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Atmospheric general circulations

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Presentation on theme: "Atmospheric general circulations"— Presentation transcript:

1 Atmospheric general circulations
1. Single-cell Model Thermally driven circulation (direct circulation)

2 2. ITCZ: Intertropical Convergence Zone

3 3. Hadley circulation 30 degree North South

4 4. Subtropical highs

5 5. Three cell model Polar cell: direct cell Ferrel cell: indirect cell

6 Global Atmospheric Circulation Model
To view this animation, click “View” and then “Slide Show” on the top navigation bar.

7 6. Monsoons Does not mean “rainy season”, it refers to a wind system that exhibits a pronounced seasonal reversal in direction. Asian Monsoon The raining season begins around the beginning of June and fade away by the end of September

8 The North American Monsoon
The North American Monsoon occurs from late May or early June into September, originating over Mexico and spreading into the southwest United States by mid July.

9 1. Open-Ocean Wind driven Surface Current
Ocean Currents 1. Open-Ocean Wind driven Surface Current

10 2. Ekman Effect

11 Ekman Spiral , Ekman transport The integrated water
mass transport is at the right angle, 90 degree, to the wind direction, known as Ekman transport. Ekman layer Ekman layer

12 3. Ocean Gyres

13 4. Equatorial Upwelling

14 5. Coastal Upwelling and Downwelling

15 6. Oceanic surface currents

16 7. Gulf Stream

17 Arctic Ocean Barents Sea 8. Western intensification

18 Oceanic eddies Land + _

19 9. Deep ocean circulation
heating cooling New idea Upper surface water increases its density either directly by cooling or indirectly when ice freezes out to eject salt, and thus, increasing the density of the remaining water. 1. North Atlantic cooling effect in the winter. 2. Antarctic freezing effect

20 10. Deep water formation a. North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW)
Source: Norwegian sea, Greenland Sea Labrador Sea b. Mediterranean Deep Water (MIW) Source: Mediterranean Sea c. Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) Sources: Margins of Antarctic continent, Wedell Sea, and Ross Sea d. Pacific Intermediate Water (PIW) Sources: Bering Sea Greenland Sea Labrador Sea Mediterranean Sea Wedell Sea Ross Sea

21 11. Deep ocean conveyer belt circulation

22 Ocean Circulation To view this animation, click “View” and then “Slide Show” on the top navigation bar.

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