” and then “Slide Show” on the top navigation bar.