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April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 20151 Israeli Democracy and the Rights of Its Palestinian Citizens Raphael Cohen-Almagor September 2013.

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Presentation on theme: "April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 20151 Israeli Democracy and the Rights of Its Palestinian Citizens Raphael Cohen-Almagor September 2013."— Presentation transcript:

1 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, Israeli Democracy and the Rights of Its Palestinian Citizens Raphael Cohen-Almagor September 2013

2 Universal Declaration of Human Rights All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience and should act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood. Article 1, Universal Declaration of Human Rights Article 1, Universal Declaration of Human Rights 2 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 2015

3 Preliminaries The Palestinians comprise some 20% of the Israeli population. The Palestinians comprise some 20% of the Israeli population. According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, there were 1,573,000 Israeli- Palestinians in According to the Central Bureau of Statistics, there were 1,573,000 Israeli- Palestinians in % are Muslims. 80% are Muslims. 3 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 2015

4 Preliminaries Most of the Arabs reside in the Galilee in north Israel. Most of the Arabs reside in the Galilee in north Israel. Smaller numbers live in the so-called Triangle area at the centre of Israel and in the Negev desert in the south (mostly Bedouins). Smaller numbers live in the so-called Triangle area at the centre of Israel and in the Negev desert in the south (mostly Bedouins). 4 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 2015

5 5 Preliminaries Israel was established as a Jewish democracy Based on Liberal-Democratic values AND Jewish values

6 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, Preliminaries

7 Preliminaries Between 1948 and 1966, Israeli-Arabs lived under military rule. Between 1948 and 1966, Israeli-Arabs lived under military rule. Their rights and liberties were severely limited as they were regarded with suspicion as a security threat. Their rights and liberties were severely limited as they were regarded with suspicion as a security threat. With the abolishing of the military rule in 1966, the Israeli-Arabs began their integration into society as citizens with equal claims to those of the Jewish majority. With the abolishing of the military rule in 1966, the Israeli-Arabs began their integration into society as citizens with equal claims to those of the Jewish majority. 7April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 2015

8 Preliminaries The relationships between the Jewish majority and the Arab minority remain far from ideal. The relationships between the Jewish majority and the Arab minority remain far from ideal. In 2007, 66% of the Arabs characterized their relationships with Jews as “not good”, and 80% thought they were discriminated against. In 2007, 66% of the Arabs characterized their relationships with Jews as “not good”, and 80% thought they were discriminated against. 8April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 2015

9 Arguments The litmus test for measuring the extent of democratization of any given society is the status of minorities. The litmus test for measuring the extent of democratization of any given society is the status of minorities. 9 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 2015

10 10 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 2015 Arguments I argue for accommodating the interests of the Israeli-Palestinians, striving to safeguard equal rights and liberties for all citizens notwithstanding nationality, religion, race or colour, and insisting that citizens have also duties to fulfil. I argue for accommodating the interests of the Israeli-Palestinians, striving to safeguard equal rights and liberties for all citizens notwithstanding nationality, religion, race or colour, and insisting that citizens have also duties to fulfil.

11 11 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 2015 Arguments The most basic norms democracy has to secure are respecting others as human beings, and not to inflicting harm upon others. The most basic norms democracy has to secure are respecting others as human beings, and not to inflicting harm upon others.

12 12 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, 2015 Arguments The key to the success of Zionism is integration into the region. The key to the success of Zionism is integration into the region. The key to Israel’s integration into the region is the integration of Arabs as equals in Israel. The key to Israel’s integration into the region is the integration of Arabs as equals in Israel.

