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Atmospheric general circulations 1. Single-cell Model Thermally driven circulation (direct circulation)

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Presentation on theme: "Atmospheric general circulations 1. Single-cell Model Thermally driven circulation (direct circulation)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmospheric general circulations 1. Single-cell Model Thermally driven circulation (direct circulation)

2 2. ITCZ: Intertropical Convergence Zone

3 South North 30 degree 3. Hadley circulation

4 4. Subtropical highs

5 Ferrel cell: indirect cell Polar cell: direct cell 5. Three cell model

6 Global Atmospheric Circulation Model

7 6. Monsoons Does not mean “rainy season”, it refers to a wind system that exhibits a pronounced seasonal reversal in direction. Asian Monsoon The raining season begins around the beginning of June and fade away by the end of September

8 The North American Monsoon The North American Monsoon occurs from late May or early June into September, originating over Mexico and spreading into the southwest United States by mid July.

9 1. Open-Ocean Wind driven Surface Current Ocean Currents

10 2. Ekman Effect

11 , Ekman transport Ekman layer Ekman layer The integrated water mass transport is at the right angle, 90 degree, to the wind direction, known as Ekman transport. Ekman Spiral

12 3. Ocean Gyres

13 4. Equatorial Upwelling

14 5. Coastal Upwelling and Downwelling

15 6. Oceanic surface currents

16 7. Gulf Stream

17 Barents Sea Arctic Ocean 8. Western intensification

18 Oceanic eddies + _ Land

19 9. Deep ocean circulation heating cooling New idea Upper surface water increases its density either directly by cooling or indirectly when ice freezes out to eject salt, and thus, increasing the density of the remaining water. 1. North Atlantic cooling effect in the winter. 2. Antarctic freezing effect

20 10. Deep water formation Greenland Sea Labrador Sea Wedell Sea Ross Sea Mediterranean Sea a. North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) Source: Norwegian sea, Greenland Sea Labrador Sea b. Mediterranean Deep Water (MIW) Source: Mediterranean Sea c. Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) Sources: Margins of Antarctic continent, Wedell Sea, and Ross Sea d. Pacific Intermediate Water (PIW) Sources: Bering Sea

21 11. Deep ocean conveyer belt circulation NADW AADW

22 Ocean Circulation


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