5Interaction inThe body begin at the atomic levelAtomsMoleculesCellsTissuesOrgan structures
6Interactions of X-rays with matter No interaction; X-ray passes completely through tissue and into the image recording device.Complete absorption; X-ray energy is completely absorbed by the tissue. No imaging information results.Partial absorption with scatter; Scattering involves a partial transfer of energy to tissue, with the resulting scattered X-ray having less energy and a different trajectory. Scattered radiation tends to degrade image quality and is the primary source of radiation exposure to operator and staff.
8Coherent ScatteringAlso called: Classical scattering or Thompson scatteringOccurs with energies below 10 keVIncident x-ray interacts with an atom of matter, causing it to become excited. Immediately the atom releases this excess energy and the scattered x-ray.
9Coherent ScatteringThe wavelength is equal to the incident x-ray or equal energy.The only difference is the direction of travelEnergy in = Energy out - Only changes is direction
10Classical (Coherent) Scattering Excitation of the total complement of atomic electrons occurs as a result of interaction with the incident photonNo ionization takes placeElectrons in shells “vibrate”Small heat is releasedThe photon is scattered in different directionsNo loss of E
11Compton Effect or Compton Scattering Occurs throughout the diagnostic imaging rangeThe incident x-ray interacts with the outer electron shell on an atom of matter, removing it.It not only causes ionization but scatters the incident x-ray causing a reductions in energy and the change of direction.
12Compton scatterA fairly high energy (high kVp) x-ray photon ejects an outer shell electron.Though the x-ray photon is deflected with somewhat reduced energy (modified scatter), it retains most of its original energy and exits the body as an energetic scattered photon.A Compton e- is also releasedSince the scattered photon exits the body, it does not pose a radiation hazard to the patient.It can, however, contribute to film fog and pose a radiation hazard to personnel (as in fluoroscopic procedures).
15Compton scatterBoth the scattered x-ray and the Compton electron have enough energy to cause more ionization before loosing all their energyIn the end the scattered photon is absorbed photoelectrically
16Compton EffectThe Compton electron looses all of its kinetic energy by ionization and excitation and drops into a vacancy in an electron shell previously created by some other ionizing eventThe probability of Compton effect increases as photon energy increases, however the atomic number does not affect the chances of the Compton effect
17Compton ScatterCompton is just as likely to occur with soft tissue as bone. Compton can occur with any given photon in any tissueCompton is very important in Radiography, but not in a good way.Scattered photons provides no useful diagnostic information
18Compton EffectScattered radiation produces a uniform optical density on the radiograph that reduces image contrastScattered radiation from Compton contributes to the majority of technologists exposure, especially during fluoroscopySTAY AWAY FROM YOUR PATIENT !
21Photoelectric Effect or Absorption Inner-shell ionizationThe photon is not scattered it is totally absorbedThe e- removed from the atom of matter is called a photoelectron, with an energy level equal to the difference between the incident photon and the e- binding energy.
23PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORBTION IN THE PATIENT(CASCADE OF ELECTRONS)
24Photoelectric effectA relatively low energy (low kVp) x-ray photon uses all its energy (true absorption) to eject an inner shell electron,leaving an orbital vacancy.An electron from the shell above drops down to fill the vacancy and, in doing so, gives up energy in the form of a characteristic ray.The photoelectric effect is more likely to occur in absorbers of high atomic number (eg, bone, positive contrast media)and contributes significantly to patient dose,as all the photon energy is absorbed by the patient (and for the latter reason, is responsible for the production of short-scale contrast).
25Electron transitionsAre accompanied by the emission of more x-rays – secondary radiationSecondary radiation behaves much like scatter radiationSecondary contributes nothing to the imageThe probability that any given photon will undergo a photoelectric interaction is dependent on the photon energy and the atomic number of the atom
29PHOTOELECTRICABSORBTIONIS WHAT GIVES USTHE CONTRASTON THE FILM
30Important X-ray Interactions Of the five interactions only two are important to radiologyPhotoelectric effect or photoelectric absorptionCompton scatterWhich two tube interactions are important?
31Compton scatter Contributes to no useful information Is independent of the atomic number of tissue. The probability of Compton is the same for bone atoms and for soft tissue atomsThe probability for Compton is more dependent on kVp or x-ray energy
32Compton ScatterResults in image fog by optical densities not representing diagnostic informationPhoton are PhotonsIR is does not knowthe difference
33Photoelectric Absorption Provides information to the IR because photons do not reach the IRThis represents anatomic structures with high x-ray absorption characteristics; radiopaque structures; tissue with high atomic number; or tissue with high mass density
34Attenuation – The total reduction in the # of photons remaining in an x-ray beam after penetration through tissueAbsorption = x-ray disappears (Photoelectric, Pair production & Photodisintegration)Scattering = partially absorbed, x-ray emerges from the interaction traveling in a different direction (sometimes with less energy)Absorption + Scattering = Attenuation
353 Types of x-rays are important for IMAGE FORMATION DIFFERENTIAL ABSORPTION = the difference between those x-rays absorbed and those transmitted to the IRCompton scatter (no useful information)Photoelectric absorption (produces the light areas on the image)Transmitted x-rays (produces the grey/dark areas on the image)
36The probability of radiation interaction is a function of tissue electron density/ atomic number, tissue thickness/density, and x-ray energy (kVp).Dense material like bone and contrast dye attenuates more X-rays from the beam than less dense material (muscle, fat, air).The differential rate of attenuation provides the contrast necessary to form an image.Table & 12-4
37Differential Absorption Increases as the kVp is reducedApproximately 1% of photons that interact with the patient (primary beam) reach the IR. Of that 1% approximately 0.5% interact to form the image
38Differential Absorption The difference in x-ray interactionsFundamental for image formationOccurs because of Compton Scattering, Photoelectric absorption, and X-ray transmission
40Compton vs. Photoelectric Below 60 kVp Photoelectric absorption is predominant above 60 kVp Compton scatter begins to increase.Dependent on the tissue attenuation propertiesTable 10-13
41Differential absorption factors High atomic number = larger atomsMass Density = how tightly the atoms of tissue are packedZ # for air and soft tissue are about the same the OD changes are due to mass density differenceTable 12–3 & 12-5
42Radiation ProtectionProducing high-quality radiographs require careful technique selection, reducing kVp improves differential absorption and image contrastHowever, patient dose is increased because more photons are absorbed by the body