13 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, Society’s Profile No shared raison d'être 20% wish to transform democracy into theocracy 20% wish to transform democracy into theocracy 20% do not endorse the Zionist ethos 20% do not endorse the Zionist ethos 20% of the population are immigrants from the former Soviet Union where no democracy existed 20% of the population are immigrants from the former Soviet Union where no democracy existed

14 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, Main Schisms Between Jews and Arabs Between Jews and Arabs Between secular and religious people Between secular and religious people Between Israel and the Occupied Territories Between Israel and the Occupied Territories

15 Israeli-Palestinians Formal v. Full Citizenship Formal v. Full Citizenship Discrimination Discrimination Racism Racism April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

16 Is Israel a Liberal Democracy? In The Law of Peoples, John Rawls drew a distinction between liberal and illiberal societies. In The Law of Peoples, John Rawls drew a distinction between liberal and illiberal societies. Liberal societies are pluralistic and peaceful; they are governed by reasonable people who protect basic human rights. Liberal societies are pluralistic and peaceful; they are governed by reasonable people who protect basic human rights. In contrast, nonliberal societies fail to treat their people as truly free and equal. They adopt norms based on compulsion and coercion In contrast, nonliberal societies fail to treat their people as truly free and equal. They adopt norms based on compulsion and coercion April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

17 Israel is a Jewish democracy The framework of governance is democratic, but its underpinning concepts give precedence to Judaism over the Respect for Others Principle, and the Harm Principle. The framework of governance is democratic, but its underpinning concepts give precedence to Judaism over the Respect for Others Principle, and the Harm Principle. Consequently, Israel adopts illiberal policies and practices that are discriminatory in nature, preferring Jews over others. Consequently, Israel adopts illiberal policies and practices that are discriminatory in nature, preferring Jews over others. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

18 Positive Data Mortality rates among Israeli Palestinians have fallen by over two-thirds since the establishment of Israel, while life expectancy has increased 30 years, reaching 78.5 (women 80.7, men 76.3) in Mortality rates among Israeli Palestinians have fallen by over two-thirds since the establishment of Israel, while life expectancy has increased 30 years, reaching 78.5 (women 80.7, men 76.3) in Infant-mortality rates have similarly been significantly reduced from 56 per 1,000 live births in 1950 to 6.5 in Infant-mortality rates have similarly been significantly reduced from 56 per 1,000 live births in 1950 to 6.5 in April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

19 Positive Data As for education, adult illiteracy rates among Israeli Palestinians dropped from 57.2% (79% among women) to 7.7% (11.7% among women). As for education, adult illiteracy rates among Israeli Palestinians dropped from 57.2% (79% among women) to 7.7% (11.7% among women). In 1961, less than half of Arab children attended school, with only 9% acquiring secondary or higher education. In 1961, less than half of Arab children attended school, with only 9% acquiring secondary or higher education. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

20 Positive Data By 1999, 97% of Arab children attended schools. By 1999, 97% of Arab children attended schools. Fifty years ago, a mere 4% of Arab teachers held academic degrees; Fifty years ago, a mere 4% of Arab teachers held academic degrees; by 1999, the figure had vaulted to 47%. by 1999, the figure had vaulted to 47%. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

21 Home? According to the 2012 Democracy Index, 27.7% of the Israeli-Palestinians greatly feel a sense of belonging to the State of Israel, while 38.2% feel somewhat a sense of belonging According to the 2012 Democracy Index, 27.7% of the Israeli-Palestinians greatly feel a sense of belonging to the State of Israel, while 38.2% feel somewhat a sense of belonging 33.5% hardly feel this way. 33.5% hardly feel this way. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

22 Discrimination 30% of the Jews felt hatred towards Arabs; 30% of the Jews felt hatred towards Arabs; 46% of the Jewish respondents did not wish to have Arab neighbours; 46% of the Jewish respondents did not wish to have Arab neighbours; 30% of Arab job seekers felt negative discrimination; 30% of Arab job seekers felt negative discrimination; ¼ of Jewish employers (22%) discriminated against Arab applicants in the hiring process. ¼ of Jewish employers (22%) discriminated against Arab applicants in the hiring process. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

23 Discrimination 46.6% of Arabs very much agreed with the statement that they were discriminated against; 28.3% agreed with this statement (total 74.9%). 46.6% of Arabs very much agreed with the statement that they were discriminated against; 28.3% agreed with this statement (total 74.9%). The majority of Jews did not share this view. The majority of Jews did not share this view. Only 13.8% of Jews very much agreed that Arabs were discriminated against and 24.5% agreed with this statement (total 38.3%). Only 13.8% of Jews very much agreed that Arabs were discriminated against and 24.5% agreed with this statement (total 38.3%). April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

24 Poverty Some 50% of the Israeli-Arab population lives in poverty. Some 50% of the Israeli-Arab population lives in poverty. The poverty rate among Arab families has significantly increased since the 1990s, rising from 35% in 1990 to 45% in 2002 and to 57.6% in The poverty rate among Arab families has significantly increased since the 1990s, rising from 35% in 1990 to 45% in 2002 and to 57.6% in In 2009, 53.5% of the Arabs lived in poverty, compared to 15.2% of the Jews. In 2009, 53.5% of the Arabs lived in poverty, compared to 15.2% of the Jews. Overall, while they comprise 20% of the population, Arabs constitute 37.8% of the poor. Overall, while they comprise 20% of the population, Arabs constitute 37.8% of the poor. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

25 Job Market In 2010, the unemployment rate among Arabs was 8%, compared to 6.4% among Jews. In 2010, the unemployment rate among Arabs was 8%, compared to 6.4% among Jews. In 2009, almost 50% of the manpower in construction, commerce and industry were Arabs. In 2009, almost 50% of the manpower in construction, commerce and industry were Arabs. On average, Arab men earn 60 percent of the national average wage, while Arab women earn 70 percent of the average wage. On average, Arab men earn 60 percent of the national average wage, while Arab women earn 70 percent of the average wage. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

26 Income In 2006, the average monthly gross income of Arab households was NIS 7,590 compared to NIS 13,245 which was the average monthly gross income of Jewish households. In 2006, the average monthly gross income of Arab households was NIS 7,590 compared to NIS 13,245 which was the average monthly gross income of Jewish households. In 2009, the hourly pay for Arabs was 62% less than that of the Jews: NIS 27, compared to NIS 44 hourly pay for Jews. In 2009, the hourly pay for Arabs was 62% less than that of the Jews: NIS 27, compared to NIS 44 hourly pay for Jews. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

27 Arab Localities Tend to be poor. Tend to be poor. Lack of resources. Lack of resources. Of the 535 communities that were categorized as “nationally significant”, only four were Arabs and all four were small with little population. Of the 535 communities that were categorized as “nationally significant”, only four were Arabs and all four were small with little population. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

28 Religious Budget The Ministry of Religions allocates only 2% of its budget for Palestinian concerns. The Ministry of Religions allocates only 2% of its budget for Palestinian concerns. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

29 Education Rate of matriculation certificates obtained by Jewish students was nearly double that of Arab students, 59.74% compared to 31.94%. Rate of matriculation certificates obtained by Jewish students was nearly double that of Arab students, 59.74% compared to 31.94%. 31% of Palestinians qualified for university acceptance on the matriculation exam, compared to 76 percent of Jews. 31% of Palestinians qualified for university acceptance on the matriculation exam, compared to 76 percent of Jews. Only 11% of the BA students were Arabs. Only 11% of the BA students were Arabs. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

30 Education In the advanced degrees, Arab MA students constitute 7% In the advanced degrees, Arab MA students constitute 7% PhD: 3%. PhD: 3%. Arabs constitute only 2% of the academic staff. Arabs constitute only 2% of the academic staff. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

31 Land Arab citizens are discriminated in having access to land, in land planning, in rural and urban development, and in housing provisions. Arab citizens are discriminated in having access to land, in land planning, in rural and urban development, and in housing provisions. Arabs own only 2.5 percent of Israel’s lands. Arabs own only 2.5 percent of Israel’s lands. The lack of town plans and planning permissions for Palestinian towns is one of the main causes of inequality and of the failure of the Palestinian citizens to fulfill their economic potential. The lack of town plans and planning permissions for Palestinian towns is one of the main causes of inequality and of the failure of the Palestinian citizens to fulfill their economic potential. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

32 Land and Essential Services Land and Essential Services More than half of the Bedouins, about 90,000 of 170,000 people, are deprived of their ancestral lands, living in what the Israeli government terms “illegally constructed villages”, still without public utilities or basic services. More than half of the Bedouins, about 90,000 of 170,000 people, are deprived of their ancestral lands, living in what the Israeli government terms “illegally constructed villages”, still without public utilities or basic services. 36 Bedouin settlements in the Negev are unrecognized (without essential services: water, electricity, gas, drainage, state education and health). 36 Bedouin settlements in the Negev are unrecognized (without essential services: water, electricity, gas, drainage, state education and health). Some 45,000 structures are at risk of demolition. Some 45,000 structures are at risk of demolition. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

33 Land The Bedouin reside in ,000 dunam (1 dunam=1000 m 2 ) which is 3% of the Negev (13 million dunam). The Bedouin reside in ,000 dunam (1 dunam=1000 m 2 ) which is 3% of the Negev (13 million dunam). Up until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Bedouin settled 2-3 million dunam of the Negev. Up until the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948, the Bedouin settled 2-3 million dunam of the Negev. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

34 Civil Service In 1992 only 2.1% of civil servants were Palestinians. In 1992 only 2.1% of civil servants were Palestinians. During the Rabin-Peres governments, there was a significant improvement to 4%. During the Rabin-Peres governments, there was a significant improvement to 4%. in 2010, 7% of civil servants were Palestinians. in 2010, 7% of civil servants were Palestinians. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

35 Civil Service Israeli Arabs, except for Druze and the Circassian, are exempted from serving in the Israeli Defence Force (IDF). Israeli Arabs, except for Druze and the Circassian, are exempted from serving in the Israeli Defence Force (IDF). The exemption, however, proved to be a double-edge sword as it serves as a recipe for discrimination. The exemption, however, proved to be a double-edge sword as it serves as a recipe for discrimination. It is for the benefit of the Palestinians to remove this obstacle to their full integration into Israeli society. It is for the benefit of the Palestinians to remove this obstacle to their full integration into Israeli society. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

36 Civil Service Palestinians can serve in the local hospitals, the Red Magen David health service, the fire brigades, the community police, local hospices and nursing homes, charity and human rights organizations. Palestinians can serve in the local hospitals, the Red Magen David health service, the fire brigades, the community police, local hospices and nursing homes, charity and human rights organizations. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

37 Representation To date, there has been one Arab minister, Raleb Majadele. To date, there has been one Arab minister, Raleb Majadele. This should be corrected. This should be corrected. In 2005, there were 546 directors in governmental companies; of them 53 (9.7%) were Arabs. In 2005, there were 546 directors in governmental companies; of them 53 (9.7%) were Arabs. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

38 Representation Delegates of the Arab minority should be represented, in accordance with their size in society, in the Knesset and in the government. Delegates of the Arab minority should be represented, in accordance with their size in society, in the Knesset and in the government. At the same time, Israel would like to see from all its citizens, without exception, a real and strong commitment to the state, to peace, and to the struggle against terror. At the same time, Israel would like to see from all its citizens, without exception, a real and strong commitment to the state, to peace, and to the struggle against terror. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

39 Declarations, Language and Symbols David Ben-Gurion: “the Arabs who reside in Eretz (Land of) Israel enjoy all the rights that residents in any democratic country enjoy, and a Jewish state is possible only as a democratic country”. David Ben-Gurion: “the Arabs who reside in Eretz (Land of) Israel enjoy all the rights that residents in any democratic country enjoy, and a Jewish state is possible only as a democratic country”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

40 Declarations, Language and Symbols David Ben-Gurion: “In accordance with my moral belief we do not have the right to deprive a single Arab child, even if our reward resulting from this deprivation would be the fulfillment of all our wishes”. David Ben-Gurion: “In accordance with my moral belief we do not have the right to deprive a single Arab child, even if our reward resulting from this deprivation would be the fulfillment of all our wishes”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

41 Declarations, Language and Symbols Ze’ev Jabotinsky: “First of all, I consider it utterly impossible to eject the Arabs from Palestine. There will always be two nations in Palestine – which is good enough for me, provided the Jews become the majority”. Ze’ev Jabotinsky: “First of all, I consider it utterly impossible to eject the Arabs from Palestine. There will always be two nations in Palestine – which is good enough for me, provided the Jews become the majority”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

42 Declarations, Language and Symbols Ze’ev Jabotinsky: ”I am prepared to take an oath binding ourselves and our descendants that we shall never do anything contrary to the principle of equal rights, and that we shall never try to eject anyone. This seems to me a fairly peaceful credo”. Ze’ev Jabotinsky: ”I am prepared to take an oath binding ourselves and our descendants that we shall never do anything contrary to the principle of equal rights, and that we shall never try to eject anyone. This seems to me a fairly peaceful credo”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

43 Declarations, Language and Symbols Moshe Sharett: “being surrounded by Arab countries all around but the sea, we have interest of self-preservation to keep our conscience, integrity and hands clean and pure”. Moshe Sharett: “being surrounded by Arab countries all around but the sea, we have interest of self-preservation to keep our conscience, integrity and hands clean and pure”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

44 Declarations, Language and Symbols Moshe Sharett: “The State of Israel will not deny the Jewish spiritual heritage whose principles are the love of people, the pursuit of peace and loyalty to justice. It will not betray the moral ideals of the Zionist movement whose foundations are liberty, equality and social progress”. Moshe Sharett: “The State of Israel will not deny the Jewish spiritual heritage whose principles are the love of people, the pursuit of peace and loyalty to justice. It will not betray the moral ideals of the Zionist movement whose foundations are liberty, equality and social progress”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

45 Declarations, Language and Symbols Yigal Alon said: Jews, who became a symbol for prosecuted and oppressed minorities, should show exemplary treatment of minorities in their own country but instead they consciously employ continued discriminatory policies against other religions. Yigal Alon said: Jews, who became a symbol for prosecuted and oppressed minorities, should show exemplary treatment of minorities in their own country but instead they consciously employ continued discriminatory policies against other religions. “Israel must be able to prove that it can treat its minorities in the most enlightened way”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

46 Declarations, Language and Symbols Benjamin Netanyahu: “there is no scope for discrimination in the State of Israel. We are obligated to equality of opportunity for everyone. The Arab sector is a central engine of growth for Israeli economy which has yet to be fully utilized”. Benjamin Netanyahu: “there is no scope for discrimination in the State of Israel. We are obligated to equality of opportunity for everyone. The Arab sector is a central engine of growth for Israeli economy which has yet to be fully utilized”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

47 Declarations, Language and Symbols Benjamin Netanyahu: “integrating minorities in the job market would contribute not only to the Arabs but to Israel at large. Benjamin Netanyahu: “integrating minorities in the job market would contribute not only to the Arabs but to Israel at large. This is Israel’s national interest and Israel should encourage this integration”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

48 The Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence holds that Israel will foster the development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants; that it will be based on the foundations of liberty, justice and peace; The Declaration of Independence holds that Israel will foster the development of the country for the benefit of all its inhabitants; that it will be based on the foundations of liberty, justice and peace; April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

49 The Declaration of Independence that it will uphold complete equality of social and political rights to all of its citizens irrespective of religion, race or sex, and that it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture. that it will uphold complete equality of social and political rights to all of its citizens irrespective of religion, race or sex, and that it will guarantee freedom of religion, conscience, language, education and culture. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

50 Recommendations The symbols should remain Jewish with some accommodations in order to make the state a home for its Palestinian citizens as well. The symbols should remain Jewish with some accommodations in order to make the state a home for its Palestinian citizens as well. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

51 Recommendations Minimal changes to the wording of the anthem. Minimal changes to the wording of the anthem. Most Israeli Palestinians may respect the Israeli anthem but they do not, they cannot identify with its Jewish-Zionist motifs. Most Israeli Palestinians may respect the Israeli anthem but they do not, they cannot identify with its Jewish-Zionist motifs. “Israel” instead of “Zion”; “person” and “citizen” instead of “Jew”. “Israel” instead of “Zion”; “person” and “citizen” instead of “Jew”. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

52 Recommendations Arabic is one of the two official languages of the State of Israel. Therefore it should enjoy a dominant status and have the importance it deserves. Arabic is one of the two official languages of the State of Israel. Therefore it should enjoy a dominant status and have the importance it deserves. Arabic should be taught at every primary and high school together with English. Arabic should be taught at every primary and high school together with English. Hebrew and English in every Arab school. Hebrew and English in every Arab school. Sign posts should be written in Hebrew and in Arabic. Sign posts should be written in Hebrew and in Arabic. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

53 Recommendations Official national motto, Arab proverb. Official national motto, Arab proverb. Values: unity, pluralism, peace, tolerance, power, freedom, truth, justice and righteousness. Values: unity, pluralism, peace, tolerance, power, freedom, truth, justice and righteousness. A national competition open for all people under the age of 18 to suggest an Israeli motto. A national competition open for all people under the age of 18 to suggest an Israeli motto. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

54 Recommendations Representative flag? Representative flag? Studies of all religions that exist in Israel should be made available in every school. Studies of all religions that exist in Israel should be made available in every school. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

55 Recommendations Shabbat should remain the official day of rest. Shabbat should remain the official day of rest. Palestinian villages and towns may make Friday their day of rest. Palestinian villages and towns may make Friday their day of rest. Strive to make Friday and Shabbat official days of rest. Strive to make Friday and Shabbat official days of rest. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

56 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, Conclusions Democracy is supposed to allow each and every individual the opportunity to follow her conception of the good without coercion Democracy is supposed to allow each and every individual the opportunity to follow her conception of the good without coercion

57 April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29, Conclusions There is unhealthy discrepancy between speech and conduct; the official statements are not backed by appropriate matching deeds. There is unhealthy discrepancy between speech and conduct; the official statements are not backed by appropriate matching deeds.

58 Conclusions Israel, being the only Jewish state in the world, should strive to retain its Jewish character while integrating its Palestinian citizens fully into Israeli society. Israel, being the only Jewish state in the world, should strive to retain its Jewish character while integrating its Palestinian citizens fully into Israeli society. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

59 Conclusions The constant challenge for Israel is to secure basic human rights for all, the powerful as well as the powerless, for Moslems, Christians and Jews. The constant challenge for Israel is to secure basic human rights for all, the powerful as well as the powerless, for Moslems, Christians and Jews. Israel needs to develop a comprehensive liberal theory of minority rights. Israel needs to develop a comprehensive liberal theory of minority rights. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

60 Conclusions Israel must explicitly address the needs and aspirations of its Palestinian minority. Israel must explicitly address the needs and aspirations of its Palestinian minority. It should invest in cultivating tolerance. It should invest in cultivating tolerance. The key for understanding the other is education, making that is foreign familiar, making that is remote closer. The key for understanding the other is education, making that is foreign familiar, making that is remote closer. Pluralism can be enriching rather than intimidating. Pluralism can be enriching rather than intimidating. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

61 Conclusions Israel should erect bridges and remove obstacles to the understanding of the other through mechanisms of awareness, of recognition and of legitimacy. Israel should erect bridges and remove obstacles to the understanding of the other through mechanisms of awareness, of recognition and of legitimacy. Continued dialogue and exchange of ideas will be instrumental in contesting boundaries by peaceful means, and in reaching fruitful compromises without resorting to discrimination, coercion and abuse. Continued dialogue and exchange of ideas will be instrumental in contesting boundaries by peaceful means, and in reaching fruitful compromises without resorting to discrimination, coercion and abuse. April 29, 2015April 29, 2015April 29,

62 April 29, Thank you


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